Ondergrond’ can be tricky to translate as it can have many meanings, such as:



  • hard standing
  • hard subsurface[1]
  • hard substrate[2]
  • hard surface
  • hard ground[3]
  • hard substratum
  • hard subsoil[4]


  1. subsurface = The stratum or strata below the earth's surface.
  2. substrate = An underlying substance or layer.
  3. ground = The solid surface of the earth.
  4. subsoil = The soil lying immediately under the surface soil.