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Experience in printing PhD theses since 1988

Graphic terms

Adhesive binding (garenloos gebrocheerd): Loose pages are fastened together by glue or quires are gathered and mill-cut in the back and then glued. After this the book blocks are glued into the cover. The connection is not very strong and therefore not recommended for books and brochures often used. The total number of pages must be divisible by 2.

Align (Uitlijnen/laten lijnen): Text and figures are placed on one line or squared.

Author’s corrections (Auteurscorrectie): Changes made to the copy by the author after typesetting but not including those made as a result of errors by the typesetter.

Backing up (Weerdruk): To print the back side of the printed press sheet.

Binding (Binden): Attach paper together. This can be loose sheets of paper or complete quires of 4, 8, 16 or 32 pages. The most common binding methods are saddle stitching, adhesive binding, perfect binding and case binding.

Bleed (Aflopende pagina’s): Layout, type or pictures that extend beyond the trim marks on the page. Illustrations that spread to the edge of the paper without margins. On the printed press sheets the images bleedi 3 mm.

Body size/Corps (Korps): The font size + the usual line space. The space between the bottom of one line to the bottom of the second line. Usually the body size is expressed in points.

Book block (Boekblok): A number of quires together form the book block. The cover will be glued around the book block.

Breadth wise paper (Breedlopend): The fibers of the paper are parallel to the short side of the paper.

Broadside (Schoondruk): A printer’s term for work printed on the front side of a printed press sheet.

Calendared finish paper (Gesatineerd papier): paper produced by passing paper through a series of metal rollers to give a very smooth surface. The paper becomes glazed by working up the paper with Calendar.

Capital letter/Caps (Kapitalen): conforming to the series A, B, C, etc. rather than a, b, c, etc.

Cardboard (Karton): Paper of more than 170 GSM.

Case binding / Edition binding (Hardgebonden): This method results in what is commonly called a hardcover book.

Usually a sewn book block with a paper or cloth covered around a binder’s board. The cover is fastened by the end papers to the book block.

Character (Karakter): Letter, type

Character-parts (Letteronderdelen): [image]

Color print proof (Kleurenprintproef): This is a proof of the full color figures. The proof is printed on a calibrated printer. The colors give a reasonable indication of the final printing result. This kind of proof is used for the color pictures of the inside work and for a full color cover. This kind of proof is made before the print plates are made.

Color-separation (kleurscheiding): The division of a multi-colored original or line copy into the basic (or primary) process colors of Cyan, Yellow, Magenta, and black.

Copy (Kopij): The text to be composed. You have to deliver a faultless document, and a printout with remarks such as CAPITAL, bold, italic, etc.

Copyright (Auteursrecht): On text that you write you automatically receive copyright. This means that you as the author decide what will happen with your work, how many copies will be made and how it will be distributed. You can make your own conditions for publishing and for example ask money for it.

Corner marks (snijtekens): Marks printed on a sheet to indicate the trim or register marks.

CTP: Computer to Plate. Digital files are directly processed to a printing press plate. Today’s techniques!

Cut flush (Schoonsnijden): A method of trimming a book after the cover has been attached to the pages.

Digital delivery (Digitale aanlevering): The delivery of a digital file. Most of the time this will be a PDF-file.

Digital printing / Printing On Demand (POD): Digital printing is printing on a quality printer. Your file is printed from a computer to the size of 17 x 24 cm.

DPI (Dots per Inch): The measurement of resolution for page printers, phototypesetting machines and graphic screens. Most page printers work at 1200 dpi or more.

Duotone photograph (Duotoon foto): A standard screened photograph in one color, with an extra screen in a different color.

Duplex photograph (Duplex foto): A black and white screened photograph with the black and/or white changed into a different color.

End papers (Schutbladen): The four page leaves at the front and end of a book that are pasted to the inside of the front and back covers (boards). Most used with a hardcover book.

Fall-through (Inschiet): The amount of paper or cardboard that is needed for setting up the printing-machine and that is needed for the finishing.

Finishing (Afwerken): All actions that have to be done after a printed press sheet is printed, to make the final product.

Font (or fount) (Font): A complete set of characters in a typeface. (Example Arial standard, bold and italic, etc.)

Four color print process (Vierkleurendruk): Printing in full color using four color separation negatives - Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (CMYK). With those four colors nearly every color can be printed.

Grey scale: A range of luminance values for evaluating shading through white to black. Most used for scanning black and white photos.

Ground wood free paper (Houtvrij papier): Paper made of tree fibers, which are stripped, using chemicals, of substances which ensure a fast ageing. Ground wood free paper, in comparison with mechanical wood paper, is more elastic and stronger, because of the longer fibers, and therefore more useful for improvement.

GSM – Paper weight (Gramsgewicht): Name for the weight of paper in grams per square meters (GSM ). The unit of measurement for paperweight. It says nothing about the thickness of the paper. You can calculate the gram weight by dividing the weight of the paper by the length and the breadth of the paper.

Example: 5 gram / 0.297 meter / 0.21 meter = 80 g/m2.

Halftone printing (rasteren): An illustration reproduced by breaking down the original tone into a pattern of dots of varying size. Light areas have small dots and darker areas or shadows have larger dots. It is not possible to print in gray.

Header / Banner: A large headline or title extending across the full page-width.

Headlines (Kopregels): The lines above a chapter or story.

Illustrations (Illustraties): Photographs, pictures and other figures.

Impression/Print run (Oplage): Total number of books that have to be printed.

Inch: English size = 25.4 mm

Inside work (Binnenwerk): The book block, everything between the covers.

ISBN: The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique title identification system, used worldwide, for storing information about books  and similar products in the computers of libraries, importers, distributors and bookstores. Via the ISBN it is easy to find each title in the databases quickly.

Lamination (Laminaat): A thin transparent plastic coating applied to paper or  cardboard to provide protection and give it a glossy, matte or linen finish.

Landscape/Oblong/Portrait (Landscape/oblong/liggend): Work in which the width used is greater than the height.

Layout: A sketch of a page for printing showing the position of text and illustrations and giving general instructions.

Lengthwise paper (Langlopend): The fibers of the paper are parallel with the length of the paper.

Letter styles (Tekst effecten): bold/vet, cursief/italic, bold cursief/bold italic.

Line space (Interlinie): White between two lines.

Machine coated paper (machine coated papier/karton): Paper/cardboard produced by passing the paper through a series of metal rollers, one or more times with chalk and/or China clay.

On this paper it is possible to print fine lines and screens. The paper is deliverable in matte, silk or glazed. Matte paper is more popular because pictures can be printed reflection-free.

Make up/lay out/design (Opmaken/Vormgeven): Completing the pages so they can be printed on printing press plates directly. Text is placed in the exact position on the screen, where necessary with graphic commands. Pictures  and figures are inserted and the text is made in the correct fonts.

Margins (Marges): White space around the type area on a page.

Head margin (Kopwit): The white above the type area.

Back margin (Rugwit): The white between the type area and the back of the book.

Bottom margin (Staartwit): The white under the type area.

Fore-edge margin (Zijwit): The white between the type area and the side that will be cut off.

Flush left (Linkslijnend): copy aligned along the left margin.

Flush right (Rechtslijnend): copy aligned along the right margin.

To centre (Gecentreerd): the text is placed in the middle of the page.

Justify (Uitvullen): the text fills the entire line length. The space between the words will become less or more to get the correct line length.

Mechanical (wood) paper (Houthoudend papier): Paper with 10% or more wood pulp. The paper yellows quickly and is of a lesser quality than paper without wood pulp.

Offset printing (Offsetdruk): The printing base is a thin metal plate on which  an image is placed with lasers. The printing parts are on the same level as the non-printing parts on the print press plate. In this printing method both sheets and paper-rolls are used. One advantage of offset printing is that the printing press plates can be produced easily and rather cheaply. Offset printing provides sharp images and bright colors. The meaning of the name offset can be found in the method where the ink is transferred onto a rubber blanket and from the rubber blanket to the paper.

Opacity (Opaciteit): Concerning the translucent effect of paper. The more opacity, the less the translucent effect of the paper. Opacity is only of importance when there is a lower gram weight. Text can be seen on the other side of the paper. Stretched paper is more translucent than other papers of the same gram weight. The use of glue and pulp also has an influence on the translucent effect of the paper.

Paper grain (Looprichting): The paper fibers are ranged in the same direction as the paper-machine runs.

Paper sizes from the A-series (Papierformaten uit de A-reeks): The size of the printed press sheet is related to this format [image]

PDF-proof: This proof is used when GVO | P+L do the make-up of the cover. From the cover we send you a PDF-file by e-mail. On this PDF-file you can give us your remarks. For the interior we use a PDF-file when GVO | P+L do the make-up for an example of the layout.

Perfect binding (Genaaid gebrocheerd): The printing press sheets are folded to quires. The quires are sewn together with yarn through the heart and to each other to a book block. Around the book block the cover is glued, possibly with a double crease.

This is a high-quality way of binding. The total number of pages must be divisible by 8 or 16.

Pixel: A different word for ‘picture-point’. Each photograph consists of different pixels, all with different colors or in grey scale. Together they make the picture. The more pixels on a cm (dpi), the better the picture.

PMS: Pantone Matching System. The most used, standard color system, called PMS -color-system. In the PMS -pallet you can find all the PMS colors and numbers. A counterpart is for example: RAL-colors for the painting industries.

Point (Punt): Besides the punctuation mark the point is also a typographic size, 1-point ≈ 0.36 mm

Position scheme (Inslagschema): A scheme that shows how the pages must be printed on the printed press sheet. After the printed press sheet is folded, the page numbers must be in the right order. With the help of the position scheme you can find out the best way to place your full color illustrations.

Prepress: All the prepress work that has to be done before printing. (Layout, making proofs, printing press plates etc.)

Press varnish (Persvernis): An offset varnish with a low shiny of matte effect.

Printed press sheet (Drukvel): The paper that will be printed.

For the interior the size is 52 x 72 cm. The size of the printed press sheet for the cover is 36 x 51 cm.

Printout: A printed version on paper of your inside work or cover.

Print side (Drukzijde): One side of a printed press sheet.

Quire/Section (Katern): Folded printing press sheets of 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 or 32 pages. A number of quires together form the interior of a book or brochure.

Quotation/Tender (Offerte): Indication of the costs.

Recycled paper: Paper that is made, totally or in part, of fibers of recycled papers.

Resolution (resolutie): The measurement used in typesetting to express quality of output. Measured in dots per inch, the greater the number of dots, the smoother and cleaner an appearance the image will have.

Saddle stitching (Geniet gebrocheerd): is a method of binding in which stitches that resemble staples are fastened through a centerfold in the sheet. Saddle stitching is common for binding magazines and pamphlets. Saddle stitching only works for shorter books, up to 64 pages. These books also have no spine on which to print a title. The total number of pages must be divisible by 4.

Scale-tint (Verlooptint): A color that is screened from a light part to a dark part.

Serif (Schreven): A small cross stroke at the end of the main stroke of a letter.

Silk paper (Halfmat papier): Gradation of satin. Paper with its surface between glazed and matte paper.

Soft-proofing: Software-proof. Wherever in the world you are, you can always check the files ready for printing via the internet, at a personal computer.

FM halftone printing (Staccato raster): High quality diffuse halftone printing, which can equal photograph quality. Similar to the structure of an Inkjet printer.

Style sheet/(Opmaakprofiel): List of fonts, sizes and typefaces to be used for the main text, the headings, sub- headings and appendices and decisions about the layout, the text block, margins and the place of the page numbers, etc.

Sub-heading (Subkopjes): A heading set in the body of the text used to break it into easily readable sections.

Sulphate cardboard (Sulfaatkarton): Very tough cardboard, free of wood pulp, made of cellular tissue of a conifer.

Support color (Steunkleur): An extra color on a printed press sheet to give extra accentuation.

Test file: PDF-file with the most critical pages from the inside work.

Type area/body (Tekstblok): The part of a page where the text is inserted, without headers and footers.

Unglazed paper (Ongestreken papier): Paper that is not stretched. It is made of wood-fibers, glue and other materials to make it useful for offset printing, printing, writing or drawing. The paper can be white, colored, mechanical wood paper, ground wood free paper, or made of recycled paper.

Upright (Staand): The short side breadth wise, the long side lengthwise.(Standard book)

UV-spot-varnish (UV-spotvernis/lak): Ultra Violet high glossy varnish. Only used in spots, to give extra attention to that part.

Volume (Omvang): The total number of pages of the book.

Working days (Werkbare dagen): Normal working days, not including Saturdays, Sundays and holidays.