Archived at: (.dsl files can be used in GoldenDict)

Please note: The version below (4.0) is slightly older than the latest version 4.2.0 available from
Size: 5,374 Dutch-English terms, with definitions
Creator: The European Environment Agency
#NAME "GEMET_Thesaurus_4.0_nl-en.dsl"

	English: nematode
	English definition: A group of unsegmented worms which have been variously recognized as an order, class, and phylum.  (Source: MGH)

	English: recommendation
	English definition: Recommendation refers to an action which is advisory in nature rather than one having any binding effect.

	English: supply (trade)
	English definition: The willingness and ability to sell a range of quantities of a good at a range of prices, during a given time period. Supply is one half of the market exchange process; the other is demand. (Source: AMOS2)

aandeel in de opbrengst
	English: royalty
	English definition: Compensation for the use of a person's property, based on an agreed percentage of the income arising from its use.

aandoening die met het milieu te maken heeft
	English: environmentally related disease

aangelegd afvoerwateringssysteem
	English: built drainage system
	English definition: Collection of open and/or closed drains, together with structures and pumps used to collect and dispose of excess surface or subsurface water.  (Source: LANDY)

	English: notification
	English definition: Information concerning a fact, actually communicated to a person by an authorized person. (Source: BLACK)

	English: fouling growth
	English definition: The adhesion of different marine organisms to the underwater parts of ships, causing the ships to loose speed. (Source: MGH)

aanhoudend geluid
	English: steady noise
	English definition: Unceasing prolonged noise, without interruption. (Source: CED)

	English: advertisement
	English definition: The action of drawing public attention to goods, services or events, often through paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, television or radio. (Source: C / RHW)

aanleg van verkeersroutes
	English: traffic route construction

	English: adaptation period

	English: liability
	English definition: Subjection to a legal obligation. Liability is civil or criminal according to whether it is enforced by the civil or criminal courts. (Source: JCU)

aansprakelijkheid van de producent
	English: producer liability
	English definition: Obligations, responsibilities or debts imposed upon all members of an industry that manufactures or produces a product or service causing injury or harm to a consumer and apportioned according to each member's share of the market for the product. (Source: BLD)

aansprakelijkheid voor milieuverontreiniging
	English: pollution liability
	English definition: Liability for injuries arising from the release of hazardous substances or pollutants or contaminants. (Source: LEE)

aansprakelijkheid voor nucleaire schade
	English: liability for nuclear damages
	English definition: Subjection to a legal obligation, such as financial recompense or ecological reparations, for any harm or damage inflicted on persons, property or the environment during the production, use or transport of radioactive materials used as an energy source or in weaponry. (Source: BLD / MHD)

aansprakelijkheid voor zee-ongevallen
	English: liability for marine accidents
	English definition: Subjection to a legal obligation, such as financial recompense or ecological reparations, for any harm or damage inflicted on persons, property or the environment in the course of commercial or recreational activity in, on or near a sea. (Source: BLD / RHW)

	English: liability legislation
	English definition: A law or body of laws enacted that pertains to or establishes an obligation, debt or responsibility for loss, penalty, evil, expense or burden. (Source: BLD / ISEP)

aantal uren zonneschijn
	English: duration of sunshine
	English definition: Period of the day during which the sun is shining.  (Source: RAMADE)

aantasting van de ozonlaag
	English: ozone layer depletion
	English definition: The fragile shield of ozone is been damaged by chemicals released on earth. The main chemicals that are depleting stratospheric ozone are chlorofluorocarbons which are used in refrigerators, aerosols, and as cleaners in many industries, and halons, which are used in fire extinguishers. The damage is caused when these chemicals release highly reactive forms of chlorine and bromine. Over the past 30 years ozone levels over parts of Antarctica have dropped by almost 40% during some months and a 'hole' in ozone concentrations is clearly visible in satellite observations. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: demonstrability

aantrekkelijke kant van waterrecreatie
	English: aquatic recreational amenity

	English: initial training
	English definition: Any education, instruction or discipline occurring at the beginning of an activity, task, occupation or life span. (Source: RHW)

aanvullende overeenkomst van Brussel
	English: Brussels additional agreement

aanvullende verpakking
	English: additional packaging
	English definition: Additional packaging around the normal sales packaging. For example as protection against theft or for the purpose of advertising; the customer may leave the additional packaging in the shop for waste collection. (Source: RRDA)

	English: earthquake
	English definition: The violent shaking of the ground produced by deep seismic waves, beneath the epicentre, generated by a sudden decrease or release in a volume of rock of elastic strain accumulated over a long time in regions of seismic activity (tectonic earthquake). The magnitude of an earthquake is represented by the Richter scale; the intensity by the Mercalli scale. (Source: GUNN)

	English: ceramics
	English definition: The art and techniques of producing articles of clay, porcelain, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: ceramics industry
	English definition: Manufacturing plant producing ceramic items. (Source: LEE)

	English: natural gas
	English definition: A natural fuel containing methane and hydrocarbons that occurs in certain geologic formations. (Source: LANDY)

	English: natural gas exploration
	English definition: Underground prospection conducted with various methods to discover natural gas deposits which are usually found in the immediate vicinity of crude petroleum. (Source: ZINZAN /  PARCOR)

	English: natural gas extraction
	English definition: The tapping of natural gas from wells located under the sea and in general from underground sources often in association with petroleum deposits; it is used as a fuel, having largely replaced coal-gas for this purpose, and as a source of intermediates for organic synthesis. (Source: GRAHAWa /  UVAROVa /  GILP96a)

	English: earth's crust
	English definition: The outer layers of the Earth's structure, varying between 6 and 48 km in thickness, and comprising all the material above the Mohorovicic Discontinuity (a seismic discontinuity occurring between the crust of the earth and the underlying mantle; the discontinuity occurs at an average depth of 35 km below the continents and at about 10 km below the oceans). The earlier idea of a cool solid skin overlaying a hot molten interior has now been replaced by a concept of a crust composed of two shells: an inner basic unit composed of sima (oceanic crust) and an outer granitic unit composed of sial (continental crust). (Source: WHIT)

aardolie; ruwe aardolie
	English: petroleum
	English definition: A comparatively volatile liquid bitumen composed principally of hydrocarbon, with traces of sulphur, nitrogen or oxygen compounds; can be removed from the earth in a liquid state. (Source: MGH)

	English: oil exploration

	English: petroleum geology
	English definition: The branch of economic geology that relates to the origin, migration and accumulation of oil and gas, and to the discovery of commercial deposits. Its practice involves the application of geochemistry, geophysics, paleontology, structural geology and stratigraphy to the problems of finding hydrocarbons. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: petroleum industry
	English definition: Manufacturing industry utilizing complex combination of interdependent operations engaged in the storage and transportation, separation of crude molecular constituents, molecular cracking, molecular rebuilding, and solvent finishing to produce petrochemical products. (Source: PZ)

	English: oil disaster
	English definition: The disaster caused by the dumping and accidental spillage of oil into waterways from ships and land-based or offshore installations. Oil pollution may destroy or damage aquatic life and wildlife such as birds, contaminate water supplies and create fire hazards. (Source: GILP96)

	English: petroleum consumption
	English definition: Petroleum belongs to non-renewable energy sources; it is a complex substance derived from the carbonized remains of trees, ferns, mosses, and other types of vegetable matter. The principal chemical constituents of oil are carbon, hydrogen, and sulphur. The various fuels made from crude oil are jet fuel, gasoline, kerosine, diesel fuel, and heavy fuel oils. Major oil consumption is in the following areas: transportation, residential-commercial, industrial and for generating electric power. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: oil extraction
	English definition: Recovery of oil by surface mining, as in tar sands or oil shales, or from tunnels in a shallow reservoir. (Source: BJGEO)

aardrijkskunde, geografie
	English: geography

	English: landslide
	English definition: Mass-movement landforms and processes involving the downslope transport, under gravitationary influence of soil and rock material en masse. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: earth science
	English definition: The science that deals with the earth or any part thereof; includes the disciplines of geology, geography, oceanography and meteorology, among others. (Source: MGH)

abiotische factor
	English: abiotic factor
	English definition: Physical, chemical and other non-living environmental factors. They are essential for living plants and animals of an ecosystem, providing the essential elements and nutrients that are necessary for growth. The abiotic elements also include the climatic and pedologic components of the ecosystem. (Source: LBC /  WRIGHT)

abiotische omgeving
	English: abiotic environment
	English definition: The non-living components of the environment (rocks, minerals, soil, water and climate). (Source: WRIGHT)

absorptie (blootstelling)
	English: absorption (exposure)
	English definition: The taking in of fluids or other substances by cells or tissues. (Source: LANDY)

	English: academic

	English: accumulator
	English definition: A rechargeable device for storing electrical energy in the form of chemical energy, consisting of one or more separate secondary cells. (Source: CED)

	English: background noise
	English definition: Noise coming from source other than the noise source being monitored. (Source: KOREN)

	English: background level
	English definition: Term used in a variety of situations, always as the constant or natural amount of a given substance, radiation, noise, etc. (Source: KORENa)

	English: background radiation
	English definition: Radiation resulting from natural sources, as opposed to man-made sources, and to which people are exposed in everyday, normal life; for example from rocks and soil. (Source: WRIGHT /  MGH)

achteruitgang van het bos
	English: forest deterioration
	English definition: Reduction of tree population in forests caused by acidic precipitation, forest fires, air pollution, deforestation, pests and diseases of trees, wildlife, etc. (Source: WPR)

achteruitgang van het ecosysteem
	English: ecosystem degradation
	English definition: Degradation or destruction of large natural environments. When one ecosystem is under attack as a result of natural or man-made disaster it is extremely difficult to calculate the ripple effects throughout nature. When two or more ecosystems are being degraded the probabilities of synergistic destructiveness multiply. Ecosystems in many regions are threatened, despite their biological richness and their promise of material benefits. (Source: WPR)

	English: action
	English definition: The process of doing or an act or performance that has been carried out; a legal proceeding brought by one party against another. (Source: RHW)

actief slib
	English: activated sludge
	English definition: Sludge that has been aerated and subjected to bacterial action; used to speed breakdown of organism matter in raw sewage during secondary waste treatment. (Source: LANDY)

	English: action group
	English definition: A collection of persons united to address specific sociopolitical or socioeconomic concerns. (Source: RHW)

	English: acts

actieve kool
	English: activated carbon
	English definition: A powdered, granular or pelleted form of amorphous carbon characterized by a very large surface area per unit volume because of an enormous number of fine pores. (Source: LANDY)

actieve populatie
	English: active population
	English definition: The number of people available and eligible for employment within a given enterprise, region or nation. (Source: ODE)

	English: actinide
	English definition: A group of 15 radioactive elements some of which occur naturally while others are produced in nuclear reactions. They include plutonium, americium and neptunium. The health hazard presented by the actinides, if they are released into the environment, comes from the potency of their radioactive characteristics. They are alpha-emitters, and therefore can cause intense localized damage in tissues if absorbed into the body. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: actinium
	English definition: A radioactive element of the actinide series, occurring as a decay product of uranium. It is used as an alpha particle source and in neutron production. (Source: CED)

	English: additive
	English definition: Substances mixed in small quantities with another product to modify its chemical or physical state. Additives are used to make food look visually more attractive, in the case of colouring agents, as well as to preserve and extend the life of the product. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: respiration
	English definition: The process in living organisms of taking in oxygen from the surroundings and giving out carbon dioxide. (Source: CED)

	English: respiratory tract
	English definition: The structures and passages involved with intake, expulsion, and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the vertebrate body. (Source: MGH)

	English: respiratory system
	English definition: The structures and passages involved with the intake, expulsion and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the vertebrate body. (Source: MGH)

	English: respiratory disease

administratief beroep
	English: administrative occupation

administratief recht
	English: administrative law
	English definition: Body of law created by administrative agencies in the form of rules, regulations, orders and decisions to carry out regulatory powers and duties of such agencies. (Source: BLACK)

administratief rechtsgebied
	English: administrative jurisdiction
	English definition: The extent, power or territory in which an office with executive or managerial authority administers justice or declares judgments. (Source: RHW / BLD)

administratieve akte
	English: administrative deed
	English definition: Any formal and legitimate step taken or decision made on matters of policy by a chief or other top-level officer within an organization. (Source: DAM)

administratieve instructie
	English: administrative instructions
	English definition: Education in the theories and practices of managing an office, business or organization. (Source: RHW)

administratieve organisatie
	English: administrative organisation

administratieve procedure
	English: administrative procedure

administratieve rechter
	English: administrative court (administration)
	English definition: An independent, specialized judicial tribunal in which judges or officials are authorized by a government agency to conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the government agency and the persons, businesses or other organizations that it regulates. (Source: BLD)

administratieve sanctie
	English: administrative sanction
	English definition: Generally, any formal official imposition of penalty or fine; destruction, taking, seizure, or withholding of property; assessment of damages, reimbursement, restitution, compensation, costs, charges or fees; requirement, revocation or suspension of license; and taking other compulsory or restrictive action by organization, agency or its representative.

	English: adsorption
	English definition: The physical or chemical bonding of molecules of gas, liquid or a dissolved substance to the external surface of a solid or the internal surface, if the material is porous, in a very thin layer. (Source: ALL)

	English: consultancy
	English definition: The position or practice of a qualified person paid for advice or services. (Source: OED)

aerobe behandeling
	English: aerobic treatment
	English definition: The introduction of air into sewage so as to provide aerobic biochemical stabilization during a detention period. (Source: KOREN)

aerobe voorwaarden
	English: aerobic condition
	English definition: Life common to the majority of animal and plants species requiring the presence of oxygen. (Source: LAROUSa)

	English: aerobiology
	English definition: The study of the atmospheric dispersal of airborne fungus spores, pollen grains, and microorganisms; and, more broadly, of airborne propagules of algae and protozoans, minute insects such as aphids, and pollution gases and particles which exert specific biologic effects. (Source: MGH)

aerodynamisch geluid
	English: aerodynamic noise
	English definition: Acoustic noise caused by turbulent airflow over the surface of a body. (Source: MGH)

aeroob proces
	English: aerobic process
	English definition: A process requiring the presence of oxygen. (Source: MGH)

	English: aerosol
	English definition: A gaseous suspension of ultramicroscopic particles of a liquid or a solid. (Source: MGH)

	English: scoping procedure
	English definition: The prescribed step or manner of proceeding in an environmental impact assessment, by which a public discussion is held to discuss the information that needs to be developed, the alternatives that need to be considered and other important environmental issues. (Source: ERG)

	English: decomposition
	English definition: The more or less permanent breakdown of a molecule into simpler molecules or atoms. (Source: MGH)

	English: degradation
	English definition: A type of organic chemical reaction in which a compound is converted into a simpler compound in stages. (Source: ALL2)

afbraak onder invloed van licht
	English: photodegradation
	English definition: The capability of being decomposed by prolonged exposure to light. (Source: CEDa)

afbraak van gebouwen
	English: building destruction
	English definition: The tearing down of buildings by mechanical means. (Source: MGHa)

afbraak van stratosferische ozon
	English: stratospheric ozone depletion
	English definition: Damage of the ozone shield by chemicals released on Earth. The main chemicals that are depleting stratospheric ozone are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are used in refrigerators, aerosols, and as cleaners in many industries, and halons which are used in fire extinguishers. The damage is caused when these chemicals release highly reactive forms of chlorine and bromine. (Source: WRIGHT)

afbraak van verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant degradation
	English definition: The physical, chemical or biological breakdown of a complex polluting material into simpler components. (Source: FFD)

	English: degradation product
	English definition: Those chemicals resulting from partial decomposition or chemical breakdown of substances. (Source: LEE)

	English: degradability
	English definition: The capacity of being decomposed chemically or biologically. (Source: CED)

afdekking [actie]
	English: covering

afdekking van een afvalstortplaats
	English: landfill covering
	English definition: The protective shielding, consisting of soil or some other material, that encloses disposal sites for compacted, non-hazardous solid waste, or secures disposal sites for hazardous waste to minimize the chance of releasing hazardous substances into the environment. (Source: TOE)

	English: litter
	English definition: Straw, hay or similar material used as bedding by animals. (Source: CED)

	English: flaring
	English definition: 1) Flares use open flames during normal and/or emergency operations to combust hazardous gaseous. The system has no special features to control temperature or time of combustion; however, supplemental fuel may be required to sustain the combustion. Historically, flares have been used to dispose of waste gases in the oil and gas industry and at wastewater treatment plants having anaerobic digestors. Regulation for thermal destruction of hazardous wastes limit the practical use of flaring to combustion of relatively simple hydrocarbons, such as methane from digesters or landfill gas collection systems. 2) A control device that burns hazardous materials to prevent their release into the environment; may operate continuously or intermittently, usually on top a stack. (Source: CORBIT /  EPAGLO)

afgedankt geneeskrachtig medicijn
	English: discarded medicinal drug

afgegraven grond
	English: excavation heap
	English definition: Residue in form of a heap, consisting of earth or other material, produced by excavation.

afgesloten natuurgebied
	English: central park area
	English definition: The core area of a park or of a reserve where there can be no interference with the natural ecosystem. (Source: WRIGHT)

afgevaardigd beheer
	English: delegated management
	English definition: The process of assigning or transferring authority, decision making or a specific administrative function from one entity to another. (Source: OED)

afgevaardigde van een fabriek
	English: plant delegate
	English definition: A person authorized to act on behalf of workers or managers of a company, such as at business conventions or at meetings involving labor relations. (Source: RHW)

afgifte gemuteerde micro-organismen
	English: mutated micro-organisms release
	English definition: The release of mutated micro-organisms creates the risk that they may exhibit some previously unknown pathogenicity, might take over from some naturally occurring bacteria (possibly having other positive functions which thus are lost) or pass on some unwanted trait to such indigenous bacteria. There is also concern that an uncontrolled genetic mutation could produce from such an engineered microorganism, a form with hazardous consequences for the environment. (Source: WPR)

	English: excavation (process)
	English definition: The removal of earth from its natural position. (Source: HARRIS)

	English: excavated hole
	English definition: A pit, cavity, or other uncovered cutting produced by excavation. (Source: BJGEOa)

	English: excavation site
	English definition: The location chosen for an excavation, meaning the act or process of removing soil and/or rock materials by digging, blasting, breaking, loading either at the surface or underground. (Source: BJGEOa)

	English: excavation side
	English definition: Sloping surface of an excavation. (Source: RRDA)

	English: decrease

	English: Africa
	English definition: The second largest of the continents, on the Mediterranean in the north, the Atlantic in the west, and the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Indian Ocean in the east. The Sahara desert divides the continent unequally into North Africa and Africa south of Sahara. The largest lake is Lake Victoria and the chief rivers are the Nile, Niger, Congo, and Zambezi. The hottest continent, Africa has vast mineral resources, many of which are still undeveloped. (Source: CED /  AMHER)

afscheider; scheider
	English: separator
	English definition: A machine for separating materials of different specific gravity by means of water or air. (Source: MGH)

afscheiding in water
	English: emission to water
	English definition: The discharge of solid, liquid or gaseous pollutants or contaminants into a body of water. (Source: WWC)

	English: screening
	English definition: The reduction of the electric field about a nucleus by the space charge of the surrounding electrons. (Source: MGH)

	English: write-off
	English definition: Accounting procedure that is used when an asset is uncollectible and is therefore charged-off as a loss. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

	English: deterrence
	English definition: Punishment aiming at deterring the criminal from repeating his offences or deterring others from committing similar acts. (Source: DICLAW)

	English: deterrent
	English definition: Any measure, implement or policy designed to discourage or restrain the actions or advance of another agent, organization or state. (Source: RHW)

afsluiting van de onderlaag van een afvalstortplaats
	English: landfill base sealing
	English definition: Sealing of a landfill with a relatively impermeable barrier designed to keep leachate inside. Liner materials include plastic and dense clay. (Source: EPAGLO)

afsmelting van een reactorkern
	English: core meltdown
	English definition: An accidental overheating of the part of the nuclear reactor where fission takes place, causing fuel elements and other parts of the reactor to melt, potentially leading to catastrophic consequences in which dangerous levels of radioactive materials would be released into the environment. (Source: FFD)

afsnijden van waterplantengroei
	English: water weed cutting
	English definition: Cutting down by scythe or machine at intervals the vegetation growth and grasses on banks and berms of irrigation and drainage channels or cropped areas. (Source: ECHO1)

	English: rinsing
	English definition: The removal of thin layers of surface material more or less evenly from an extensive area of gently sloping land, by broad continuous sheets of running water rather than by streams flowing in well-defined channels; e.g. erosion that occurs when rain washes away a thin layer of topsoil. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: teleheating
	English definition: The supply of heat, either in the form of steam or hot water, from a central source to a group of buildings. (Source: MGH)

	English: necrosis
	English definition: The pathologic death of living tissue in a plant or animal.

aftappen van ondergronds water
	English: exploitation of underground water
	English definition: The process of extracting underground water from a source. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: delegation
	English definition: A person or group chosen to represent another or others. (Source: CED)

	English: waste

afval afkomstig van de gezondheidssector
	English: health-care activities waste

afval van gewassen
	English: crop waste
	English definition: Any unusable portion of plant matter left in a field after harvest. (Source: CNI)

afval van strooiapparaat
	English: refuse shredder
	English definition: A machine used to break up refuse material into smaller pieces by tearing and/or impact. (Source: PORT)

	English: waste analysis
	English definition: An investigation carried out to decide what arrangements are appropriate for dealing with different kinds of wastes. (Source: PORTa)

	English: waste bin
	English definition: A container for litter, rubbish, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: waste balance
	English definition: The inventory of all waste produced or recovered during a certain time period, classified by type and quantity. (Source: DOG)

	English: waste management
	English definition: The total supervision of waste production, handling, processing, storage, and transport from its point of generation to its final acceptable disposal. (Source: HMD / ISEP)

	English: waste minimisation
	English definition: Measures or techniques, including plans and directives, that reduce the amount of wastes generated. Examples of waste minimisation are environmentally-sound recycling and source reduction practices. (Source: TOE /  DEE)

	English: waste reduction
	English definition: Practices that reduce the amount of waste generated by a specific source through the redesigning of products or patterns of production or consumption. (Source: TOE)

	English: type of waste
	English definition: A grouping by type of unusable material left over from any process. (Source: ISEP)

	English: waste classification
	English definition: The arrangement of unwanted materials left over from manufacturing processes or refuse from places of human or animal habitation into a variety of categories based on chemical and microbiological constituents or other common characteristics. (Source: TOE)

	English: waste gas dispersion
	English definition: The process of breaking up and producing a diffuse distribution of the unusable aeriform fluid or suspension of fine particles in air resulting from a manufacturing process or the burning of a substance in an enclosed area. (Source: OED / RHW)

	English: waste use
	English definition: The incorporation of wastes into natural or artificial cycles, mainly in order to recover secondary raw materials or energy.

	English: waste charge
	English definition: Imposed fee, expense, or cost for the management of refuse or unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process. (Source: TOE / RHW)

	English: waste importation permit
	English definition: An authorization, license or equivalent control document issued by a government agency that approves bringing in refuse or unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process from foreign countries. (Source: TOE)

	English: waste collection
	English definition: The periodic or on-demand removal of solid waste from primary source locations using a collection vehicle and followed by the depositing of this waste at some central facility or disposal site. (Source: GSW / ISEP)

afvalinzameling bij de bron
	English: waste collection at source
	English definition: The gathering and transporting of refuse from its place of origin. (Source: RHW)

	English: waste oil
	English definition: Oil arising as a waste product of the use of oils in a wide range of industrial and commercial activities, such as engineering, power generation and vehicle maintenance and should be properly disposed of, or treated in order to be reused. (Source: GRAHAW /  DEE)

	English: waste conversion technique
	English definition: Any specialized procedure or method used to transform refuse from one state, form or chemical composition into another. (Source: RHW / ISEP)

	English: waste degasification
	English definition: The removal of gaseous components form waste. (Source: RRDA)

	English: waste storage
	English definition: Temporary holding of waste pending treatment or disposal. Storage methods include containers, tanks, waste piles, and surface impoundments. (Source: RRDA)

	English: waste producer
	English definition: Sources of waste generation, typically used to refer to the domestic, commercial/industrial, or construction and demolition sectors. (Source: USERS)

	English: waste recycling
	English definition: A method of recovering wastes as resources which includes the collection, and often involving the treatment, of waste products for use as a replacement of all or part of the raw material in a manufacturing process. (Source: GRT)

	English: pollution abatement waste
	English definition: Wastes resulting from the operations of pollutant removal from industries, cleaning processes, etc. (Source: RRDA)

	English: waste sorting
	English definition: Separating waste into different materials, such as glass, metal, paper, plastic, etc. (Source: PHC)

	English: waste sorting unit
	English definition: Centralized recycling centres to which waste materials are brought and where they are separated. (Source: CORBIT)

	English: waste statistics
	English definition: Determination of the quantity and character of the wastes discarded by a community, by spot sampling procedure. (Source: CORBIT)

afvalstoffen,vervuilende stoffen, vervuiling
	English: wastes, pollutants, pollution

	English: landfill
	English definition: The oldest method of waste disposal for the solid matter discarded in the domestic dustbin, along with the packaging material and paper from high street shops and offices. Landfill sites are usually disused quarries and gravel pits. When they were filled, previous practice was to cover them up with soil and forget about them. Housing estates have been built, often with disastrous consequences, on old landfill dumps. Waste burial has now become a serious technology and a potential source of energy. Landfill sites can be designed to be bioreactors, which deliberately produce methane, gas as a source of biofuel or alternative energy. Traditionally, waste tips remained exposed to air and aerobic microbes - those which thrive in air - in order to turn some of the waste into compost. However, open tips also encourage vermin, smell in hot weather and disfigure the landscape. In the 1960s, as a tidier and safer option, landfill operators began to seal each day's waste in a clay cell. While excluding vermin, the clay also excluded air. Decomposition relied on anaerobic microbes, which die in air. However, the process produced methane (natural gas), which was a safety hazard. The methane is now extracted by sinking a network of perforated pipes into the site. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: waste dump
	English definition: Area where wastes are deposited and burned. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: landfill leachate
	English definition: Liquid that has seeped through solid waste in a landfill and has extracted soluble dissolved or suspended materials in the process. (Source: WWC)

	English: waste transport
	English definition: Transportation of wastes by means of special vehicles. (Source: RRDA)

	English: incineration of waste
	English definition: The controlled burning of solid, liquid, or gaseous combustible wastes to produce gases and solid residues containing little or no combustible material in order to reduce the bulk of the original waste materials. (Source: ISEP)

	English: waste incinerator
	English definition: Establishment where waste is burnt. (Source: PHC)

	English: waste disposal
	English definition: The orderly process of discarding unwanted or useless material. (Source: GSW)

	English: waste treatment
	English definition: Any process or combination of processes that changes the chemical, physical or biological composition or character of any waste or reduces or removes its harmful properties or characteristics for any purpose. (Source: HMD)

	English: waste disposal cost
	English definition: The amount of money incurred for the action of removing or getting rid of refuse or unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process. (Source: EFP / OED / TOE)

	English: waste treatment effluent
	English definition: Partially or completely treated water or waste water flowing out of a waste treatment plant. (Source: DEE)

	English: waste treatment plant
	English definition: Place where waste material is treated to make it reusable or so it may be disposed of safely. (Source: PHC)

	English: waste disposal charge
	English definition: Imposed fee, expense, or cost for the action of removing or getting rid of refuse or unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process. (Source: TOE /  RHW)

	English: waste processing industry

	English: sanitation plan
	English definition: Plans for the control of the physical factors in the human environment that can harm development, health, or survival. (Source: LANDY)

	English: waste disposal act
	English definition: Law that settles the rules concerning the disposal, recycling and treatment of wastes. (Source: DIZAMB)

	English: waste removal industry
	English definition: The aggregate of commercial enterprises primarily concerned with eliminating or getting rid of refuse from places of human or animal habitation or of unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process. (Source: TOE)

	English: tailings pond
	English definition: Any collection of liquid effluents or wastewater drained or separated out during the processing of crops or mineral ores. (Source: TOE)

	English: waste avoidance
	English definition: All measures by which production and consumption processes are caused to generate less (or no waste), or to generate only those wastes that can be treated without causing problems.

	English: waste heat
	English definition: Heat derived from the cooling process of electric power generating plants and which can cause thermal pollution of water courses, promoting algal bloom. (Source: MGH)

	English: waste heat charge
	English definition: The release of heat generated as a byproduct from industrial or power generation processes. (Source: TOE)

	English: sewage
	English definition: Any liquid-born waste that contains animal or plant matter in suspension or solution, soils and storm water, or chemicals in solution. (Source: APD)

	English: waste water
	English definition: Used water, or water that is not needed, which is permitted to escape, or unavoidably escapes from canals, ditches, reservoirs or other bodies of water, for which the owners of these structures are legally responsible. (Source: WWC)

	English: waste water load
	English definition: The amount of spent or used water, often containing dissolved and suspended matter, that is found in a stream or some other body of water. (Source: WWC)

	English: waste water charge
	English definition: Imposed fee, expense, or cost for the management of spent or used water that contains dissolved or suspended matter from a home, community farm, or industry. (Source: TOE / RHW)

	English: waste water quality
	English definition: The state or condition of spent or used water that contains dissolved or suspended matter from a home, community farm or industry. (Source: TOE / RHW)

	English: waste water sludge
	English definition: The removed materials resulting from physical, biological and chemical treatment of waste water. (Source: WWC)

	English: waste water statistics

	English: waste water reduction
	English definition: The act or process of lessening the volume of used or spent water that is discharged from homes, businesses or industries. (Source: RHW / FFD / TOE)

	English: waste water pollution
	English definition: The impairment of the quality of some medium due to the introduction of spent or used water from a community or industry. (Source: WWC)

	English: waste water disposal
	English definition: Collection and removal of wastewater deriving from industrial and urban settlements by means of a system of pipes and treatment plants. (Source: MANCOS)

	English: waste water treatment
	English definition: Any process to which wastewater is subjected which would remove, or otherwise render harmless to human health and the environment, its constituent wastes. (Source: WWC / WQA)

	English: waste water treatment plant
	English definition: Plant where, through physical-chemical and biological processes, organic matter, bacteria, viruses and solids are removed from residential, commercial and industrial wastewaters before they are discharged in rivers, lakes and seas. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: sewage treatment system
	English definition: Sewage treatment comes in two stages - primary and secondary treatment. The primary stage involves a process of screening solids from sewage, leaving a sludge and relatively clear water for further treatment or for disposal into rivers, the sea or on to the land. In the secondary stage the sludge is stirred constantly in vast tanks to get more oxygen into the mixture, allowing bacteria to break down the organic matter and leave a harmless residue that falls as a sediment to the bottom of the tank. After processing, the clear water on top of the tank is discharged into rivers and the sediment is used as landfill or discharged at sea. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: waste water legislation
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the outflow and disposal of spent or used water from a home, community, farm or industry that contains dissolved or suspended matter. (Source: TOE)

	English: waste water purification
	English definition: Processing of waste water for reuse. (Source: LANDY)

afvalwaterzuivering ter plekke
	English: on-site wastewater treatment
	English definition: A process in which used or spent water is treated at the point of origin or where it was produced, by using a septic tank or some other system to remove or reduce  the impact of constituent wastes on human health and the environment. (Source: WQL / WWC)

	English: waste legislation
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the disposal of unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process or the refuse from places of human or animal habitation. (Source: TOE)

afvoer van overgestroomd water
	English: flood runoff
	English definition: The total quantity of water flowing from the catchment during the period of the flood. (Source: ECHO2)

afvoerbuis in zee
	English: sea outfall
	English definition: The point, location or structure where effluent discharges into a body of marine waters such as a sea, ocean, etc. (Source: WWC)

	English: waste air
	English definition: Exhaust or gaseous air given off by any industrial, manufacturing or chemical process. (Source: TOE / RHW)

afvoerstelsel voor regenwater
	English: rain water sewer system
	English definition: Channels for clearing away rain water. (Source: PHC)

	English: draining
	English definition: The removal of water from a marshy area by artificial means, e.g. the introduction of drains. (Source: WHIT)

	English: drainage
	English definition: 1) Removal of groundwater or surface water, or of water from structures, by gravity or pumping.2) The discharge of water from a soil by percolation (the process by which surface water moves downwards through cracks, joints and pores in soil and rocks). (Source: MGH /  WHIT)

	English: drainage water
	English definition: Incidental surface waters from diverse sources such as rainfall, snow melt or permafrost melt. (Source: JJK)

	English: runoff
	English definition: Rate at which water is removed by flowing over the soil surface. This rate is determined by the texture of the soil, slope, climate, and land use cover (e.g. paved surface, grass, forest, bare soil). (Source: LANDY)

afwatering van de ondergrond
	English: subsoil drainage
	English definition: The removal of surplus water from within the soil by natural or artificial means, such as by drains placed below the surface to lower the water table below the root zone. (Source: BJGEO)

afwatering van de oppervlakte
	English: surface runoff
	English definition: Water that travels over the soil surface to the nearest surface stream; runoff of a drainage basin that has not passed beneath the surface since precipitation. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: watershed
	English definition: The dividing line between two adjacent river systems, such as a ridge. (Source: CED)

	English: drainage system
	English definition: A surface stream, or a body of impounded surface water, together with all other such streams and water bodies that are tributary to it and by which a region is drained. An artificial drainage system includes also surface and subsurface conduits. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: defence
	English definition: The act or process of protecting citizens or any geographical area by preparing for or by using military means to resist the attack of an enemy. (Source: OED)

afwisselend geluid
	English: intermittent noise
	English definition: Noise occurring at regular or irregular intervals. (Source: CED)

	English: alteration
	English definition: The act of altering or the state of being altered. (Source: CED)

	English: deposition
	English definition: The process by which polluting material is precipitated from the atmosphere and accumulates in ecosystems. (Source: APD)

	English: sedimentation (geology)
	English definition: The act or process of forming or accumulating sediment in layers, including such processes as the separation of rock particles from the material from which the sediment is derived, the transportation of these particles to the site of deposition, the actual deposition or settling of the particles, the chemical and other changes occurring in the sediment, and the ultimate consolidation of the sediment into solid rock. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: sediment
	English definition: Any material transported by water which will ultimately settle to the bottom after the water loses its transporting power. (Source: LANDY)

afzetting in zee
	English: marine sediment
	English definition: Solid fragmental material, originated from weathering of rocks, that has settled down from a state of suspension in the water. (Source: BJGEOa)

afzetting van verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant deposition
	English definition: The act or process in which polluting agents settle or accumulate naturally in ecosystems. (Source: APD)

	English: sedimentary basin
	English definition: A geomorphic feature of the earth in which the surface has subsided for a prolonged time, including deep ocean floors, intercontinental rifts and elevated and interior drainage basins. (Source: MHD)

	English: sedimentation basin
	English definition: A basin in which suspended matter is removed either by quiescent settlement or by continuous flow at high velocity and extended retention time to allow deposition. (Source: MGH)

Agenda 21
	English: Agenda 21
	English definition: Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, is a comprehensive programme of action to be achieved by governments, development agencies, United Nations organizations and independent sector groups in every area where human activity affects the environment. Agenda 21 was adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the Earth Summit. Agenda 21 is the response to the UN General Assembly's call, in December 1989, for a global meeting to devise strategies to halt and reverse the effects of environment degradation 'in the context of increased national and international efforts to promote sustainable and environmentally sound development in all countries'. (Source: WRIGHT)

agens dat inwerkt op de oppervlakte
	English: surface-active agent
	English definition: A substance that, when used in small quantities, modifies the surface properties of liquids or solids. A surface-active agent reduces surface tension in a fluid or the interfacial tension between two immiscible fluids, such as oil and water. Surfactants are particularly useful in accomplishing the wetting or penetration of solids by aqueous liquids and serve in the manner of detergent, emulsifying, or dispersing agents. They are more effective than soap in certain situations and are used by conservators for such purposes as cleaning, wetting, and dispersing. (Source: PALIM)

agens met directe inducerende werking
	English: direct discharger
	English definition: Factories and industrial concerns which do not discharge their sewage directly into public sewers, but directly into a waterway. (Source: AZENP)

	English: aggregate extraction
	English definition: Extraction of crushed rock or gravel screened to sizes for use in road surfaces, concretes, or bituminous mixes. (Source: KOREN)

agrarische beroepsbevolking
	English: working population engaged in agriculture
	English definition: The number of a particular region or nation's working population gainfully employed or otherwise occupied with the production of crops, livestock or poultry. (Source: RHW)

	English: agrochemical
	English definition: Any substance or mixture of substances used or intended to be used for preventing, destroying, repelling, attracting, inhibiting, or controlling any insects, rodents, birds, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, weeds or other forms of plant, animal or microbial life regarded as pests. (Source: GILP96)

	English: agroindustry
	English definition: Industry dealing with the supply, processing and distribution of farm products. (Source: PHC)

	English: agri-foodstuff
	English definition: Industry dealing with the production, processing, and supply of agricultural food products. (Source: PHCa)

	English: AIDS
	English definition: The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is caused by HIV-virus manifested by opportunistic infections and/or malignancies, and the mortality rate is very high. The syndrome results from a breakdown of the body's disease-fighting mechanism that leaves it defenceless against infections, such as pulmonary tuberculosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, certain blood infections, candidiasis, invasive cervical cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma or any of over 20 other indicator diseases. No effective treatment is available. A striking feature of AIDS is the wide spectrum and frequency of infections with life-threatening pathogens seldom seen in normal hosts. The illness may begin with insidious signs and symptoms, and the process may be more diffuse than when the same conditions are seen in other immune-compromised patients. Four patterns of disease occur in AIDS patients. The pulmonary pattern, the central nervous system pattern, the gastrointestinal pattern, and the pattern of fever of unknown origin. Most patients who recover from a given opportunistic infection subsequently either have a relapse or develop a new type of infection. Many patients continue to have a wasting syndrome and experience such infections as oral thrush. Feelings of depression and isolation are common among AIDS patients and can be intensified if health care workers display fear of the syndrome. (Source: WPR)

	English: field
	English definition: A limited area of land with grass or crops growing on it, which is usually surrounded by fences or closely planted bushes when it is part of a farm. (Source: CAMB)

	English: arable farming
	English definition: Growing crops as opposed to dairy farming, cattle farming, etc. (Source: PHC)

	English: act
	English definition: 1) Something done voluntarily by a person, and of such a nature that certain legal consequences attach to it.2) Documents, decrees, edicts, laws, judgments, etc. (Source: WESTS)

	English: alarm
	English definition: Signalling an impending danger in order to call attention to some event or condition. (Source: CED /  AMHER)

	English: warning system
	English definition: Any series of procedures and devices designed to detect sudden or potential threats to persons, property or the environment, often utilizing radar technology. (Source: RHW)

	English: alcohol
	English definition: A group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The molecules in the series vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group. Alcohol includes methanol and ethanol. (Source: EIADOE)

	English: gasohol
	English definition: A mixture of 80% or 90% petrol with 20% or 10% ethyl alcohol, for use as a fuel in internal combustion engines. (Source: CED)

	English: fuel alcohol
	English definition: Alternative source of energy for motor vehicles. It is produced by fermentation of sugar cane by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (Source: DICCHE)

	English: alpha radiation
	English definition: A stream of alpha particles which are ejected from many radioactive substances having a penetrating power of a few cm in air but can be stopped by a thin piece of paper. (Source: MGH /  PITT)

	English: general

algemeen onderwijs
	English: general education
	English definition: Informal learning or formal instruction with broad application to human existence beyond the domain of any particular subject or discipline, often equated with liberal arts in the university setting and contrasted to courses required for a specific major or program. (Source: ISEP /  COE)

algemene administratieve opdracht
	English: general administrative order
	English definition: An administrative mandate outlining the process by which a concept, plan, decree or law is to be put into actual practice by a specific organization or government agency. (Source: DAM)

algemene scheikunde
	English: general chemistry
	English definition: The study of the elements and the compounds they form. (Source: DICCHE)

algemene termen
	English: general terms

algendodende stof
	English: algicide
	English definition: Any substance or chemical applied to kill or control algal growth. (Source: LANDY)

	English: algal bloom
	English definition: Excessive and rapid growth of algae and other aquatic plants when they are stimulated to grow too quickly by pollution. It takes place when there are too many nutrients in the water and is aggravated when accompanied by a rise in temperature. Although the algae grow quickly they soon die because they have swallowed up all the water's nutrients. As they decompose they tend to rise to the surface and form a green slime. Algal bloom have increased because higher levels of nitrogen and phosphates from agricultural areas have leached from the fields into water courses. (Source: WRIGHT)

alicyclische samenstelling
	English: alicyclic compound
	English definition: Any substance composed of two or more unlike atoms held together by chemical bonds characterized by straight-chained, branched or cyclic properties. (Source: RHW)

alifatische koolwaterstof
	English: aliphatic hydrocarbon
	English definition: Hydrocarbons having an open chain of carbon atoms, whether normal or forked, saturated or unsaturated. (Source: MGH)

alifatische verbinding
	English: aliphatic compound
	English definition: Any organic compound of hydrogen and carbon characterized by a straight chain of the carbon atoms. (Source: MGH)

alkalische batterij
	English: alkaline battery
	English definition: A primary cell that uses an alkaline electrolyte, usually potassium hydroxide, and delivers about 1.5 volts at much higher current rates than the common carbon-zinc cell. Also known as alkaline-manganese cell. (Source: MGH)

alkalische bodem
	English: alkali land
	English definition: Any geomorphic area, often a level lake-like plain, with soil containing a high percentage of mineral salts, located especially in arid regions. (Source: MHD / RHW)

alkalische bodem
	English: alkali soil
	English definition: Soil that contains sufficient exchangeable sodium to interfere with water penetration and crop growth, either with or without appreciable quantities of soluble salts. (Source: LANDY)

	English: alkane
	English definition: Paraffins. A homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2. Their systematic names end in -ane. They are chemically inert, stable, and flammable. The first four members of the series (methane, ethane, propane, butane) are gases at ordinary temperatures; the next eleven are liquids, and form the main constituents of paraffin oil; the higher members are solids. Paraffin waxs consists mainly of higher alkanes. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: alkyl compound
	English definition: Compound containing one or more alkyl radicals. (Source: MGH)

	English: allergen
	English definition: Any antigen, such as pollen, a drug, or food, that induces an allergic state in humans or animals. (Source: MGH)

	English: allergy
	English definition: A condition of abnormal sensitivity in certain individuals to contact with substances such as proteins, pollens, bacteria, and certain foods. This contact may result in exaggerated physiologic responses such as hay fever, asthma, and in severe enough situations, anaphylactic shock. (Source: KOREN)

	English: state of the art
	English definition: Everything made available to the public by means of a written or oral description, by use or in any other way before the date of the patent application, or an application filed in a foreign country the priority of which is validly claimed. (Source: ECHO1)

alluviale vlakte
	English: alluvial plain
	English definition: A level or gently sloping tract or a slightly undulating land surface produced by extensive deposition of alluvium, usually adjacent to a river that periodically overflows its banks; it may be situated on a flood plain, a delta, or an alluvial fan. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: alluvion
	English definition: An overflowing; an inundation or flood, especially when the water is charged with much suspended material. (Source: BJGEO)

alternatief materiaal
	English: alternative material
	English definition: Materials employed in the place of others which are more dangerous for the environment, such as phosphate substitutes in detergents. (Source: RRDA)

alternatieve technologie
	English: alternative technology
	English definition: Technology that, as an alternative to resource-intensive and wasteful industry, aims to utilize resources sparingly, with minimum damage to the environment, at affordable cost and with a possible degree of control over the processes. (Source: GUNN)

	English: aluminium
	English definition: A light white metal, ductile and malleable, and a good conductor of electricity. It occurs widely in nature in clays and is the third most abundant element in the Earth's crust. It is extracted mainly from bauxite by electrolysis of a molten mixture of purified bauxite and cryolite. The metal and its alloys are used for aircraft, cooking utensils, electrical apparatus, and for many other purposes where its light weight is an advantage. Aluminium became implicated as an environmental health hazard in the 1980s on two counts. Biomedical scientists looking for possible causes of Alzheimer's disease, the premature senility indicated by loss of memory and confusion, found a circumstantial link with aluminium. The theory is a controversial one. (Source: UVAROV /  WRIGHT)

	English: aluminium content
	English definition: Amount of aluminium contained in a solution. (Source: MGH)

	English: aluminium industry
	English definition: A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the mining and processing of aluminum. (Source: ENC)

	English: alumina
	English definition: A natural or synthetic oxide of aluminum widely distributed in nature, often found as a constituent part of clays, feldspars, micas and other minerals, and as a major component of bauxite. (Source: RHW / INP)

alveole [longblaasje]
	English: alveolus
	English definition: A tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. Also called air sac. (Source: AMHER)

	English: amalgam
	English definition: A solution of a metal in mercury. (Source: ALL)

	English: craft
	English definition: An occupation or trade requiring manual dexterity or skilled artistry. (Source: AMHER)

ambachtelijke nijverheid
	English: handicraft business
	English definition: The profession, commercial firm or trade involving the production and distribution of articles that are made through the skilled use of one's hands. (Source: RHW)

	English: official duty

	English: Ames test
	English definition: A bioassay developed by Bruce N. Ames in 1974, performed on bacteria to assess the capability of environmental chemicals to cause mutations. (Source: BIOTGL /  KORENa)

	English: amphibian
	English definition: A class of vertebrate animals characterized by a moist, glandular skin, gills at some stage of development, and no amnion during the embryonic stage. (Source: MGH)

	English: amine
	English definition: One of a class of organic compounds which can be considered to be derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogens by organic radicals. (Source: MGH)

	English: amino acid
	English definition: Organic compounds containing a carboxyl group (-COOH) and an amino group (-NH2). About 30 amino acids are known. They are fundamental constituents of living matter because protein molecules are made up of many amino acid molecules combined together. Amino acids are synthesized by green plants and some bacteria, but some (arginine, histidine, lysine. threonine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, tryptophane) cannot be synthesized by animals and therefore are essential constituents of their diet. Proteins from specific plants may lack certain amino acids, so a vegetarian diet must include a wide range of plant products. (Source: ALL)

	English: ammonia
	English definition: A colorless gaseous alkaline compound that is very soluble in water, has a characteristic pungent odour, is lighter than air, and is formed as a result of the decomposition of most nitrogenous organic material. (Source: MGH)

	English: ammonification
	English definition: Addition of ammonia or ammonia compounds, especially to the soil. (Source: MGH)

	English: ammonium
	English definition: The radical NH4+. (Source: MGH)

anaerobe behandeling
	English: anaerobic treatment
	English definition: Breakdown of organic material without the presence of oxygen, a treatment which permanently removes the unpleasant odour of many organic wastes so that they can be used on agricultural land. (Source: PHC)

anaerobe proces
	English: anaerobic process
	English definition: A process from which air or oxygen not in chemical combination is excluded. (Source: MGH)

anaerobe voorwaarden
	English: anaerobic condition
	English definition: A mode of life carried on in the absence of molecular oxygen. (Source: MGH)

	English: analysis
	English definition: Examination or determination. (Source: RRDA)

analyse van de natuurlijke risico's
	English: natural risk analysis
	English definition: Analysis of the probability of occurrence, within a specific period of time in a given area, of a potentially damaging phenomenon of nature. (Source: GUNN)

analyse verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant analysis
	English definition: The determination of the composition of any substance that causes pollution, using classical laboratory techniques and other methods involving analytical chemistry. (Source: APD)

	English: analytical method

	English: analysis programme

	English: assay
	English definition: Qualitative or quantitative determination of the components of a material, such as an ore or a drug. (Source: MGH)

analytische apparatuur
	English: analytical equipment
	English definition: Equipment employed in analytical techniques. (Source: RRDA)

analytische scheikunde
	English: analytical chemistry
	English definition: The branch of chemistry dealing with techniques which yield any type of information about chemical systems. (Source: MGH)

	English: swans, geese and ducks
	English definition: A family of waterfowl, including ducks, gees, mergansers, pochards and swans, in the order Anseriformes. (Source: MGH)

	English: anatomy
	English definition: The science concerned with the physical structure of animals and plants. (Source: CED)

	English: anion
	English definition: An ion that is negatively charged. (Source: MGH)

anorganisch afval
	English: mineral waste
	English definition: Waste material resulting from ore extraction that is usually left on the soil surface. (Source: GREMES)

anorganische chemie
	English: inorganic chemistry
	English definition: A branch of chemistry dealing with the chemical reactions and properties of all inorganic matter. (Source: LEE)

anorganische conditioneerder
	English: mineral conditioner
	English definition: Any naturally occurring inorganic substances with a definite chemical composition and usually of crystalline structure, such as rocks, which are used to stabilize soil, improving its resistance to erosion, texture and permeability. (Source: RHW / SOI)

anorganische meststof
	English: inorganic fertiliser
	English definition: Inorganic chemical which promotes plant growth by enhancing the supply of essential nutrients such as ammonium sulphate or lime. (Source: PORT)

anorganische stof
	English: mineral matter
	English definition: Inorganic materials having a distinct chemical composition, characteristic crystalline structure, colour, and hardness. (Source: DUNSTE)

anorganische stoffen
	English: inorganic substance
	English definition: Chemical compounds that do not contain carbon as the principal element (excepting carbonates, cyanides, and cyanates), that is, matter other than plant or animal. (Source: MGH)

anorganische vervuiler
	English: inorganic pollutant
	English definition: A pollutant of mineral origin and not of basically carbon structure. (Source: ERG)

anorganische vervuiling
	English: mineral pollution
	English definition: Pollution deriving from all classes of mining operations and having an adverse effect on aquatic life, water supplies and the recreational use of waters. (Source: GILP96a)

	English: antagonism
	English definition: The situation in which two chemicals upon interaction interfere in such a way that the action of one partially or completely inhibits the effects of the other. (Source: KOREN)

antagonistisch effect van giftige stoffen
	English: antagonistic effect of toxic substances

	English: Antarctica
	English definition: A continent lying chiefly within the Antarctic Circle and asymmetrically centered on the South Pole: it consists of an ice-covered plateau (some 95 percent of Antarctica is covered by an icecap averaging 1,6 km in thickness), 1800-3000 m above sea level, and mountains ranges rising to 4500 m with some volcanic peaks; average temperatures all below freezing and human settlement is confined to research station. (Source: CED /  AMHER)

Antarctisch ecosysteem
	English: Antarctic ecosystem

Antarctisch gebied
	English: Antarctic region
	English definition: An area within the Antarctic Circle that includes the fifth largest continent and its surrounding waters, consisting mostly of thick ice shelves. (Source: INP / CIA)

Antarctische Oceaan
	English: Antarctic Ocean
	English definition: The waters, including ice shelves, that surround the continent of Antarctica, which comprise the southernmost parts of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans, and also the Ross, Amundsen, Bellingshausen and Weddell seas. (Source: RHW / CIA)

anthropologisch reservaat
	English: anthropologic reserve
	English definition: Area of protection of the life style of societies where traditional human activities are still maintained and the exploitation of natural resources is still carried out without compromising the future availability. (Source: RRDA)

	English: antibiotic
	English definition: A chemical substance, produced by microorganisms and synthetically, that has the capacity to inhibit the growth of, and even to destroy, bacteria and other microorganisms. (Source: MGH)

	English: antifouling agent
	English definition: Agent that inhibits the growth of barnacles and other marine organisms on a ship's bottom (an antifouling paint or other coating). Organo-tin compounds have been the most often used agents in this application since they are effective against both soft and hard fouling organisms. However, in spite of their performance, they have a negative impact on the marine environment and their long half life in the environment, has prompted marine paint manufacturers to look for a nonpersistent alternative. (Source: CED /  OLIN)

	English: corrosion inhibitor
	English definition: A chemical agent which slows down or prohibits a corrosion reaction. (Source: LEE)

	English: antibody
	English definition: A complex protein that is produced in response to the introduction of a specific antigen into an animal. Antibodies belong to a class of proteins called immunoglobins, which are formed by plasma cells in the blood as a defence mechanism against invasion by parasites, notably bacteria and viruses, either by killing them or rendering them harmless. (Source: ALL2)

antiseismische regelgeving
	English: antiseismic regulation
	English definition: Rules for minimizing or containing the risks deriving from earthquakes. (Source: MANCOS)

	English: antipollution incentive
	English definition: Financial reward or penalty used to incite action towards greater responsibility in reducing the presence of pollution or substances in the environment deemed harmful to human health or natural resources. (Source: ODE /  TOE)

	English: antipollution premium
	English definition: A prize or bonus given as an inducement or reward for efforts to reduce the presence of pollution or substances in the environment deemed harmful to human health or natural resources. (Source: ISEP /  OED /  TOE)

antropische activiteit
	English: anthropic activity
	English definition: Action resulting from or influenced by human activity or intervention. (Source: GRAHAW)

antropogene factor
	English: anthropogenic factor

	English: pharmaceutical waste
	English definition: Discarded medicinal drugs and related products from pharmacies, hospitals, clinics, pharmaceutical manufacturers, etc. (Source: APD / EPW)

	English: aqueduct
	English definition: A channel for supplying water; often underground, but treated architecturally on high arches when crossing valleys or low ground. (Source: HARRIS)

	English: labour
	English definition: One of the factors of production. It includes all the exertions - manual, physical or mental - by individuals, directed towards the production of wealth. (Source: GOOD)

	English: labour market

	English: working condition
	English definition: All existing circumstances affecting labor in the workplace, including job hours, physical aspects, legal rights and responsibilities. (Source: CIV)

	English: labour law
	English definition: The branch of the legal system which lays down the rules governing employment relationships, trade union relations, and state intervention to provide protection against particular situations of need for citizens who are workers. (Source: NECTAR)

	English: plant health care

	English: labour relations
	English definition: The dynamics or general state of the association between management and non-management employees in an enterprise, industry or nation, with special attention to the maintenance of agreements, collective bargaining and the status of unions. (Source: RHW)

	English: arboretum
	English definition: Collection of trees from different parts of the world, grown for scientific study. (Source: PHC)

	English: archaeology
	English definition: The scientific study of the material remains of the cultures of historical or prehistorical peoples. (Source: MGH)

archeologische vindplaats
	English: archaeological site
	English definition: Any location containing significant relics and artifacts of past culture. (Source: LANDY)

	English: architecture
	English definition: The art and science of designing and building structures, or large groups of structures, in keeping with aesthetic and functional criteria. (Source: HARRIS)

Arctisch ecosysteem
	English: Arctic ecosystem

Arctisch gebied
	English: Arctic region
	English definition: The northernmost area of the earth, centered on the North Pole, that includes the Arctic Ocean, the northern reaches of Canada, Alaska, Russia, Norway and most of Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard. (Source: INP)

Arctische Oceaan
	English: Arctic Ocean
	English definition: The smallest and most poorly studied of the oceans on earth. It covers an area of 14 million square km that is divided by three submarine ridges, i.e. the Alpha Ridge, the Lomonosov Ridge, and an extension of the mid-Atlantic ridge. It is also nearly landlocked, coveredyear-round by pack ice, and the third of its area is continental shelf. (Source: OCEAN)

	English: poverty
	English definition: State in which the individual lacks the resources necessary for subsistence.

aromatische koolwaterstoffen
	English: aromatic hydrocarbon
	English definition: Hydrocarbons having an unsaturated ring containing alternating double and single bonds, especially containing a benzene ring. (Source: CED)

aromatische verbindingen
	English: aromatic compound
	English definition: Compounds characterized by the presence of at least one benzene ring. (Source: MGH)

	English: arsenic
	English definition: A toxic metalloid element, existing in several allotropic forms, that occurs principally in realgar and orpiment and as the free element. It is used in transistors, lead-based alloys, and high temperature brasses. (Source: CED)

	English: Articulata
	English definition: Animals characterized by the repetition of similar segments (metameres), exhibited especially by arthropods, annelids, and vertebrates in early embryonic stages and in certain specialized adult structures. (Source: MGH)

	English: doctor
	English definition: A person licensed to practise medicine. (Source: CED)

	English: ash
	English definition: The incombustible matter remaining after a substance has been incinerated. (Source: MGH)

	English: asbestos
	English definition: Generic name for a group of fibrous mineral silicates. It includes blue asbestos (crocidolite), white asbestos (chrysotile) and brown asbestos (amosite). After they are mined the asbestos fibres are separated from the rock and are spun into a cloth. When inhaled the fibres penetrate the lungs and the tissues of the bronchial tubes, resulting in asbestosis, a crippling lung disease. Asbestos also causes cancer of the lung and the gastro-intestinal tract, and mesothelioma, a malignant cancer of the inner lining of the chest. However, because it is a poor conductor of electricity and highly resistant to heat it has been widely used over the years in fire-fighting suits, and building and insulating materials. The fibrous form of several silicate minerals, at one time widely used for electrical and thermal insulation; the use of all forms of asbestos is now either banned or strictly controlled in many countries since it causes cancer. (Source: WRIGHT /  ALL)

	English: asbestos cement
	English definition: A hardened mixture of asbestos fibers, Portland cement and water used in relatively thin slabs for shingles, wallboard and siding. (Source: WEBSTE)

	English: asbestosis
	English definition: A non-malignant progressive, irreversible, lung disease, characterized by diffuse fibrosis, resulting from the inhalation of asbestos fibers. (Source: CONFER)

	English: ASEAN
	English definition: Association of Southeast Asian Nations. (Source: MIIS)

	English: assimilation
	English definition: Conversion of nutritive material to living tissue. (Source: KOREN)

	English: association
	English definition: A body of persons associated for the regulation of a common economic activity by means of a special organization. (Source: SHOOX /  ZINZAN)

	English: astronomy
	English definition: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe. (Source: MGH)

	English: atlas
	English definition: A bound collection of maps or charts, plates, engravings or tables illustrating any subject. (Source: CCL / RHW)

	English: atmosphere
	English definition: The gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth in a several kilometers-thick layer. (Source: UVAROVa)

atmosfeer (lucht,klimaat)
	English: atmosphere (air, climate)

atmosferisch model
	English: atmospheric model
	English definition: A simulation, pattern or plan designed to demonstrate the structure or workings of the atmosphere surrounding any object, including the Earth. (Source: APD)

atmosferische aerosol
	English: atmospheric aerosol
	English definition: Particulate matter suspended in the air. The particulate matter may be in the form of dusts, fumes, or mist. Aerosols in the atmosphere are the form in which pollutants such as smoke are dispersed. (Source: LANDY /  PHC)

atmosferische correctie
	English: atmospheric correction
	English definition: The removal from the remotely sensed data of the atmospheric effects caused by the scattering and absorption of sunlight by particles; the removal of these effects improves not only the quality of the observed earth surface imaging but also the accuracy of classification of the ground objects. (Source: YOUNG)

atmosferische deeltje
	English: atmospheric particulate
	English definition: A concentration of fine liquid or solid particles, such as dust, smoke, mist, fumes or smog, found in the atmosphere. (Source: TOE)

atmosferische inversie
	English: atmospheric inversion
	English definition: A temperature inversion in the atmosphere in which the temperature, instead of falling, increases with height above the ground. With the colder and heavier air below, there is no tendency to form upward currents and turbulence is suppressed. Inversions are often formed in the late afternoon when the radiation emitted from the ground exceeds that received from the sinking sun. Inversions are also caused by katabatic winds, that is cold winds flowing down the hillside into a valley, and by anticyclones. In inversion layers, both vertical and horizontal diffusion is inhibited and pollutants become trapped, sometimes for long periods. Low-level discharges of pollutants are more readily trapped by inversions than high level dischargers, hence the case for high stacks. Furthermore, high level discharges into an inversion tend to remain at a high level because of the absence of vertical mixing. (Source: GILP96)

atmosferische metingen
	English: atmospheric monitoring
	English definition: A practice of continuous atmospheric sampling by various levels of government or particular industries. (Source: MGH)

atmosferische natuurkunde
	English: atmospheric physics
	English definition: The study of the physical phenomena of the atmosphere. (Source: MGH)

atmosferische ozon
	English: atmospheric ozone
	English definition: A triatomic molecule of oxygen; a natural constituent of the atmosphere, with the highest concentrations in the ozone layer or stratosphere; it is found at a level between 15 and 30 km above the Earth, which prevents harmful ultraviolet B radiation, which causes skin cancer and threatens plant life, from reaching the ground. The fragile shield is being damaged by chemicals released on Earth. The main chemicals that are depleting stratospheric ozone are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are used in refrigerators, aerosols and as cleaners in many industries and halons, which are used in fire extinguishers. The damage is caused when these chemicals release highly reactive forms of chlorine and bromine. (Source: GILP96 /  WRIGHT)

atmosferische radioactieve neerslag
	English: atmospheric fallout
	English definition: The sedimentation of dust or fine particles from the atmosphere. (Source: LEE)

atmosferische scheikunde
	English: atmospheric chemistry
	English definition: The study of the production, transport, modification, and removal of atmospheric constituents in the troposphere and stratosphere. (Source: MGH)

atmosferische uitstoot
	English: atmospheric emission
	English definition: Suspended pollutants -- solid particles, liquid aerosols, etc. -- or toxic gases released into the atmosphere from a polluting source, or type of source. (Source: ISEP)

atmosferische vochtigheid
	English: atmospheric humidity
	English definition: A measurable quantity of the moisture content found in the earth's atmosphere. (Source: RHW)

atmosferische wetenschappen
	English: atmospheric science
	English definition: The atmospheric sciences study the dynamics, physics and chemistry of atmospheric phenomena and processes, including the interactions of the atmosphere with soil physics, hydrology and oceanic circulation. The research focuses on the following areas: turbulence and convection, atmospheric radiation and remote sensing, aerosol and cloud physics and chemistry, planetary atmospheres, air-sea interactions, climate, and statistical meteorology. (Source: ATS)

	English: atrazine
	English definition: Herbicide belonging to the triazine group, widely employed and particularly in maize crops. It is highly toxic for phytoplancton and freshwater algae and, being highly soluble in water, it easily contaminates aquifers. (Source: RAMADE)

audiovisueel materiaal
	English: audiovisual equipment
	English definition: Equipment designed to aid in learning and teaching by making use of both hearing and sight. (Source: WEBSTE)

audiovisuele media
	English: audiovisual media
	English definition: Any means of communication transmitted to both the sense of hearing and the sense of sight, especially technologies directed to large audiences. (Source: RHW)

audiovisuele voordracht
	English: audio-visual presentation
	English definition: An exhibition, performance, demonstration or lecture utilizing communication media directed at both the sense of sight and the sense of hearing. (Source: RHW)

	English: car tyre
	English definition: A rubber ring placed over the rim of a wheel of a road vehicle to provide traction and reduce road shocks, especially a hollow inflated ring consisting of a reinforced outer casing enclosing an inner tube. (Source: CED)

	English: bus
	English definition: A large, long-bodied motor vehicle equipped with seating for passengers, usually operating as part of a scheduled service.

	English: digester
	English definition: Machine which takes refuse and produces gas such as methane from it. (Source: PHC)

	English: autoecology
	English definition: That part of ecology which deals with individual species and their reactions to environmental factors. (Source: UNUN)

	English: vehicle manufacturing industry
	English definition: A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the manufacture and sale of equipment that conveys people, goods or materials by land, air or water. (Source: SIC)

	English: automobile industry

automatische herkenning
	English: automatic detection
	English definition: The processing, discovery and identification of data elements by automated means. (Source: RHW)

	English: motorway
	English definition: A wide road built for fast moving traffic travelling long distances, with a limited number of points at which drivers can enter and leave it. (Source: CAMB)

	English: scrap vehicle
	English definition: Car which is delivered for breaking up or otherwise discarded.

	English: aviculture
	English definition: The raising, keeping, and care of birds. (Source: AMHER)

	English: avifauna
	English definition: All the birds in a particular region. (Source: CED)

	English: Asia
	English definition: The world's largest continent. It occupies the eastern part of the Eurasian landmass and its adjacent islands and is separated from Europe by the Ural Mountains. Asia borders on the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean and Red Seas in the west. It includes the largest peninsulas of Asia Minor, India, Arabia, and Indochina and the island groups of Japan, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Ceylon; contains the mountain ranges of the Hindu Kush, Himalayas, Pamirs, Tian Shan, Urals, and Caucasus, the great plateaus of India, Iran and Tibet, vast plains and deserts, and the valleys of many large rivers including the Mekong, Irrawaddy, Indus, Ganges, Tigris and Euphrates. (Source: AMHER /  CED)

	English: bay
	English definition: An open, curving indentation made by the sea or a lake into a coastline. (Source: WHIT)

	English: gulf
	English definition: An inlet of the sea of large areal proportions, more indented than a bay and generally more enclosed. (Source: WHIT)

	English: bactericide
	English definition: An agent that destroys bacteria. (Source: LBC)

	English: bacterium
	English definition: Group of single-cell micro-organisms, the smallest of the living organisms. Some are vital to sustain life, while others are responsible for causing highly dangerous human diseases, such as anthrax, tetanus and tuberculosis. Bacteria are found everywhere, in the soil, water and air. (Source: MGH /  WRIGHT)

	English: bacteriology
	English definition: The science and study of bacteria. (Source: MGH)

bacteriologische verontreiniging
	English: bacteriological pollution
	English definition: Contamination of water, soil and air with pathogen bacteria. (Source: RRDA)

badplaats (aan zee)
	English: seaside resort
	English definition: A place near the sea where people spend their holidays and enjoy themselves. (Source: CAMB)

	English: dredging
	English definition: Removing solid matter from the bottom of a water area. (Source: MGH)

	English: dredged material
	English definition: Unconsolidated material removed from rivers, streams, and shallow seas with machines such as the bucket-ladder dredge, dragline dredge, or suction dredge.

	English: oven
	English definition: An enclosed heated compartment usually lined with a refractory material used for drying substances, firing ceramics, heat-treating, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: brick
	English definition: A building material usually made from clay, molded as a rectangular block, and baked or burned in a kiln. (Source: MGH)

balans [economisch]
	English: balance (economic)
	English definition: An equality between the sums total of the two sides of an account, or the excess on either side. (Source: WESTS)

	English: tyre
	English definition: A rubber ring placed over the rim of a wheel of a road vehicle to provide traction and reduce road shocks. (Source: CED)

	English: bank (land)
	English definition: The sloping side of any hollow in the ground, especially when bordering a river. (Source: CED)

	English: bank protection
	English definition: Engineering work which aims at the protection of banks of a river, or slopes of embankments along it, from erosion by the current of flow, from floods, etc. (Source: ECHO1a)

bankwezen [geld]
	English: banking
	English definition: Transactional business between any bank, an institution for safeguarding, exchanging, receiving and lending money, and that bank's clients or customers. (Source: OED /  RHW)

	English: barium
	English definition: A soft silvery-white metallic element of the alkaline earth group. It is used in bearing alloys and compounds are used as pigments. (Source: CED)

	English: barrier reef
	English definition: An elongated accumulation of coral lying at low-tide level parallel to the coast but separated from it by a wide and deep lagoon or strait. The coral is thought to have formed initially on a flat surface: then as the sea-level rose in post-glacial times, thereby submerging the irregular wave-cut platform, the coral growth kept pace with the rising ocean level, so creating the great thickness witnessed today in such places as the Great Barrier Reef off the East coast of Queensland, Australia. This stretches for more than 1900 km and varies in width from about 30 km to 150 km. (Source: WHIT)

base [chemische stof]
	English: base (chemical)
	English definition: Any chemical species, ionic or molecular, capable of accepting or receiving a proton (hydrogen ion) from another substance; the other substance acts as an acid in giving of the proton; the other ion is a base. (Source: MGH)

	English: basicity
	English definition: The state of a solution of containing an excess of hydroxyl ions. (Source: RRDA)

	English: basidiomycete

	English: subsidiary principle
	English definition: The fundamental doctrine or tenet that policy making decisions should be made at the most decentralized level, in which a centralized governing body would not take action unless it it is more effective than action taken at a lower government level. (Source: ODE)

basisbehoefte aan voedsel
	English: basic food requirement
	English definition: The minimum nutriments deemed necessary for a person of a particular age, gender, physiological condition and activity level to sustain life, health and growth. (Source: PAJ)

	English: staple food
	English definition: The most commonly or regularly eaten food in a country or community and which forms the mainstay of the total calorie supply, especially in the poorer populations and at times of food shortage. (Source: GUNN)

	English: battery
	English definition: A series of cells, each containing the essentials for producing voltaic electricity, connected together. (Source: CEDa)

	English: battery disposal

bebouwde kom
	English: built-up area
	English definition: Area which is full of houses, shops, offices and other buildings, with very little open space. (Source: PHC)

bebouwde omgeving
	English: built environment
	English definition: That part of the physical surroundings which are people-made or people-organized, such as buildings and other major structures, roads, bridges and the like, down to lesser objects such as traffic lights, telephone and pillar boxes. (Source: GOOD)

bedektbloemige planten
	English: cryptogam
	English definition: A large group of plants, comprising the Thallophyta, Bryophyta and Pteridophyta, the last of which are cryptogams. (Source: ALL)

	English: angiosperm
	English definition: The class of seed plants that includes all the flowering plants, characterized by the possession of flowers. The ovules, which become seeds after fertilization, are enclosed in ovaries. The xylem contains true vessels. The angiospermae are divided into two subclasses: Monocotyledoneae and Dycotiledoneae. (Source: ALL)

bederfwerend middel
	English: preservative
	English definition: A chemical added to foodstuffs to prevent oxidation, fermentation or other deterioration, usually by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. (Source: MGH)

bedreigde diersoorten
	English: endangered animal species
	English definition: Animals, birds, fish or other living organisms threatened with extinction by natural or human-induced changes in their environment. (Source: TOE)

bedreigde plantensoorten
	English: endangered plant species
	English definition: The plants threatened with extinction by human or natural changes in the environment. (Source: KOREN)

bedreigde soorten
	English: category of endangered species
	English definition: Those of the planet's flora and fauna which are threatened with extinction. Hunting and poaching to fuel the trade in ivory, horn, skins, fur and feathers have long been a threat to already endangered species. Pollution, agricultural expansion, loss of wetlands, deforestation and other erosion of habitats have been added to the hazards. Human activity was responsible for most of the animals and plants known to have been lost in the past two centuries. (Source: WRIGHT)

bedreigde soorten
	English: endangered species  (IUCN)
	English definition: One of the three degrees of 'rarity' drawn up by the International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources. All plants and animals in these categories need special protection. Endangered species are those species in danger of extinction unless steps are taken to change the cause of threat and decline. (Source: BRACK)

bedreiging van water
	English: water endangering
	English definition: Can be caused by a variety of means, e.g. farm pollution from animal wastes and silage liquor (liquors from green leaf cattle food which has had molasses added to promote fermentation and preservation; they are highly polluting and can be a seasonal cause of fish deaths in small streams), leachate from landfill sites, and spoil heaps, solvent discharge to sewers or to land and inadequate sewage treatment works. (Source: PORT)

	English: business classification
	English definition: The categorization of enterprises or organizations involved in an economy. (Source: ISEP)

	English: business economics
	English definition: The art of purchasing and selling goods from an economics perspective or a perspective involving the scientific study of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. (Source: RHW)

	English: occupational medicine
	English definition: The branch of medicine which deals with the relationship of humans to their occupations, for the purpose of the prevention of disease and injury and the promotion of optimal health, productivity, and social adjustment. (Source: MGH)

	English: occupational health
	English definition: An area of statutory duty imposed on employers and employees in most countries, for the protection of the workforce from occupational diseases and stresses and physical hazards through adequate planning, ventilation, lighting, safeguards, safety and emergency procedures, routine inspections, monitoring, personal protection, etc. (Source: GILP96)

	English: occupational health care

	English: size of business

	English: commercial noise
	English definition: Noise emitted from commercial activities.

	English: work accident
	English definition: Accident occurring in the course of the employment and caused by inherent or related factors arising from the operation of materials of one's occupation. (Source: KOREN)

	English: business organisation
	English definition: A particular legal arrangement for owning a firm, the principal forms are sale trades, partnerships and companies/corporations; collective term for the system, function, process of planning, providing, coordinating, directing all efforts and resources in a business in order to achieve its goals.

	English: branch of activity
	English definition: A specialized division of a business or other organization. (Source: RRDA)

	English: craft industry

	English: occupational safety
	English definition: An area of statutory duty imposed on employers and employees in most countries, for the protection of the workforce from occupational disease and stresses and physical hazards through appropriate measures. (Source: GILP96)

	English: occupational safety regulation
	English definition: Law enacted to reduce the incidence among workers of personal injuries, illnesses, and deaths resulting from employment. (Source: BLACKa)

	English: commercial vehicle
	English definition: Vehicle designed and equipped for the transportation of goods. (Source: RRDA)

bedwinging (kernindustrie)
	English: containment (nuclear industry)
	English definition: The reinforced steel or concrete vessel that encloses a nuclear reactor. It is designed to withstand minor explosions in the core, to keep radionuclides from escaping into the environment, and to be safe against terrorist attack. (Source: WRIGHT)

beeindiging van een dienstverband
	English: termination of employment
	English definition: The act or instrument by which the binding force of a contract is terminated, irrespective of whether the contract is carried out to the full extent contemplated or is broken off before complete execution. (Source: WESTS)

	English: brook
	English definition: A small stream or rivulet, commonly swiftly flowing in rugged terrain, of lesser length and volume than a creek; especially a stream that issues directly from the ground, as from a spring or seep, or that is produced by heavy rainfall or melting snow. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: image classification
	English definition: Processing techniques which apply quantitative methods to the values in a digital yield or remotely sensed scene to group pixels with similar digital number values into feature classes or categories. (Source: DYNAMO)

beeldclassificatie onder toezicht
	English: supervised image classification
	English definition: A graphical representation processing technique by which an analyst selects groups of pixels, determines their spectral response signature and trains a computer system to recognize pixels based on this spectral response pattern. (Source: TWS)

beeldclassificatie zonder toezicht
	English: unsupervised image classification
	English definition: Unsupervised classification is a kind of classification which takes place with minimum input from the operator; no training sample is available and subdivision of the feature space is achieved by identifying natural groupings of the measurement vectors. (Source: GEOG /  YOUNG)

	English: image registration
	English definition: The process of linking map coordinates to control points with known earth-surface coordinates. Related term: coordinate systems. (Source: FORUMT)

	English: pixel
	English definition: A contraction of the words 'picture element'. The smallest unit of information in an image or raster map. Referred to as a resolution cell in an image or grid. (Source: JEFF)

	English: image enhancement
	English definition: In remote sensing, the filtering of data and other processes to manipulate pixels to produce an image that accentuates features of interest or visual interpretation. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: image processing
	English definition: The process of converting 'raw' remotely sensed data into a usable form through the application of various transformations such as supervised and unsupervised classification schemes. (Source: FORUMT)

	English: glaze
	English definition: A coating of ice, generally clear and smooth but usually containing some air pockets, formed on exposed objects by the freezing of a film of supercooled water deposited by rain, drizzle, or fog, or possibly condensed from supercooled water vapour. (Source: MGH)

	English: grazing
	English definition: The vegetation on pastures that is available for livestock to feed upon. (Source: CED)

	English: budget
	English definition: A balance sheet or statement of estimated receipts and expenditures. A plan for the coordination of resource and expenditures. The amount of money that is available for, required for, or assigned to a particular purpose. (Source: WESTS)

	English: budget policy
	English definition: The programmatic use of a government's spending and revenue-generating activities to influence the economy and achieve specific objectives. (Source: MGHME)

behandeling van gassen
	English: treatment of gases
	English definition: Gas is treated before it can be supplied to the marketplace. The extent to which gas needs to be processed will depend on its quality, the amount of associated impurities such as water, carbon dioxide and sulphur compounds, and the ultimate end-use for the gas. Common gaseous impurities found in natural gas are carbon dioxide and sulphur compounds. Both have an acidic reaction and are given the generic name 'acid gases'. These gases can be removed by a number of commercial processes, using either a physical or a chemical solvent. Physical solvent processes tend to be used where gas pressures are high and for gases with lower levels of propane and heavier hydrocarbons. (Source: SHELL)

	English: management
	English definition: Government, control, superintendence, physical or manual handling or guidance; act of managing by direction or regulation, or administration, as management of family, or of household, etc. (Source: BLACK)

beheer van (menselijke) vestigingen
	English: human settlement management

beheer van (natuurlijke) hulpbronnen
	English: resources management
	English definition: A conscious process of decision-making whereby natural and cultural resources are allocated over time and space to optimize the attainment of stated objectives of a society, within the framework of its technology, political and social institutions, and legal and administrative arrangements. An important objective is the conservation of resources, implying a close and integrated relationship between the ecological basis and the socio-economic system. (Source: GOOD)

beheer van aandelenkapitaal
	English: stock management
	English definition: The handling or controlling of accumulated materials or stored goods. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

beheer van de waterbronnen
	English: water resources management
	English definition: Measures and activities concerning the supply of water, the improvement of efficiency in its use, the reduction of losses and waste, water-saving practices to reduce costs and to slow the depletion of the water supply to ensure future water availability. (Source: EARTH1a)

beheer van de waterhoeveelheid
	English: water quantity management
	English definition: The administration or handling of the amount of available potable water. (Source: RHW)

beheer van een afwateringsgebied
	English: watershed management
	English definition: Use, regulation and treatment of water and land resources of a watershed to accomplish stated objectives. (Source: LANDY)

beheer van toeristische activiteiten
	English: touristic activity management
	English definition: The administration, promotion, organization and planning for the business or industry of providing information, transportation, entertainment, accommodations and other services to travelers or visitors. (Source: RHW)

beheersing van de woestijnvorming
	English: desertification control
	English definition: Remedial and preventive actions adopted against desertification include irrigation, planting of trees and grasses, the erection of fences to secure sand dunes, and a careful management of water resources. (Source: WRIGHT)

beheersing van het verkeerslawaai
	English: traffic noise control
	English definition: Traffic noise can be controlled by reduction at source, by fitting motor vehicles with silencers, by installing barriers which interrupt the direct path of sound or by insulating dwellings exposed to high noise levels, such as those related to motorways or airports. (Source: GRAHAWa)

beheersing van milieuverontreiniging
	English: pollution control
	English definition: Chemical and physical methods to lessen discharges of most pollutants; for carbon dioxide there is, at present, no economic or practical way to reduce the quantities discharged except by reduced fossil fuel usage. Most specific means for removing pollutants from emissions include flue-gas desulphurisation, fluidised combustion, catalytic converters and the redesign of equipment, such as furnace burners and car engines, to lessen the production of pollutants. (Source: BRACK)

	English: control measure

	English: management plan
	English definition: A program of action designed to reach a given set of objectives. (Source: LANDY)

beheerste verbranding
	English: controlled burning
	English definition: The planned use of carefully controlled fire to accomplish predetermined management goals. The burn is set under a combination of weather, fuel moisture, soil moisture, and fuel arrangement conditions that allow the management objectives to be attained, and yet confine the fire to the planned area. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: management technique
	English definition: systematic approach or method of performance for the accomplishment of administrative goals or tasks. (Source: RHW)

	English: need
	English definition: The fact or an instance of feeling the lack of something. (Source: CED)

behoorlijk bestuur
	English: good management
	English definition: The competent, skillful and successful process of planning, leading and working toward the accomplishment or completion of goals, objectives and mission of an organization or institution. (Source: DAM)

	English: conservation

behoud van (natuurlijke) hulpbronnen
	English: resource conservation
	English definition: Reduction of overall resource consumption and utilization of recovered resources in order to avoid waste. (Source: KOREN)

behoud van in het wild levende planten en dieren
	English: wildlife conservation
	English definition: A series of measures required to maintain or restore the natural habitats and the populations of species of wild fauna and flora at a favourable status. (Source: ECHO1)

behoud van natuurlijke hulpbronnen
	English: natural resource conservation
	English definition: The management of living and non-living resources in such a way as to sustain the maximum benefit for present and future generations. (Source: GILP96)

	English: elderly person
	English definition: Someone who has reached the later stage of life or who has attained a specified age within that stage. (Source: RHW)

	English: notice
	English definition: Factual information, advice or a written warning communicated to a person by an authorized source, often conveyed because of a legal or administrative rule requiring transmission of such information to all concerned parties. (Source: BLD)

bekendmaking van algemeen nut
	English: declaration of public utility
	English definition: Administrative Act giving the right to take private property for public use. (Source: BLACKa)

	English: liner material
	English definition: A layer of synthetic or natural materials, on the sides of or beneath a landfill, landfill cell or surface impoundment, that restricts the downward or lateral escape of liquids carrying leachate into the surrounding environment. (Source: ERG / ISEP)

	English: homologation
	English definition: The approval given by the judge of certain acts and agreements for the purpose of rendering them more binding and executory. (Source: WESTS)

	English: interest
	English definition: A sum paid or charged for the use of money or for borrowing money over a given time period. (Source: RHW)

	English: balancing of interests
	English definition: Considering, weighing or counterbalancing the competing political or financial concerns of different parts of society, including industries, consumers, trade unions and other groups or organizations. (Source: OED / ISEP)

	English: conflict of interests
	English definition: Clash between public interest and the private pecuniary interest of the individual concerned. A situation in which regard for one duty tends to lead to disregard of another. (Source: BLACK)

	English: interest group
	English definition: A group of people who share common traits, attitudes, beliefs or objectives and who have formed a formal organization to serve specific concerns of the membership. (Source: AUB)

	English: pressure group
	English definition: Any politically active group with a common set of values about resource use allocation. Pressure groups seek to influence decisions on resource use allocation in excess of their proportional representation in the planned-for populace by seeking preferential consideration for their resource use choices. (Source: LANDY)

belangrijk bestanddeel van het ecosysteem
	English: valued ecosystem component
	English definition: An appraised, evaluated or estimated element or ingredient of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings. (Source: TOE)

	English: tax
	English definition: An amount of money demanded by a government for its support or for specific facilities or services, most frequently levied upon income, property or sales. (Source: RHW)

belasting (heffen op)
	English: taxation
	English definition: The act or result of a government requiring money for its support or for specific facilities or services. (Source: RHW)

	English: taxation policy
	English definition: The use of government tax and spendingpolicies to achieve desired macroeconomic goals. Accordingly, they involve discretionary efforts to adjust governmental tax and spending to induce changes in economic incentives and, hence, to stabilize fluctuations in aggregate demand. (Source: INDEDU)

	English: tax system
	English definition: A co-ordinated body of methods or plan of procedures for levying compulsory charges for the purpose of raising revenue. (Source: ISEP /  EFP)

	English: tax law
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government stipulating the sum of money and manner of collection it demands for governmental support, facilities and services, usually levied upon income, property, sales or other financial resources. (Source: RHW / BLD)

	English: policy

beleid inzake natuurbehoud
	English: nature conservation policy

beleid van de plaatselijke overheid
	English: local government policy
	English definition: Any course of action adopted and pursued by a ruling political authority or system, which determines the affairs for a city, town, county or regional area. (Source: RHW)

beleid voor radio-actief afval
	English: radioactive waste management
	English definition: The total supervision of the production, handling, processing, storage and transport of materials that contain radioactive nuclides and for which use, reuse or recovery are impractical. (Source: EIS / HMH)

beleid waarbij men wordt verplicht overschrijdingen van uitstootmaxima elders te compenseren
	English: offset policy (emissions trading)
	English definition: Policy whereby emissions from a proposed new or modified stationary source are balanced by reductions from existing sources to stabilise total emissions. (Source: EPAGLO)

	English: policy instrument
	English definition: The method or mechanism used by government, political parties, business or individuals to achieve a desired effect, through legal or economic means. (Source: RHW)

	English: policy integration
	English definition: The process of coordinating, harmonizing and unifying the goals and procedures of various offices or units of an organization. (Source: RHW)

	English: policy planning
	English definition: The process of making arrangements or preparations to facilitate any course of action that may be adopted and pursued by government, business or some other organization. (Source: RHW)

	English: policy guideline

	English: aeration
	English definition: Exposition to the action of air. (Source: MGH)

bemonstering milieuverontreiniging
	English: pollution monitoring
	English definition: The quantitative or qualitative measure of the presence, effect or level of any polluting substance in air, water or soil. (Source: GILP96)

	English: approach
	English definition: The way or means of entry or access. (Source: CEDa)

	English: benzene
	English definition: A colorless, liquid, flammable, aromatic hydrocarbon used to manufacture styrene and phenol. Also known as benzol. (Source: MGH)

	English: petrol
	English definition: A fuel for internal combustion engines consisting essentially of volatile flammable liquid hydrocarbons; derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, catalytic cracking, and alkilation. (Source: MGH)

	English: gasoline engine
	English definition: An internal combustion engine that uses a mixture of air and gasoline vapour as a fuel. (Source: MGH)

	English: benzopyrene
	English definition: A five-ring aromatic hydrocarbon found in coal tar, in cigarette smoke, and as a product of incomplete combustion. (Source: MGH)

beoordeling per sector
	English: sectoral assessment

bepaling van natuurlijk erfgoed
	English: natural heritage assessment
	English definition: Evaluation of the natural structures, resources and landscapes to ensure their careful management and preservation. (Source: GILP96a)

bepaling van vervuilende stoffen
	English: identification of pollutants
	English definition: The determination of the specific substance or substances that are causing pollution. (Source: RHW)

	English: determination method
	English definition: Method employed in the assessment or in the evaluation of a quantity, a quality, a fact, an event, etc. (Source: ZINZANa)

bereidheid tot betalen
	English: willingness-to-pay

	English: calculation
	English definition: The act, process or result of calculating. (Source: CED)

	English: calculation method

	English: mountain
	English definition: A feature of the earth's surface that rises high above the base and has generally steep slopes and a relatively small summit area. Mountains are an important source of water, energy, minerals, forest and agricultural products, and recreation. They are storehouses of biological diversity and endangered species and an essential part of the global ecosystem. About 10% of the world's population depend on mountain resources and nearly half of these people are affected by the degradation of mountain watershed areas. (Source: MGH /  WRIGHT)

	English: mountain management

	English: mountain protection

	English: mountain forest
	English definition: An extensive area of woodland that is found at natural elevations usually higher than 2000 feet. (Source: RHW)

	English: mountainous area
	English definition: Area characterized by conspicuous peaks, ridges, or mountain ranges. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: mountain refuge
	English definition: Any shelter or protection from distress or danger located in a predominantly mountainous area. (Source: RHW)

	English: salvage
	English definition: The act, process, or business of rescuing vessels or their cargoes from loss at sea. (Source: CED)

	English: mountain range
	English definition: A single, large mass consisting of a succession of mountains or narrowly spaced mountain ridges, with or without peaks, closely related in position, direction, formation, and age. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: mountain climate
	English definition: Very generally, the climate of relatively high elevations; mountain climates are distinguished by the departure of their characteristics from those of surrounding lowlands, and the one common basis for this distinction is that of atmospheric rarefaction; aside from this, great variety is introduced by differences in latitude, elevation, and exposure to the sun; thus, there exists no single, clearly defined, mountain climate. Also known as highland climate. (Source: MGH)

	English: mountaineering

	English: appeal
	English definition: Resort to a superior court to review the decision of an inferior court or administrative agency. (Source: BLACK)

	English: occupation

beroep in de gezondheidszorg
	English: health care profession

	English: labour force

	English: market gardening
	English definition: The business of growing fruit and vegetables on a commercial scale. (Source: CED)

	English: occupational group
	English definition: A collection of people who earn their living by similar or identical means of work. (Source: RHW)

	English: professional society
	English definition: A group of persons engaged in the same profession, business, trade or craft that is organized or formally structured to attain common ends. (Source: RHW)

	English: vocational training
	English definition: A special training for a regular occupation or profession, especially, one for which one is specially suited or qualified.

	English: appeal procedure
	English definition: Procedure through which it is possible to resort to a superior court to review the decision of an inferior court. (Source: BLACKa)

	English: occupational status

	English: commercial fishery
	English definition: Such fisheries belong to one of two groups: one catching demersal (bottom-living) fish, e.g. cod, haddock, plaice, sole; the other catching pelagic (surface-living) fish, e.g. anchovy, tuna, herring. (Source: GOOD)

	English: occupational disease
	English definition: A functional or organic disease caused by factors arising from the operations or materials of an individual's industry, trade, or occupation. (Source: MGH)

	English: beryllium
	English definition: A corrosion-resistant, toxic silvery-white metallic element that occurs chiefly in beryl and is used mainly in x-ray windows and in the manufacture of alloys. (Source: CED)

	English: culture (society)
	English definition: The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits constituting a distinct complex of tradition of a racial or social group. (Source: WEBSTE)

beschermd estuarium
	English: estuarine conservation area
	English definition: Estuarine area which has been reserved by legislation to protect part or all of the enclosed environment for conservation, scientific, educational and/or recreational purposes. (Source: ENVAUa)

beschermd gebied
	English: protected area
	English definition: Portions of land protected by special restrictions and laws for the conservation of the natural environment. They include large tracts of land set aside for the protection of wildlife and its habitat; areas of great natural beauty or unique interest; areas containing rare forms of plant and animal life; areas representing unusual geologic formation; places of historic and prehistoric interest; areas containing ecosystems of special importance for scientific investigation and study; and areas which safeguard the needs of the biosphere. (Source: DODERO /  WPR)

beschermd landschap
	English: landscape protection area
	English definition: Area where landscape is protected for its particular features in order to maintain its role in contributing to the wider enjoyment of the countryside. (Source: RRDA)

beschermd landschap
	English: protected landscape
	English definition: Natural or man-made areas which have been reserved for conservation, scientific, educational and/or recreational purposes. (Source: RRDA)

beschermd marien gebied
	English: protected marine zone
	English definition: Sea area where marine wildlife is protected. (Source: PHC)

beschermd stroomgebied
	English: water protection area
	English definition: Area surrounding a water recovery plant in which certain forms of soil utilization are restricted or prohibited in order to protect the groundwater. (Source: AZENP)

beschermd zeegebied
	English: marine conservation area
	English definition: Any section of a sea or ocean designated for special protection, often to prevent or reduce harm to its wildlife and ecosystems. (Source: RHW)

beschermde soorten
	English: protected species
	English definition: Threatened, vulnerable or endangered species which are protected from extinction by preventive measures. (Source: RAMADE)

	English: protection
	English definition: The act of defending from trouble, harm, attack, etc. (Source: CED)

bescherming genetisch materiaal
	English: conservation of genetic resources
	English definition: Controlled utilization, protection and development of the gene pool of natural and cultivated organisms to ensure variety and variability and for current and potential value to human welfare. (Source: TOE / ISEP)

bescherming soorten
	English: conservation of species
	English definition: Controlled utilization, protection or development of selected classes of plants or animals for their richness, biodiversity and benefits to humanity. (Source: TOE / EEN)

bescherming tegen buren
	English: protection from neighbours

bescherming tegen lawaaihinder
	English: noise protection
	English definition: Adoption of measures for controlling noise pollution, such as restriction of the emission of noise from industrial, commercial and domestic premises, from motor vehicles and aircrafts, the provision of noise barriers and buffer zones, the fitting of sound attenuation equipment, etc. (Source: CONFERa /  GILP96a)

bescherming tegen lawines
	English: avalanche protection
	English definition: The total of measures and devices implemented to protect people, property or natural resources from avalanche conditions, including avalanche forecasting and warning, avalanche zoning, ski testing and the use of explosives and other equipment to stabilize an avalanche area. (Source: ALL / AVA)

bescherming tegen overstroming
	English: flood protection
	English definition: Precautionary measures, equipment or structures implemented to guard or defend people, property and lands from an unusual accumulation of water above the ground. (Source: ALL / WWC)

bescherming van de aardoliebronnen
	English: conservation of petroleum resources
	English definition: Controlled utilization, protection and development of  exploited and potentially exploitable sources of crude oil to meet current demand and ensure future requirements. (Source: MHE)

bescherming van de milieuhygiene
	English: environmental health protection
	English definition: Measures or devices designed to reduce the risk of harm to human health posed by pollutants or other threatening conditions in the ecosystem. (Source: TOE)

bescherming van de zeerijkdommen
	English: marine resources conservation

bescherming van een stroomgebied
	English: water catchment protection
	English definition: Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm to the environmental integrity of drainage areas used to catch water, such as reservoirs or basins. (Source: RHW)

bescherming van in het wild levende planten en dieren
	English: wildlife protection
	English definition: Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm to animals, plants and other organisms living in their natural state. (Source: RHW)

bescherming van natuurgebieden
	English: natural areas protection
	English definition: Active management of nature areas in order to ensure that wildlife is protected and the quality of its environment is maintained. (Source: PHCa)

bescherming van zeewater
	English: sea water protection

	English: protective measure
	English definition: Any precautionary action, procedure or installation conceived or undertaken to guard or defend from harm persons, property or the environment. (Source: RHW)

	English: protection system
	English definition: A series of procedures and devices designed to preserve people, property or the environment from injury or harm. (Source: RHW)

	English: decree
	English definition: A declaration of the court announcing the legal consequences of the facts found. (Source: BLACK)

	English: sequestration
	English definition: 1) A legal term referring generally to the act of valuable property being taken into custody by an agent of the court and locked away for safekeeping, usually to prevent the property from being disposed of or abused before a dispute over its ownership can be resolved.2) The taking of someone's property, voluntarily (by deposit) or involuntarily (by seizure), by court officers or into the possession of a third party, awaiting the outcome of a trial in which ownership of that property is at issue. (Source: DUC /  EMBMO)

beslaglegging op de winst
	English: seizure of profits
	English definition: The official or legally authorized act of taking away monetary gain or surplus resulting from investments or property or from returns, proceeds or revenue in a business or business transaction. (Source: RHW)

	English: decision
	English definition: Means the exercise of agency authority at any stage of an undertaking where alterations might be made in the undertaking to modify its impact upon historic and cultural properties. (Source: LANDY)

beslissingsondersteunend systeem
	English: decision-support system
	English definition: A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources that analyzes, typically, business data and presents it so that users can make business decisions more easily. (Source: WIC)

	English: resolution (act)
	English definition: A formal expression of the opinion of an official body or a public assembly, adopted by vote, as a legislative resolution. (Source: BLACK)

	English: decision making support

	English: decision process

besmettelijke ziekte
	English: infectious disease
	English definition: Pathogenic condition resulting from invasion of an host by a pathogen that propagates causing infection. (Source: KOREN)

besmetting van gewassen
	English: infestation of crops
	English definition: Invasion of crop by parasites. Among vertebrate animals, many crop pests are mammals, especially in the order of rodents and birds. Among invertebrates, certain species of gastropods and a large number of roundworms from the class of nematodes harm crops. The most varied and numerous species of crop pests are arthropods-insects, arachnids and some species of millipedes and crustaceans. Diseases vary from viral, bacterial, and nutritional to fungal, environmental and non-specific. The FAO has estimated that annual worldwide losses done by plant pests and diseases amount to approximately 20-25% of the potential worldwide yield of food crops. (Source: RRDA /  WPR)

	English: saving
	English definition: The amount of current income which is not spent for survival or enjoyment. (Source: MGHME)

bestaande chemicalieen
	English: existing chemical
	English definition: Chemical products existing before 18-09-1981. (Source: RRDA)

	English: expenditure
	English definition: Spending by consumers, investors, or government for goods or services. (Source: ISEP /  ODE)

	English: allocation
	English definition: The assignment or allotment of resources to various uses in accord with a stated goal or policy. (Source: ODE)

	English: allocation plan
	English definition: The formulation and application of such measures as laws, economic plans, urbanism, etc., to ensure a balance between the population's needs and the country's resources. (Source: ECHO2)

	English: irradiation
	English definition: To subject to or treat with light or other electromagnetic radiation or with beams of particles. (Source: CED)

bestrijding (van plagen)
	English: pest control
	English definition: Keeping down the number of pests by killing them or preventing them from attacking. (Source: PHC)

bestrijding van (milieu)verontreiniging
	English: pollution abatement
	English definition: The reduction in degree or intensity of pollution in soil, rivers, lakes, seas, atmosphere, etc. (Source: PHC /  LANDY)

	English: pesticide
	English definition: A general term for chemical agents that are used in order to kill unwanted plants, animals pests or disease-causing fungi, and embracing insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, nematicides, etc. Some pesticides have had widespread disruptive effects among non-target species. (Source: ALL)

	English: operating data
	English definition: Data referring to the practical carrying-out of a process. (Source: ZINZANa)

	English: administration
	English definition: The management or direction of the affairs of a public or private office, business or organization. (Source: RHW)

bestuurlijke administratie
	English: management accounting
	English definition: The collection and processing of financial information to assist with the handling, direction, or control of an organization. (Source: ODE / RHW)

bestuurlijke goedkeuring
	English: administrative fiat
	English definition: An authoritative decree, sanction or order issued from an office with executive or managerial authority, without necessarily having the force of law or its equivalent. (Source: RHW / BLD)

bestuurlijke grens
	English: administrative boundary
	English definition: A limit or border of a geographic area under the jurisdiction of some governmental or managerial entity. (Source: RHW)

	English: administrative competence
	English definition: The skill, knowledge, qualification, capacity or authority to manage or direct the affairs of a public or private office, business or organization. (Source: RHW)

	English: administrative body
	English definition: Any governmental agency or organization charged with managing and implementing regulations, laws and government policies. (Source: BLD)

	English: management contract
	English definition: A legal agreement between two or more parties of employers and workers that outlines the administrative or supervisory work that is expected in exchange for certain payments and working conditions. (Source: ODE)

betaalbare huisvesting
	English: low-cost housing
	English definition: Residences built at minimal expense and designed to keep the rental rate or price of purchase affordable for persons with limited means, usually determined by an annual income level set below the local median. (Source: NAH)

	English: beta radiation
	English definition: Name given to the ionizing radiation which is produced as a stream of high speed electrons emitted by certain types of radioactive substance when they decay. The intensity of radiation energy produced in human tissue by a beta particle is a hundred times less than that produced by an alpha radiation particle, but it travels slightly deeper into tissue. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: concrete
	English definition: A mixture of aggregate, water, and a binder, usually Portland cement; it hardens to stonelike condition when dry. (Source: MGH)

	English: concrete products industry

	English: reliability
	English definition: The likelihood that an instrument, device or process will function properly under defined conditions for a specified period of time. (Source: QAG)

beveiliging van gebouwen tegen seismische activiteit
	English: seismic engineering
	English definition: The study of the behavior of foundations and structures relative to seismic ground motion, and the attempt to mitigate the effect of earthquakes on structures. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: safety system
	English definition: A unified, coordinated assemblage or plan of procedures and devices intended to lower the occurrence or risk of injury, loss and danger to persons, property or the environment. (Source: OED / RHW)

	English: irrigation
	English definition: 1) To supply land with water so that crops and plants will grow or grow stronger. (Source: CAMB /  WRIGHT)

	English: irrigation canal
	English definition: A permanent irrigation conduit constructed to convey water from the source of supply to one or more farms. (Source: NALMS)

	English: irrigation farming
	English definition: Farming based on the artificial distribution and application of water to arable land to initiate and maintain plant growth. (Source: GOODa)

	English: irrigation system
	English definition: A system of man-made channels for supplying water to land to allow plants to grow. (Source: PHC)

	English: certification
	English definition: The formal assertion in writing of some fact. (Source: BLACK)

	English: human population
	English definition: Group of individuals having common characteristics. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: population dynamics
	English definition: The process of numerical and structural change within populations resulting from births, deaths, and movements. (Source: LANDY)

	English: population density
	English definition: The number of people relative to the space occupied by them. (Source: GOOD)

	English: population growth
	English definition: An increase in the total number of inhabitants of a country, city, district or area. (Source: RHW)

	English: population movement
	English definition: Any shift or migration of a statistically significant number of persons inhabiting a country, district or area. (Source: RHW)

	English: population distribution
	English definition: The density, dispersal pattern and apportionment of the total number of persons in any area. (Source: RHW / EEN)

	English: population structure
	English definition: The organization of, and inter-relationships among, inhabitants of a given region, country or city. (Source: RHW)

	English: population trend
	English definition: The direction of change in the total number of persons inhabiting a country, city, district or area. (Source: RHW / WMA)

bevordering van de (volks)gezondheid
	English: sanitation
	English definition: The study and use of practical measures for the preservation of public health. (Source: CED)

bevordering van het zakenleven
	English: promotion of trade and industry
	English definition: Any activity that encourages or supports the buying, selling or exchanging of goods or services with other countries, which could include marketing, diplomatic pressure or the provision of export incentives such as credits and guarantees, government subsidies, training and consultation or advice. (Source: ODE)

beweeglijkheid door de ruimte
	English: spatial mobility
	English definition: The rate of moves or migrations made by a given population within a given time frame. (Source: CEN)

	English: inhabitant
	English definition: A person occupying a region, town, house, country, etc.

	English: public awareness campaign
	English definition: An organized, systematic effort through various communications media to alert the general population of a given area to anything of significant interest or concern. (Source: RHW)

	English: sedimentation (industrial process)
	English definition: The separation of an insoluble solid from a liquid in which it is suspended by settling under the influence of gravity or centrifugation. (Source: MGH)

bezinking van afvalwater in een bekken
	English: lagooning
	English definition: The process in which sunlight, bacterial action and oxygen cause self-purification in waste water, Usually taking place in a shallow pond, or system of such ponds. (Source: TOEa)

	English: settling tank
	English definition: A tank into which a two-phase mixture is fed and the entrained solids settle by gravity during storage. (Source: MGH)

	English: stabilisation lagoon
	English definition: Ponds in which wastes are allowed to decompose over long periods of time and aeration is provided only by wind action. Sunlight is allowed to fall on sewage to purify it. (Source: PARCOR /  PHC)

	English: objection
	English definition: The act of a party who objects to some matter or proceeding in the course of a trial or an argument or reason urged by him in support of his contention that the matter or proceeding objected to is improper or illegal. (Source: BLACK)

	English: bibliography
	English definition: A complete or selective listing of documents by a given subject, author or publisher, often including the description and identification of the editions, dates of issue, titles, authorship, publishers or other written materials. (Source: RHW / ISEP)

bibliografische informatie
	English: bibliographic information
	English definition: Data pertaining to the history, physical description, comparison, and classification of books and other works. (Source: RHW)

bibliografische informatiesysteem
	English: bibliographic information system
	English definition: A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources organized for the exchange of data pertaining to the history, physical description, comparison, and classification of books and other works. (Source: RHW)

	English: library
	English definition: Place where books and other literary materials are kept. (Source: CED)

	English: library service
	English definition: The duties of an establishment, or a public institution, charged with the care and organizing of a collection of printed and other materials, and the duty of interpreting such materials to meet the informational, cultural, educational, recreational or research needs of its clients. (Source: OED /  LFS)

	English: bee
	English definition: Any of the membranous-winged insects which compose the superfamily Apoidea in the order Hymenoptera characterized by a hairy body and by sucking and chewing mouthparts. (Source: MGH)

	English: bee conservation
	English definition: The care, preservation and husbandry of hymenopterous insects valued for their ability to pollinate crops and other flora or for their production of honey. (Source: TOE / RHW)

	English: apiculture
	English definition: Large-scale commercial beekeeping. (Source: MGH)

bijkomende lijsten
	English: accessory lists

	English: by-catch
	English definition: Incidental taking of non-commercial species in drift nets, trawling operations and long line fishing; it is responsible for the death of large marine animals and one factor in the threatened extinction of some species. (Source: WPR)

	English: side effect
	English definition: Any secondary effect, especially an undesirable one. (Source: CED)

bijwerkingen van geneesmiddelen
	English: side effects of pharmaceutical drugs

bijzonder afval
	English: special waste
	English definition: Waste which must be handled in a particular manner and for which particular rules apply.

bijzonder industrieel afval
	English: special industrial waste
	English definition: Discarded material produced in any industrial process for which there is no specified mode of disposal. (Source: INW)

bijzondere heffing
	English: exceptional tax
	English definition: Compulsory charges levied by a government unit in special or unique instances for the purpose of raising revenue to pay for services or improvements for the general public benefit. (Source: EFP / RHW)

bijzondere wet
	English: special law
	English definition: One relating to particular persons or things; one made for individual cases or for particular places or districts; one operating upon a selected class, rather than upon the public generally. A law is special when it is different from others of the same general kind or designed for a particular purpose, or limited in range or confined to a prescribed field of action or operation.

bilaterale overeenkomst
	English: bilateral convention
	English definition: An international agreement, especially one dealing with a specific matter, involving two or both sides, factions, or the like. (Source: RRDA)

binding van verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant immobilisation
	English definition: The treatment process used to reduce the solubility of pollutants in order to minimize possible migration or leaching or to prepare for their disposal. (Source: FFD)

	English: sub-national boundary
	English definition: The line demarcating a territory located within the limits of a State. (Source: GOODa)

binnenlands beheersprogramma
	English: national conservation programme

binnenlandse handel
	English: domestic trade
	English definition: Trade wholly carried on at home; as distinguished from foreign commerce. (Source: WESTS)

binnenlandse migratie
	English: internal migration
	English definition: A population shift occurring within national or territorial boundaries, often characterized by persons seeking labor opportunities in more advantageous areas. (Source: ISEP)

	English: indoor environment
	English definition: Environment situated in the inside of a house or other building. (Source: CED)

	English: city centre
	English definition: The central part of a city. (Source: CAMB)

	English: inner city
	English definition: 1) Part of a city at or near the centre, especially a slum area where poor people live in bad housing.2) City centres of many industrialized countries which exhibit environmental degradation. The numerous and highly competitive activities entailing land use overwhelm the limited space and create a situation of overcrowding, functional incompatibility and cultural degradation. Inner city areas have a high level of commercial specialization, a large number of offices and a sizeable daytime population. At the same time, city centres generally remain a sort of ghetto for a permanent, low-income population living in run-down housing and enjoying little in the way of public services and civic amenities. The concentration of service industries inevitably entails the replacement of traditional housing and shops by office blocks, the provision of basic utilities at the expense of civic amenities and the provision of major access roads which eat up urban space. Structures of historic origin are often unable to meet modern requirements and, notwithstanding their value, frequently face demolition. (Source: PHC /  WPR)

	English: inland navigation
	English definition: The navigation of inland waterways, i.e. navigable rivers, canals, sounds, lakes, inlets, etc.

	English: inland fishery
	English definition: Fishing grounds located in lakes, streams, etc. (Source: RRDA)

	English: inland water
	English definition: A lake, river, or other body of water wholly within the boundaries of a state. (Source: MGH)

	English: inland waterways transport
	English definition: Transportation of persons and goods by boats travelling on rivers, channels or lakes. (Source: RRDA)

	English: bioaccumulation
	English definition: 1) The accumulation of pollutants in living organisms by direct adsorption or through food chains. 2) Accumulation by an organism of materials that are not an essential component or nutrient of that organism. Usually it refers to the accumulation of metals, but it can apply to bioaccumulation of persistent synthetic substances such as organochlorine compounds. Many organisms, such as plants, fungi and bacteria, will accumulate metals when grown in solutions containing them. The process can be employed usefully as a purification process to remove toxic heavy metals from waste water and contaminated land. (Source: WRIGHT)

bio-accumulatieve verontreinigende stof
	English: bioaccumulative pollutant
	English definition: Pollutants that become concentrated in living organisms through the consumption of food or water. (Source: KORENa)

	English: bio-availability
	English definition: The extent to which a drug or other substance is taken up by a specific tissue or organ after administration. (Source: ZINZAN /  CEDa)

	English: biocoenosis
	English definition: A community or natural assemblage of organisms; often used as an alternative to ecosystem but strictly is the fauna/flora association excluding physical aspects of the environment. (Source: LBC)

	English: biochemistry
	English definition: The study of chemical substances occurring in living organisms and the reactions and methods for identifying these substances. (Source: MGH)

biochemische methode
	English: biochemical method
	English definition: Method based on the utilisation of a biochemical mechanism, e.g. any chemical reaction or series of reactions, usually enzyme catalysed, which produces a given physiological effect in a living organism. (Source: BIOHW)

biochemische processen
	English: biochemical process
	English definition: Chemical processes occurring in living organisms. (Source: PHCa)

biochemische stoffen
	English: biochemical substance
	English definition: Chemical substances that occur in animals, microorganisms, and plants. (Source: GILP96a)

biochemische zuurstofverbruik
	English: biochemical oxygen demand
	English definition: The amount of oxygen used for biochemical oxidation by a unit volume of water at a given temperature and for a given time. BOD is an index of the degree of organic pollution in water. (Source: LBC)

	English: biocide
	English definition: A diverse group of poisonous substance including preservatives, insecticides, disinfectants and pesticides used for the control of organisms that are harmful to human or animal health or that cause damage to natural or manufactured products. (Source: GRAHAW)

	English: bioclimatology
	English definition: The study of climate in relation to fauna and flora. (Source: LBC)

bioconcentratie factor
	English: bioconcentration factor
	English definition: The quotient of the concentration of a chemical in aquatic organisms at a specific time or during a discrete time period of exposure, divided by the concentration in the surrounding water at the same time or during the same period. (Source: KOREN)

	English: biodiversity
	English definition: 1) Genetic diversity: the variation between individuals and between populations within a species; species diversity: the different types of plants, animals and other life forms within a region; community or ecosystem diversity: the variety of habitats found within an area (grassland, marsh, and woodland for instance.2) An umbrella term to describe collectively the variety and variability of nature. It encompasses three basic levels of organisation in living systems: the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels. Plant and animal species are the most commonly recognized units of biological diversity, thus public concern has been mainly devoted to conserving species diversity. (Source: WRES /  GILP96)

	English: bioethics
	English definition: The study of ethical problems arising from biological research and its applications in such fields as organ transplantation, genetic engineering, or artificial insemination. (Source: CED)

	English: trickling filter
	English definition: A system of secondary sewage treatment which is similar to self-purification action of streams; it is more accurately a biological oxidizing bed; the effluent is placed on the stones in the bed and microorganisms present consume the solids as a food supply. (Source: KOREN)

	English: biofiltration
	English definition: The distribution of settled sewage on a bed of inert granular material through which it is allowed to percolate. In doing so, the effluent is aerated thus allowing aerobic bacteria and fungi to reduce its biochemical oxygen demand. (Source: PORT)

	English: biophysics
	English definition: The hybrid science involving the application of physical principles and methods to study and explain the structures of living organisms and the mechanics of life processes. (Source: MGH)

	English: biogas
	English definition: Gas, rich in methane, which is produced by the fermentation of animal dung, human sewage or crop residues in an air-tight container. It is used as a fuel, to heat stoves, lamps, run small machines and to generate electricity. The residues of biogas production are used as a low-grade organic fertilizer. Biogas fuels do not usually cause any pollution to the atmosphere, and because they come from renewable energy resources they have great potential for future use. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: biogeochemistry

biogeochemische cyclus
	English: biogeochemical cycle
	English definition: Movement of chemical elements in a circular pathway, from organisms to physical environment, back to organisms. The process is termed a nutrient cycle if the elements concerned are trace elements, which are essential to life. A biogeochemical cycle occurs when vegetation decomposes and minerals are incorporated naturally in the humus for future plant growth. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: biogeography
	English definition: The science concerned with the geographical distribution of animal and plant life. (Source: MGH)

biogeografische gebieden
	English: biogeographical region
	English definition: Area of the Earth's surface defined by the species of fauna and flora it contains. (Source: ALL)

	English: biological indicator
	English definition: A species or organism that is used to grade environmental quality or change. (Source: ALL)

	English: biology
	English definition: A division of the natural sciences concerned with the study of life and living organisms. (Source: MGH)

	English: biology

biologie in riviermonding
	English: estuarine biology
	English definition: The scientific study or the characteristic life processes of living organisms found in a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water is measurably diluted with freshwater. (Source: WOR / MHE / APD)

biologisch bosreservaat
	English: forest biological reserve
	English definition: Forest areas which are protected and guarded from deforestation because of the fragility of its ecosystems, and because they provide habitats for hundreds of species of plants and animals. (Source: TOURISa)

biologisch effect
	English: biological effect
	English definition: Biological effects include allergic reactions, respiratory disorders, hypersensitivity diseases and infectious diseases and can be caused by a variety of contaminants and pollutants. (Source: RRDA)

biologisch effect van vervuiling
	English: biological effect of pollution
	English definition: Effects of pollution on living systems. (Source: RRDA)

biologisch erfgoed
	English: biological heritage
	English definition: The inheritance and preservation of the earth's or a particular region's balanced, integrated functionality as a natural habitat, with special concern for the water resources necessary to maintain the ecosystem. (Source: TOE)

biologisch reserve
	English: biological reserve
	English definition: An area of land and/or of water designated as having protected status for purposes of preserving certain biological features. Reserves are managed primarily to safeguard these features and provide opportunities for research into the problems underlying the management of natural sites and of vegetation and animal populations. Regulations are normally imposed controlling public access and disturbance. (Source: GOOD)

biologische (hulp)bronnen
	English: biological resource
	English definition: Wild organisms harvested for subsistence, commerce, or recreation (such as fish, game, timber or furbearers); domesticated organisms raised by agriculture, aquaculture, and silviculture; and ecosystems cropped by livestock. (Source: WPR)

biologische activiteit
	English: biological activity

biologische afvalverwerking
	English: biological waste treatment
	English definition: A generic term applied to processes that use microorganisms to decompose organic wastes either into water, carbon dioxide, and simple inorganic substances, such as aldehydes and acids. The purpose of biological waste treatment is to control either the environment for microorganisms so that their growth and activity are enhanced, and to provide a means for maintaining high concentrations of the microorganisms in contact with the wastes.

biologische afvalwaterverwerking
	English: biological wastewater treatment
	English definition: Types of wastewater treatment in which biochemical or bacterial action is intensified to oxidize and stabilize the unstable organic matter present. Examples of this type of treatment use intermittent sand filters, trickling filters, and activated sludge processes and sludge digestion. (Source: WWC)

biologische analyse
	English: biological analysis
	English definition: The analysis of a substance in order to ascertain its influence on living organisms. (Source: PHCa)

biologische bestrijding
	English: biological pest control
	English definition: Any living organism applied to or introduced into the environment that is intended to function as a pesticide against another organism declared to be a pest. (Source: LEE)

biologische bodem(hulp)bronnen
	English: terrestrial biological resource
	English definition: Any source of supply derived from plants, animals or other wildlife inhabiting land or ground, which may be used by humans for food, clothes and other necessities. (Source: RHW)

biologische brandstof
	English: biofuel
	English definition: A gaseous, liquid, or solid fuel that contains an energy content derived from a biological source. The organic matter that makes up living organisms provides a potential source of trapped energy that is beginning to be exploited to supply the ever-increasing energy demand around the world. An example of a biofuel is rapeseed oil, which can be used in place of diesel fuel in modified engines. The methyl ester of this oil, rapeseed methyl ester (RME), can be used in unmodified diesel engines and is sometimes known as biodiesel. Other biofuels include biogas and gasohol. (Source: DICCHE)

biologische cyclus
	English: biological cycle
	English definition: A series of transformations or biological events which follow one after the other one, reaching at the end of the cycle the initial conditions, as in the life cycle of many animal and plant organisms. (Source: DELFIN)

biologische eigenschap
	English: biological attribute
	English definition: Properties or features belonging to living organisms. (Source: CEDa)

biologische landbouw
	English: organic farming
	English definition: Farming without the use of industrially made fertilizers or pesticides. (Source: ALL)

biologische ontwikkeling
	English: biological development
	English definition: The action of growing of living organisms. (Source: RRDA)

biologische processen
	English: biological process
	English definition: Processes concerning living organisms. (Source: CEDa)

biologische productie
	English: biological production
	English definition: 1) The amount and rate of production which occur in a given ecosystem over a given time period. It may apply to a single organism, a population, or entire communities and ecosystems.2) The quantity of organic matter or its equivalent in dry matter, carbon, or energy content which is accumulated during a given period of time. (Source: PARCOR /  MGH)

biologische proef
	English: biological test
	English definition: The laboratory determination of the effects of substances upon specific living organisms. (Source: GILP96)

biologische stikstoffixatie
	English: biological nitrogen fixation

biologische verontreiniger
	English: biological pollutant
	English definition: Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mammal and bird antigens that may be present in the environment and cause many health effects. (Source: KORENa)

biologische verontreiniging
	English: biological pollution
	English definition: Disturbance of the ecological balance by the accidental or deliberate introduction of a foreign organism, animal or plant species into an environment. (Source: WRIGHT)

biologische vervuiling
	English: biological contamination
	English definition: The presence in the environment of living organisms or agents derived by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mammal and bird antigens that can cause many health effects. (Source: KORENa)

biologische verwerking
	English: biological treatment
	English definition: Process that uses microorganisms to decompose organic wastes either into water, carbon dioxide, and simple inorganic substances, or into simpler organic substances, such as aldehydes and acids. The purpose of a biological treatment system is to control the environment for microorganisms so that their growth and activity are enhanced, and provide a means for maintaining high concentration of the microorganisms in contact with the wastes. (Source: PARCOR)

biologische wapen
	English: biological weapon
	English definition: Living organisms (or infective material derived from them) which are intended to cause disease or death in animals, plants, or man, and which depend for their effects on their ability to multiply in the person, animal or plant attacked. Various living organisms (for example, rickettsiae, viruses and fungi), as well as bacteria, can be used as weapons. (Source: WPR)

biologische waterbalans
	English: biological water balance
	English definition: The amount of ingoing and outgoing water in a system, which are assumed to be equal in the long term so that the water budget will balance. (Source: ALL)

biologische zuivering van overtollig gas
	English: biological waste gas purification
	English definition: Processes for removing impurities from waste gas based on the employing of microorganisms. (Source: BIOTGLa)

	English: bioluminescence
	English definition: The production of light of various colors by living organisms (e.g. some bacteria and fungi, glow-worms and many marine animals). Luminescence is produced by a biochemical reaction, which is catalyzed by an enzyme. In some animals the light is used as a mating signal; in others it may be a protective device. In deep-sea forms luminous organs may serve as lanterns. (Source: MGH)

	English: biomarker
	English definition: A normal metabolite that, when present in abnormal concentrations in certain body fluids, can indicate the presence of a particular disease or toxicological condition. (Source: DICCHE)

	English: biomass
	English definition: Biomass refers strictly speaking to the total weight of all the living things in an ecosystem. However, it has come to refer to the amount of plant and crop material that could be produced in an ecosystem for making biofuels and other raw materials used in industry, for example. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: biomass energy
	English definition: A renewable energy source that makes use of such biofuels as methane (biogas) generated by sewage, farm, industrial, or household organic waste materials. Other biofuels include trees grown in so-called 'energy forests' or other plants, such as sugar cane, grown for their energy potential. Biomass energy relies on combustion and therefore produces carbon dioxide; its use would not, therefore, alleviate the greenhouse effect. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: biological monitoring
	English definition: The direct measurement of changes in the biological status of a habitat, based on evaluations of the number and distribution of individuals or species before and after a change. (Source: ALL)

	English: bioreactor
	English definition: A container, such as a large fermentation chamber, for growing living organisms that are used in the industrial production of substances such as pharmaceuticals, antibodies, or vaccines. (Source: PORT)

	English: biorhythm
	English definition: A cyclically recurring pattern of physiological states in an organism or organ, such as alpha rhythm or circadian rhythm; believed by some to affect physical and mental states and behaviour. (Source: CED)

	English: biosphere
	English definition: That part of the Earth and atmosphere capable of supporting living organisms. (Source: LBC)

	English: biosphere (organisms, ecosystems)

	English: biosynthesis
	English definition: Production, by synthesis or degradation, of a chemical compound by a living organism. (Source: MGH)

	English: biological engineering
	English definition: The application of engineering principles and techniques to living organisms. It is largely concerned with the design of replacement body parts, such as limbs, heart valves, etc. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: biotechnology
	English definition: A combination of biology and technology. It is used to describe developments in the application of biological organisms for commercial and scientific purposes. So 'bio' stands for biology and the science of life, and 'tech' stands for technology, or the tools and techniques that the biotechnologists have in their workbox. Those tools and techniques include microorganisms and a range of methods for manipulating them, such as genetic engineering. (Source: WRIGHT)

biotechnologie in de landbouw
	English: agricultural biotechnology

biotechnologie met betrekking tot de gezondheid
	English: health-related biotechnology
	English definition: Health-related biotechnologies are concerned with large-molecule protein pharmaceuticals, genetic engineering, etc. (Source: BIOTAZ /  DELFINa)

biotechnologisch gevaar
	English: biotechnological hazard
	English definition: A danger to humans, animals or the environment posed by the application of advanced biological techniques in the manufacture of industrial products, such as the risk or harm that results from exposure to infectious bacteria, viruses or fungi. (Source: APD / FFD)

biotische factor
	English: biotic factor
	English definition: The influence upon the environment of organisms owing to the presence and activities of other organisms, as distinct from a physical, abiotic, environmental factor. (Source: ALL2)

biotische index
	English: biotic index
	English definition: Scale for showing the quality of an environment by indicating the types of organisms present in it (e.g. how clean a river is). (Source: PHC)

	English: biotope
	English definition: A region of relatively uniform environmental conditions, occupied by a given plant community and its associated animal community. (Source: PAENS)

	English: biotope protection
	English definition: Measures taken to ensure that the biological and physical components of a biotope are in equilibrium by maintaining constant their relative numbers and features. (Source: GILP96a)

	English: biotope network
	English definition: Intersection of corridors connecting patchy ecological communities. Species survival tends to be higher in patches that have higher connectivity. (Source: PARCORa)

	English: biotope order
	English definition: An ordinance or decree regarding an area of ecological habitat that is characterized by a high degree of uniformity in its environmental conditions and in its distribution of plants and animals. (Source: DOE /  OED)

	English: biosafety
	English definition: The combination of knowledge, techniques and equipment used to manage or contain potentially infectious materials or biohazards in the laboratory environment, to reduce or prevent harm to laboratory workers, other persons and the environment. (Source: BIOSAF / OHS)

	English: bitumen
	English definition: A generic term applied to natural inflammable substances of variable colour, hardness, and volatility, composed principally of a mixture of hydrocarbons substantially free from oxygenated bodies. Bitumens are sometimes associated with mineral matter, the nonmineral constituents being fusible and largely soluble in carbon disulfide, yielding water-insoluble sulfonation products. Petroleum, asphalts, natural mineral waxes, and asphaltites are all considered bitumens. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: blast furnace
	English definition: A tall, cylindrical smelting furnace for reducing iron ore to pig iron; the blast of air blown through solid fuel increases the combustion rate. (Source: MGH)

	English: leaf
	English definition: The main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants, usually consisting of a flat green blade attached to the stem directly or by a stalk. (Source: CED)

	English: defoliation
	English definition: 1) The drop of foliage from plants caused by herbicides such as Agent Orange, diuron, triazines, all of which interfere with photosynthesis. The use of defoliants, as in Vietnam or in jungle clearance for agriculture, can permanently destroy tropical forests. Once the tree cover is removed, the soil is subjected to erosion and precious nutrients are rapidly leached away.2) Destroying (an area of jungle, forest, etc.) as by chemical sprays or incendiary bombs, in order to give enemy troops or guerilla forces no place of concealment. (Source: PORT /  WEBSTE)

	English: blue-green alga
	English definition: Microorganisms, formerly classified as algae but now regarded as bacteria, including nostoc, which contain a blue pigment in addition to chlorophyll. (Source: CED)

	English: bleaching clay
	English definition: Clay capable of chemically adsorbing oils, insecticides, alkaloids, vitamins, carbohydrates and other materials; it is used for refining and decolorizing mineral and vegetable oils. (Source: WRES)

	English: bleaching agent
	English definition: 1) A chemical, such as an aromatic acyl peroxide or monoperoxiphthalic acid, used to bleach flour, fats, oils and other edibles. 2) An oxidizing or reducing chemical such as sodium hypochlorite, sulfur dioxide, sodium acid sulfite, or hydrogen peroxide. (Source: MGH)

	English: bleaching process
	English definition: 1) Removing colored components from a textile. Common bleaches are hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochloride, and sodium chlorite. 2) The brightening and delignification of pulp by the addition of oxidizing chemicals such as chlorine or reducing chemicals such as sodium hypochloride. (Source: LEE)

	English: chlorosis
	English definition: A disease condition of green plants seen as yellowing of green parts of the plants. (Source: MGH)

	English: blood (tissue)
	English definition: A fluid connective tissue consisting of the plasma and cells that circulate in the blood vessels. (Source: MGH)

	English: flower
	English definition: The reproductive structure of angiosperm plants, consisting of stamens and carpels surrounded by petals and sepals all borne on the receptacle. (Source: CED)

	English: bulb cultivation
	English definition: The cultivation of flower bulb is divided into two sectors: for forcing (flower bulbs used by professional growers for the production of cut flowers and potted plants) and for dry sales (flower bulbs for garden planting, flower pots, landscaping and parks). (Source: BULB)

	English: exposure
	English definition: The time for which a material is illuminated or irradiated. (Source: PITT)

blootstelling aan een risico
	English: risk exposure
	English definition: The situation or set of circumstances where the probability of harm to an area or its population increases beyond a normal level. (Source: ISEP /  HMD)

blootstelling aan straling
	English: radiation exposure
	English definition: The act or state of being subjected to electromagnetic energy strong enough to ionize atoms thereby posing a threat to human health or the environment. (Source: APD / MHD)

blootstelling aan verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant exposure
	English definition: The act or state of being subjected to a substance that adversely affects human health, property or the environment. (Source: RHW / TOE)

	English: soil
	English definition: The top layer of the land surface of the earth that is composed of disintegrated rock particles, humus, water and air. (Source: CED)

	English: soil

	English: soil analysis
	English definition: The use of rapid chemical analyses to determine the fertility status of a soil. It is used to identify those nutrients or substances that are present in either insufficient or excessive quantities for optimum plant growth. Analyses are also used to monitor increases or decreases in soil fertility over time. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: soil conservation
	English definition: Management of soil to prevent or reduce soil erosion and depletion by wind and water. Preservation of soil against deterioration and loss by using it within its capabilities; application of conservation practices needed for its protection and improvement. (Source: MGH /  LANDY)

	English: soil conservation legislation
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to protect and prevent the loss of an area's surface layer of decomposed rock and organic material, valued for its nutrients and ability to support life. (Source: DES)

	English: soil fertilisation
	English definition: The application of any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic origins to a soil to supply one or more elements essential to the growth of plants. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: working the soil
	English definition: Ploughing the soil for agricultural purposes. (Source: PHCa)

	English: soil biology
	English definition: The study of the living organisms, mainly microorganisms and microinvertebrates which live within the soil, and which are largely responsible for the decomposition processes vital to soil fertility. (Source: GILP96a)

	English: soil capability
	English definition: The suitability of soils for various uses, e.g. sustained production of cultivated crops, pasture plants, etc., depending on depth, texture, kinds of minerals, salinity, kinds of salts, acidity, etc. (Source: NHQa /  PARCOR)

	English: soil chemistry
	English definition: The study of the inorganic and organic components of the soil and its life cycles. (Source: MGH)

	English: soil subsidence
	English definition: A sinking down of a part of the earth's crust, generally due to underground excavations. (Source: MGH)

	English: soil degradation
	English definition: Soil may deteriorate either by physical movement of soil particles from a given site or by depletion of the water-soluble elements in the soil which contribute to the nourishment of crop, plants, grasses, trees, and other economically usable vegetation. The physical movement generally is referred to as erosion. Wind, water, glacial ice, animals and tools in use may be agents of erosion. (Source: GILP96)

	English: soil erosion
	English definition: Detachment and movement of topsoil or soil material from the upper part of the profile, by the action of wind or running water, especially as a result of changes brought about by human activity, such as unsuitable or mismanaged agriculture. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: soil function
	English definition: The main soil function is participation in the material transformation and migrating processes occurring in the natural environment on which the functioning of ecosystems depends. The most active participants in the occurring processes are microorganisms and invertebrates, whose activity, different variety, complex structure, and abundance accurately reflect the soil type and its characteristics: so they are important indicators of ecological stability. The variety of soil organisms determine its self-regulatory and self-cleaning capacity. (Source: NERIS)

	English: soil use
	English definition: Functional utilization of soil for agriculture, industry, or residential building purposes. (Source: GREMES)

	English: soil condition
	English definition: Description of the character of the surface of the ground at the time of observation, especially in relation to the influence of rain and snow. (Source: ECHO2)

	English: soil map
	English definition: A two-dimensional representation that shows the areal extent or the distribution of soils in relation to other features of the land surface. (Source: ALL)

	English: edaphology
	English definition: The study of the relationships between soil and organisms, including the use made of land by mankind. (Source: WHIT)

	English: soil science
	English definition: The study of the properties, occurrence, and management of soil as a natural resource. Generally it includes the chemistry, microbiology, physics, morphology, and mineralogy of soils, as well as their genesis and classification. (Source: MGH)

	English: soil quality
	English definition: All current positive or negative properties with regard to soil utilization and soil functions. (Source: ECHO1)

	English: soil layer
	English definition: Distinctive successive layers of soil produced by internal redistribution processes. Conventionally the layers have been divided into A, B and C horizons. The A horizon is the upper layer, containing humus and is leached and/or eluviated of many minerals. The B horizon forms a zone of deposition and is enriched with clay minerals and iron/aluminium oxides from the A layer. The C layer is the parent material for the present soil and may be partially weathered rock, transported glacial or alluvial material or an earlier soil. (Source: ALL)

	English: soil air
	English definition: The air and other gases in spaces in the soil; specifically that which is found within the zone of aeration. Also known as soil atmosphere. (Source: MGH)

	English: soil mechanics
	English definition: The study of the physical properties of soil, especially those properties that affect its ability to bear weight such as water content, density, strength, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: soil mineralogy
	English definition: Study of the formation, occurrence, properties, composition, and classification of the minerals present in the soil. (Source: BJGEOa)

	English: soil organism
	English definition: Organisms which live in the soil. (Source: PHC)

	English: soil process
	English definition: The major processes in soils are gains, losses, transfers, and transformations of organic matter, soluble salts, carbonates, silicate clay minerals, sesquioxides, and silica. Gains consist normally of additions of organic matter, and of oxygen and water through oxidation and hydration, but in some sites slow continuous additions of new mineral materials take place at the surface or soluble materials are deposited from groundwater. Losses are chiefly of materials dissolved or suspended in water percolating through the profile or running off the surface. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: soil profile
	English definition: A vertical section of a soil, showing horizons and parent material. (Source: MGH)

	English: soil decontamination
	English definition: Technologies employed in the removal of PCBs, PAH, pesticides and, more generally, of organic compounds by physical, chemical or biological treatments. (Source: EUROPAa)

	English: soil resource

bodemschommelingen; trage bodemschommelingen
	English: bradyseism
	English definition: A long-continued, extremely slow vertical instability of the crust, as in the volcanic district west of Naples, Italy, where the Phlegraean bradyseism has involved up-and-down movements between 6 m below sea level and 6 m above over a period of more than 2.000 years. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: soil stability
	English definition: Soil stability depends on its shear strength, its compressibility and its tendency to absorb water. Stabilization methods include physical compaction and treatment with cement, lime, and bitumen. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: soil structure
	English definition: The combination or aggregation of primary soil particles into aggregates or clusters, which are separated from adjoining peds by surfaces of weakness. Soil structure is classified on the basis of size, shape, and distinctness into classes, types, and grades. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: soil texture
	English definition: 1) Refers to the relative proportions of the various size groups (sand, silt and clay) of the individual soil grains in a mass of soil. 2) Classification of soil by the proportion and graduations of the three size groups of soil grains, i.e., sand, silt and clay, present in the soil. (Source: LANDY)

	English: soil leaching
	English definition: The removal of water or any soluble constituents from the soil. Leaching often occurs with soil constituents such as nitrate fertilizers with the result that nitrates end up in potable waters. (Source: PORT)

	English: soil compaction
	English definition: An increase in bulk density (mass per unit volume) and a decrease in soil porosity resulting from applied loads, vibration, or pressure. More compacted soils (or other materials) can support greater loads (load-bearing capacity). Bulk density can be increased by controlling the moisture content, compaction forces and treatment procedures, as well as by manipulating the type of material being compacted. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: soil pollution
	English definition: Modifications of soil features or, more generally, of its chemical and biological balance, caused by the discharge of polluting substances. (Source: FLGISA)

	English: soil pollutant
	English definition: Solid, liquid and gaseous substances that detrimentally alter the natural condition of the soil.

	English: soil salination
	English definition: The accumulation of soluble mineral salts near the surface of soil, usually caused by the capillary flow of water from saline ground water. Where the rate of surface evaporation is high, irrigation can exacerbate the problem by moistening the soil and causing water to be drawn from deeper levels as water evaporates from the surface. The evaporation of pure water leaves the salts behind, allowing them to accumulate, and they can reach concentrations that are toxic to plants, thus sterilizing the land. (Source: ALL)

	English: soil acidification
	English definition: A naturally occurring process in humid climates that has long been the subject of research, whose findings suggest acid precipitation effects. The generally accepted impact of soil acidification on the productivity of terrestrial plants is summarised as follows: as soil becomes more acidic the basic cations (Ca, Mg) on the soil exchange are replaced by hydrogen ions or solubilized metals. The basic cation, now in solution, can be leached through the soil. As time progresses the soil becomes less fertile and more acidic. Resultant decreases in soil pH cause reduced, less-active population of soil microorganisms, which in turn slow decomposition of plant residues and cycling of essential plant nutrients. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: soil moisture
	English definition: 1) Water stored in soils.2) One of the most important elements involved in pedological processes and plant growth. There are three basic forms: a) water adhering in thin films by molecular attraction to the surface of soil particles and not available for plants is termed hygroscopic water. b) Water forming thicker films and occupying the smaller pore spaces is termed capillary water. Since it is held against the force of gravity it is permanently available for plant growth and it is this type of soil water which contains plant nutrients in solution. c) Water in excess of hygroscopic and capillary water is termed gravitational water, which is of a transitory nature because it flows away under the influence of gravity. When the excess has drained away the amount of water retained in the soil is termed its field capacity, when some of its pore spaces are still free of water. (Source: LANDY /  DUNSTE)

	English: soil moisture regime
	English definition: The water regime of the soil is determined by the physical properties and arrangement of the soil particles. The pores in a soil determine its water-retention characteristics. When all the pores are full of water, the soil is said to be saturated. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: soil formation
	English definition: The combination of natural processes by which soils are formed. It is also known as pedogenesis. The most important soil-forming factors are parent material, terrain, climate, aspect, vegetation cover, microorganisms in the soil and the age of the land surface. Some pedologists would add to this list the influence of human activities. All the factors exhibit varying degrees of interrelationship and some are more important than others, with climate often being singled out as the most important. (Source: WHIT)

	English: soil fertility
	English definition: The status of a soil with respect to the amount and availability to plants of elements necessary for plant growth. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: book
	English definition: A collection of leaves of paper, parchment or other material, usually bound or fastened together within covers, containing writing of any type or blank pages for future inscription. (Source: CCL / RHW)

	English: bookkeeping
	English definition: The art or science of recording business accounts and transactions. (Source: WESTS)

	English: accounting
	English definition: Method of recording all the transactions affecting the financial condition of a business or organization.

	English: accounting system
	English definition: The system of setting up, maintaining, and auditing the books of a firm and of analyzing its financial status and operating results.

	English: farm building
	English definition: The dwelling on a farm as distinguished from utility buildings as a barn, corncrib, milk house. (Source: WEBSTE)

	English: fine
	English definition: A pecuniary punishment or penalty imposed by lawful tribunal upon person convicted of crime or misdemeanor. (Source: BLACK)

boete voor schade aan het milieu
	English: penalty for environmental damage
	English definition: Punishment, varying from fines to withdrawal of government funds to economic sanctions, which is imposed for the harm or injury done to natural resources. (Source: RHW)

	English: fur
	English definition: The hair-covered, dressed pelt of such a mammal, used in the making of garments and as trimming or decoration. (Source: AMHER)

	English: furriery
	English definition: The business or trade of dressed furs and garments made from the coats of certain animals. (Source: OED)

	English: tree
	English definition: Any large woody perennial plant with a distinct trunk giving rise to branches or leaves at some distance from the ground. (Source: CED)

	English: arboriculture
	English definition: The planting and care of woody plants, especially trees. (Source: AMHER)

	English: tree nursery
	English definition: An area where trees, shrubs, or plants are grown for transplanting, for use as stocks for budding and grafting. (Source: ECHO2)

	English: drilling installation
	English definition: The structural base upon which the drill rig and associated equipment is mounted during the drilling operation. (Source: MGH)

	English: drilling
	English definition: The act of boring holes in the earth for finding water or oil, for geologic surveys, etc. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: boron
	English definition: A very hard almost colourless crystalline metalloid element that in impure form exists as a brown amorphous powder. It occurs principally in borax and is used in hardening steel. (Source: CED)

	English: forest
	English definition: A vegetation community dominated by trees and other woody shrubs, growing close enough together that the tree tops touch or overlap, creating various degrees of shade on the forest floor. It may produce benefits such as timber, recreation, wildlife habitat, etc. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: wood
	English definition: A dense growth of trees more extensive than a grove and smaller than a forest. (Source: MGH)

bos in de gematigde klimaatzone
	English: temperate forest
	English definition: Mixed forest of conifers and broad-leaf deciduous trees, or mixed conifer and broad-leaf evergreen trees, or entirely broad-leaf deciduous, or entirely broad-leaf evergreen trees, found in temperate regions across the world; characterized by high rainfall, warm summers, cold winters occasionally subzero, seasonality; typically with dense canopies, understorey saplings and tall shrubs, large animals, carnivores dominant, very rich in bird species. (Source: LBC)

	English: afforestation
	English definition: 1) Establishment of a new forest by seeding or planting of nonforested land.2) The planting of trees on land which was previously used for other uses than forestry.3) The planting of trees in an area, or the management of an area to allow trees to regenerate or colonize naturally, in order to produce a forest. (Source: MGH /  WRIGHT /  ALL)

	English: forest management
	English definition: Planning of forest utilization for wood production, conservation purposes, fauna and flora protection, recreation and water supply. (Source: RFA)

	English: forest policy
	English definition: A course of action adopted and pursued by government or some other organization, which seeks to preserve or protect an extensive area of woodland, often to produce products and benefits such as timber, wildlife habitat, clean water, biodiversity and recreation. (Source: NCF)

	English: forest conservation

	English: forest protection
	English definition: Branch of forestry concerned with the prevention and control of damage to forests arising from the action of people or livestock, of pests and abiotic agents. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: forest resource
	English definition: Forest resources consist of two separate but closely related parts: the forest land and the trees (timber) on that land. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: forest resource assessment

	English: forest industry
	English definition: A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of establishments is engaged in the management of an extensive area of woodland, often to produce products and benefits such as timber, wildlife habitat, clean water, biodiversity and recreation. (Source: NCF)

	English: forestry
	English definition: The management of forest lands for wood, forages, water, wildlife, and recreation. (Source: MGH)

	English: forestry

	English: forestry economics
	English definition: The production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services from the industry involved with the process of establishing and managing forests. (Source: RHW)

	English: forestry unit
	English definition: Any entity or group of individuals involved with the creation, management and conservation of an extensive area of woodland, often to produce products and benefits such as timber, clean water, biodiversity and recreation. (Source: NCF)

bosbouwkundige praktijk
	English: forestry practice
	English definition: The farming of trees to ensure a continuing supply of timber and other forest products. Foresters care for existing trees, protecting them from fire, pests and diseases, and felling where trees are overcrowded or dying and when ready for cropping. They also plant new areas (afforestation) and replant felled areas (reafforestation). (Source: GOOD)

	English: forestry law
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate any extensive area of woodland, for the protection and preservation of game, timber and other forest resources. (Source: MHE)

	English: forestry legislation
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the use and conservation of wooded areas, most often those owned by the government itself. (Source: BLD)

	English: forest fire
	English definition: A conflagration in or destroying large wooded areas having a thick growth of trees and plants. (Source: ISEP)

	English: forest ecology
	English definition: The science that deals with the relationship of forest trees to their environment, to one another, and to other plants and to animals in the forest. (Source: MGH)

	English: forest ecosystem
	English definition: Any forest environment, in which plants and animals interact with the chemical and physical features of the environment, in which they live. (Source: GILP96a)

	English: forest exploitation
	English definition: Forests have been exploited over the centuries as a source of wood and for obtaining land for agricultural use. The mismanagement of forest lands and forest resources has led to a situation where the forest is now in rapid retreat. The main aspects of the situation are: serious shortages in the supply of industrial wood; the catastrophic erosion and floods accompanying the stripping of forests from mountainous land; the acute shortages of fuel wood in much of the developing world; the spread of desert conditions at an alarming rate in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world; and the many environmental effects of the destruction of tropical rainforests. (Source: WPR)

	English: forest product
	English definition: Any material afforded by a forest for commercial use, such as tree products and forage. (Source: MGH)

	English: forest production
	English definition: Forests produce a range of products including firewood and charcoal, lumber, paper, and crops such as coffee, oil palm, and rubber. With careful planning of growth and harvesting, wood and other forest products are, in principle, renewable resources. But achieving renewability takes time - often decades, sometimes centuries. Without careful management, pressure for short-term exploitation can lead to tree removal, soil degradation, and conversion of woodland to other uses. Consumption of forest resources can lead to environmental problems as well as loss of critical habitat and species. (Source: WRES)

	English: forest reserve
	English definition: Forest area set aside for the purpose of protecting certain fauna and flora, or both. (Source: GILP96)

botanische kas
	English: botanical conservatory
	English definition: Gardens for the conservation of rare species of plants. (Source: RAMADE)

botanische tuin
	English: botanical garden
	English definition: A place in which plants are grown, studied and exhibited. (Source: CED)

	English: building industry
	English definition: The art and technique of building houses. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: building

bouw met hergebruik-materiaal
	English: construction with recycled material
	English definition: Construction with waste product used as raw material. (Source: LANDYa)

	English: building waste
	English definition: Masonry and rubble wastes arising from the demolition or reconstruction of buildings or other civil engineering structures.

	English: construction policy
	English definition: A course of action adopted and pursued by government, business or some other organization, which plans or organizes for the maintenance, development and erection of houses, offices, bridges or other building structures. (Source: OED)

	English: building land
	English definition: Area of land suitable for building on. (Source: PHC)

	English: building material
	English definition: Any material used in construction, such as steel, concrete, brick, masonry, glass, wood, etc. (Source: HARRIS)

	English: building materials industry

	English: standard for building industry
	English definition: A norm or measure applicable in legal cases for any enterprise involved in the construction, remodeling or finishing of enclosed structures for habitation. (Source: BLD)

bouwonderdeel; gebouwonderdeel
	English: building component
	English definition: A building element which uses industrial products that are manufactured as independent until capable of being joined with other elements. (Source: HARRIS)

	English: building site
	English definition: A piece of land on which a house or other building is being built. (Source: CAMB)

	English: building planning
	English definition: The activity of designing, organizing or preparing for future construction or reconstruction of edifices and facilities. (Source: RHW)

	English: built structure
	English definition: Any structure made of stone, bricks, wood, concrete, or steel, built with a roof and walls, such as a house or factory. (Source: CEDa /  ZINZAN)

	English: building technology

	English: construction technology

	English: building area
	English definition: Land and other places on, under, in or through which the temporary and permanent works are to be executed and any other lands or places needed for the purposes of construction. (Source: ECHO1)

	English: supervision of building works
	English definition: The oversight or direction in the construction and maintenance of houses, facilities, offices and other structures. (Source: RHW)

	English: construction equipment
	English definition: Heavy power machines which perform specific construction or demolition functions. (Source: MGH)

	English: planning permission
	English definition: An authorization, license or equivalent control document issued by a government agency that approves a step by step method and process of defining, developing and outlining various possible courses of action to meet existing or future needs, goals and objectives. (Source: TOE / ISEP)

	English: building permit
	English definition: Authorization required by local governmental bodies for the erection of an enclosed structure or for the major alteration or expansion of an existing edifice. (Source: BLD)

	English: building regulation

	English: soil surface sealing
	English definition: Any activity or process in which ground surface areas are packed or plugged to prevent percolation or the passage of fluids. (Source: SIS / ERG)

bovengrondse elektriciteitsleiding
	English: overhead power line
	English definition: Suspended cables by which electrical power is distributed throughout a country. (Source: UVAROVa)

braakliggend gebied
	English: fallow area
	English definition: Land area normally used for crop production but left unsown for one or more growing seasons. (Source: MGH)

braakliggend terrein
	English: fallow land
	English definition: Arable land not under rotation that is set at rest for a period of time ranging from one to five years before it is cultivated again, or land usually under permanent crops, meadows or pastures, which is not being used for that purpose for a period of at least one year. Arable land which is normally used for the cultivation of temporary crops but which is temporarily used for grazing is included. (Source: ECEST)

	English: brackish water
	English definition: Water, salty between the concentrations of fresh water and sea water; usually 5-10 parts x thousand. (Source: LANDY)

	English: fire
	English definition: The state of combustion in which inflammable material burns, producing heat, flames and often smoke. (Source: CED)

	English: combustibility
	English definition: The property of a substance of being capable of igniting and burning. (Source: CEDa)

brandbare stof
	English: flammable product
	English definition: Material having the ability to generate a sufficient concentration of combustible vapors to produce a flame, if ignited. (Source: LEE)

	English: fire protection
	English definition: All necessary precautions to see that fire is not initiated, by ensuring that all necessary fire fighting apparatus is in good order and available for use if fire should break out, and by ensuring that personnel are properly trained and drilled in fighting fire. (Source: ECHO1)

brandgevaarlijke stof
	English: inflammable substance
	English definition: Substance liable to catch fire. (Source: CED)

	English: fuel
	English definition: Solid, liquid, or gaseous material such as gas, gasoline, oil, coal or wood, used to produce heat or power by burning. (Source: LANDY)

	English: fuel additive
	English definition: Substance (such as tetraethyl lead) which is added to petrol to prevent knocking. (Source: PHC)

	English: fuel composition

	English: fuel tank installation
	English definition: The operating, fuel-storage component of a fuel system. (Source: MGH)

	English: fuel consumption
	English definition: The amount of fuel utilized. (Source: PHCa)

	English: fire safety requirement
	English definition: Rules to be followed and safety systems to be adopted for preventing or fighting fire. (Source: RRDA)

	English: fire service
	English definition: Technical organisation with trained personnel for dealing with fires and other incidents and for co-operating in their prevention. (Source: ECHO1)

brandwerend middel
	English: fireproofing agent
	English definition: A chemical used as a coating for or a component of a combustible material to reduce or eliminate a tendency to burn; used with textiles, plastics, rubbers, paints, and other materials. (Source: MGH)

breedtegraad (geografisch)
	English: latitude
	English definition: An angular distance in degrees north or south of the equator (latitude 0deg), equal to the angle subtended at the centre of the globe by the meridian between the equator and the point in question. (Source: CED)

	English: fault
	English definition: A fracture or a zone of fractures along which there has been displacement of the sides relative to one another parallel to the fracture. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: brooding
	English definition: To incubate eggs or cover the young for warmth. (Source: MGH)

	English: breeding bird
	English definition: The individuals in a bird population that are involved in reproduction during a particular period in a given place. (Source: ALL2a)

	English: greenhouse effect
	English definition: The warming of the Earth's atmosphere caused by the increasing concentration of atmospheric gases, such as water vapour and carbon dioxide. These gases absorb radiation emitted by the Earth, thus slowing down the loss of radiant energy from the Earth back to space. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: greenhouse gas
	English definition: A collective expression for those components of the atmosphere that influence the greenhouse effect, namely carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, ozone, CFCs and water vapour. (Source: GILP96)

	English: spring (hydrology, land)
	English definition: A place where ground water flows naturally from a rock or the soil onto the land surface or into a body of surface water. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: well
	English definition: A hole dug into the earth to reach a supply of water, oil, brine or gas. (Source: MGH)

bron van (milieu)verontreiniging
	English: source of pollution
	English definition: The place, places or areas from where a pollutant is released into the atmosphere or water, or where noise is generated. A source can be classified as point source, i.e. a large individual generator of pollution, an area source, or a line source, e.g. vehicle emissions and noise. (Source: PORT)

	English: spring water
	English definition: Water obtained from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the surface, or would flow naturally to the surface if it were not collected underground. (Source: WQA)

	English: bromine
	English definition: A pungent dark red volatile liquid element of the halogen series that occurs in brine and is used in the production of chemicals. (Source: CED)

	English: brewing industry
	English definition: A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the manufacture and marketing of beverages made from malt and hops by steeping, boiling and fermentation, such as beer, ale and other related beverages. (Source: RHW)

	English: bridge
	English definition: A structure that spans and provides a passage over a road, railway, river, or some other obstacle. (Source: CED)

	English: lignite
	English definition: Coal of relatively recent origin consisting of accumulated layers of partially decomposed vegetation, intermediate between peat and bituminous coal; often contains patterns from the wood from which it formed. (Source: MGH /  CED /  WRIGHT)

	English: lignite mining
	English definition: Extraction of brown coal from natural deposits; lignite is a brownish-black solid fuel in the second stage in the development of coal. It has a little over half the heating value of bituminous or anthracite coal. (Source: KORENa)

bruto binnenlands product
	English: gross domestic product
	English definition: The total output of goods and services produced by a national economy in a given period, usually a year, valued at market prices. It is gross, since no allowance is made, for the value of replacement capital goods. (Source: GOOD)

bruto nationaal product
	English: gross national product
	English definition: Gross domestic product adjusted for foreign transactions, i.e. to the figure for Gross Domestic Product must be added any income accruing to residents of the country arising from investment and other factor earnings abroad and from it must be deducted any income earned in the domestic market by factors owned by foreigners abroad. (Source: GOOD)

	English: marsupial
	English definition: Type of Australian mammal with a pouch in which the young are carried. Marsupials give birth to young at a much earlier stage of development than other mammals so that the young need to be protected in the mother's pouch for some months until they become able to look after themselves. (Source: PHC)

	English: gastropod
	English definition: Any mollusc of the class Gastropoda, typically having a flattened muscular foot for locomotion and a head that bears stalked eyes. (Source: CED)

	English: stack
	English definition: The portion of a chimney rising above the roof. (Source: MGH)

buitenlands beleid
	English: foreign policy
	English definition: The diplomatic policy of a nation in its interactions with other nations. (Source: WEBSTE)

buitenlandse economische betrekkingen
	English: foreign economic relations
	English definition: Dealing in economic or monetary matters with foreign countries. (Source: OEDa)

buitenlandse handel
	English: foreign trade
	English definition: Trade between countries and firms belonging to different countries.

	English: suburb
	English definition: A residential district situated on the outskirts of a city or town. (Source: CAMB)

	English: mass transport (physics)
	English definition: The movement of matter in a medium. (Source: MGH)

burgemeester (B)
	English: mayor
	English definition: A governmental figure who is generally the principal administrative officer of a city or other municipal area. (Source: WESTS)

	English: citizen
	English definition: A native or naturalized member of a state or nation who owes allegiance, bears responsibilities and obtains rights, including protection, from the government. (Source: RHW)

	English: civilian protection
	English definition: The organization and measures, usually under governmental or other authority depending on the country, aimed at preventing, abating or fighting major emergencies for the protection of the civilian population and property, particularly in wartime. (Source: ECHO1)

	English: citizen initiative

burgerlijk recht
	English: civil law
	English definition: Law inspired by old Roman Law, the primary feature of which was that laws were written into a collection; codified, and not determined, as is common law, by judges. The principle of civil law is to provide all citizens with an accessible and written collection of the laws which apply to them and which judges must follow. (Source: DUHA)

	English: civil air traffic
	English definition: Air traffic pertaining to or serving the general public, as distinguished from military air traffic.

	English: citizen rights
	English definition: Rights recognized and protected by law, pertaining to the members of a state. (Source: ZINZANa)

	English: civil safety
	English definition: Actions and measures undertaken, often at a local level, to ensure that citizens of a community are secure from harm, injury, danger or risk. (Source: RHW / OEC)

	English: bus station
	English definition: A place along a route or line at which a bus stops for fuel or to pick up or let off passengers or goods, especially with ancillary buildings and services. (Source: CED)

	English: neighbourhood improvement scheme

	English: neighbourhood law
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to protect human health and the environment, manage growth and development or enhance the quality of life in small geographical and social areas within cities where residents share values and concerns and interact with one another on a daily basis. (Source: HUM)

	English: cadmium
	English definition: One of the toxic heavy metal which has caused deaths and permanent illnesses in a series of major pollution incidents around the world. Cadmium has no useful biological purpose. However, it has wide industrial applications. It has been used for decades in metal plating to prevent corrosion, in rechargeable batteries and as a pigment in certain plastics and paints. Special care is taken in the industrial smelting of ores and subsequent handling of cadmium, because occupational exposure is known to have caused heart, chest and kidney disorders. Environmental health problems have come from exposure to various sources of pollution. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: cadmium contamination
	English definition: The release and presence in the air, water and soil of cadmium, a toxic, metallic element, from sources such as the burning of coal and tobacco and improper disposal of cadmium-containing waste. (Source: FFD / EEN)

	English: calcium
	English definition: A malleable silvery-white metallic element of the alkaline hearth group; the fifth most abundant element in the earth crust, occurring especially as forms of calcium carbonate. It is an essential constituent of bones and teeth and is used as a deoxidizer in steel. (Source: CED)

Caraibische Zee
	English: Caribbean Area
	English definition: A geographical region bordered on the south by South America and Panama, and on the west by Central America, and consisting of the West Indian, and nearby, islands and the Caribbean Sea, a part of the western Atlantic Ocean. (Source: RHW)

	English: carbonate
	English definition: A salt or ester of carbonic acid. (Source: CED)

	English: CD-ROM
	English definition: A compact disc on which a large amount of digitalised read-only data can be stored.

Cd-rom zoekdienst
	English: CD-ROM search service
	English definition: The provision of special aid by library staff trained to query bibliographic or other information contained on an electronic storage medium, usually to meet the research needs of the library's clients. (Source: RHW /  LFS)

cel [biologie]
	English: cell (biology)
	English definition: The microscopic functional and structural unit of all living organisms, consisting of a nucleus, cytoplasm, and a limiting membrane. (Source: MGH)

cel [energie]
	English: cell (energy)
	English definition: The basic building block of a battery. It is an electrochemical device consisting of an anode and a cathode in a common electrolyte kept apart with a separator. This assembly may be used in its own container as a single cell battery or be combined and interconnected with other cells in a container to form a multicelled battery. (Source: LEE)

	English: cellulose
	English definition: The main polysaccharide in living plants, forming the skeletal structure of the plant cell wall; a polymer of beta-D-glucose linked together with the elimination of water to form chains of 2000-4000 units. (Source: MGH)

	English: cellulose industry

	English: cement
	English definition: A dry powder made from silica, alumina, lime, iron oxide, and magnesia which hardens when mixed with water; used as an ingredient in concrete. (Source: MGH)

	English: cement industry
	English definition: Industry for the production of cement. The emissions of most relevance from this sector are atmospheric: dust, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the most important. Cement is essential for the construction sector, either directly or mixed with sand or gravel to form concrete. (Source: DOBRIS)

	English: cement manufacture
	English definition: Cement is produced by heating a mixture of clay or shale plus chalk or lime in a rotary kiln up to 250 m long per 8 m diameter rotating at 1 rpm. The process can be wet, semi-dry or dry and the fuel can be pulverized coal, oil or gas. As the coal ash is similar in composition to the clay or shale, it can stay in the cement clinker. As one of the kiln operator's major costs is fuel and even a modest sized kiln can consume 8-10 tons of coal per hour, the cement kiln could, therefore, solve a disposal problem and also benefit the cement manufacturer by reducing fuel costs. (Source: PORT)

	English: Central Africa
	English definition: A geographic region of the African continent close to the equator that includes Cameroon, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of Congo. (Source: OMD / CIA)

	English: Central America
	English definition: A narrow continental region of the Western hemisphere, existing as a bridge between North and South America, often considered to be the southern portion of North America, and including countries such as Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. (Source: RHW)

	English: Central Asia
	English definition: A geographic region of the Asian continent between the Caspian Sea on the west and China on the east, extending northward into the central region of Russia and southward to the northern borders of Iran and Afghanistan, and comprised of independent former republics of the Soviet Union, including Kazakstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Source: INP / CIA)

centrale regering
	English: central government
	English definition: A system in which a governing or administrative body has a certain degree of power or authority to prevail in the management of local, national and international matters. (Source: WAP / BLD)

centrale voor gecombineerde electriciteits-en warmteproductie
	English: combined cycle-power station
	English definition: This type of plant is flexible in response and can be built in the 100-600 MW capacity range. It produces electrical power from both a gas turbine (ca. 1300degC gas inlet temperature), fuelled by natural gas or oil plus a steam turbine supplied with the steam generated by the 500degC exhaust gases from the gas turbine. The thermal efficiency of these stations is ca. 50 per cent compared with a maximum of 40 per cent from steam turbine coal fired power stations. This type of plant can be built in two years compared with six years for a coal-fired station and 10-15 years for nuclear. (Source: PORT)

	English: centralisation

	English: centrifugation
	English definition: Separation of particles from a suspension in a centrifuge: balanced tubes containing the suspension are attached to the opposite ends of arms rotating rapidly about a central point; the suspended particles are forced outwards, and collect at the bottoms of the tubes. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: caesium
	English definition: A soft silvery-white and highly reactive metal belonging to the alkali group of metals. It is a radiation hazard, because it can occur in two radioactive forms. Caesium-134 is produced in nuclear reactors, not directly by fission, but by the reaction. It emits beta- and gamma-radiation and has a half-life of 2.06 years. Caesium-137 is a fission product of uranium and occurs in the fallout from nuclear weapons. It emits beta- and gamma-rays and has a half-life of 30 years. Caesium-137 was the principal product released into the atmosphere, and hence the food chain, from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons and from the Windscale fire and Chernobyl nuclear accidents. After the Chernobyl accident, which spread a radiation cloud across Europe, the European Commission proposed new and more restrictive limits on levels of caesium in food and drinking water. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: chelicerate
	English definition: A subphylum of the phylum Artrophoda; chelicerae are characteristically modified as pincers. (Source: MGH)

	English: chemical
	English definition: Any substance used in or resulting from a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules. (Source: CED)

chemicalien in het milieu
	English: chemical in the environment
	English definition: The presence in the environment of any solid, liquid or gaseous material discharged from a process and that may pose substantial hazard to human health and the environment.

	English: chemistry
	English definition: The scientific study of the properties, composition, and structure of matter, the changes in structure and composition of matter, and accompanying energy changes. (Source: MGH)

chemisch afval
	English: chemical waste
	English definition: Any by-product of a chemical process, including manufacturing processes. Often this by-product is considered a toxic or polluting substance. (Source: APD / ERG)

chemisch beleid
	English: chemical policy

chemisch product
	English: chemical product
	English definition: A substance characterized by definite molecular composition. (Source: MGH)

chemisch reinigen
	English: dry cleaning
	English definition: To clean fabrics etc. with a solvent other than water. (Source: CED)

chemisch risico
	English: chemical risk
	English definition: Probability of harm to human health, property or the environment posed by contact with any substance of a defined molecular composition. (Source: APD)

chemisch wapen
	English: chemical weapon
	English definition: Chemical agents of warfare include all gaseous, liquid or solid chemical substances which might be employed because of their direct toxic effects on man and animals. Chemical weapons also include the chemical's precursors, the munitions and devices designed to deliver them, and any equipment specifically designed for their use in warfare. Nerve agents (chemicals of the same family as organophosphorous insecticides) are the most lethal of the classical chemical warfare agents, killing by poisoning the nervous system and disrupting bodily functions. Other chemical weapons include blister agents, vesicants, choking agents, etc. (Source: WPR)

chemische adsorptie
	English: chemisorption
	English definition: The process of chemical adsorption. (Source: MGH)

chemische analyse
	English: chemical analysis
	English definition: The complex of operations aiming to determine the kinds of constituents of a given substance. (Source: ZINZAN)

chemische behandeling
	English: chemical treatment
	English definition: Processes that alter the chemical structure of the constituents of the waste to produce either an innocuous or a less hazardous material. Chemical processes are attractive because they produce minimal air emissions, they can often be carried out on the site of the waste generator, and some processes can be designed and constructed as mobile units. (Source: PARCOR)

chemische behandeling van afval
	English: chemical treatment of waste

chemische bestrijding
	English: chemical pest control
	English definition: Control of plants and animals classified as pests by means of chemical compounds. (Source: WPR)

chemische corrosiekracht
	English: chemical corrosivity
	English definition: The tendency of a metal to wear away another by chemical attack. (Source: MGH)

chemische eigenschappen
	English: chemical property
	English definition: Properties of a substance depending on the arrangement of the atoms in the molecule, e.g. bio-availability, degradability, persistence, etc. (Source: RRDA)

chemische elementen (en hun verbindingen)
	English: chemical element
	English definition: A substance made up of atoms with the same atomic number; common examples are hydrogen, gold, and iron. (Source: MGH)

chemische fabriek
	English: chemical plant
	English definition: Plants where basic raw materials are chemically converted into a variety of products. (Source: MGH)

chemische fall-out
	English: chemical fallout
	English definition: The sedimentation of chemical substances accumulated in the atmosphere as a result of industrial emissions. (Source: ZINZANa)

chemische industrie
	English: chemical industry
	English definition: Industry related with the production of chemical compounds. The chemical processing industry has a variety of special pollution problems due to the vast number of products manufactured. The treatment processes combine processing, concentration, separation, extraction, by-product recovery, destruction, and reduction in concentration. The wastes may originate from solvent extraction, acid and caustic wastes, overflows, spills, mechanical loss, etc. (Source: PZ)

chemische installatie
	English: chemical installation
	English definition: Building where chemicals are manufactured. (Source: PHC)

chemische meststof
	English: chemical fertiliser
	English definition: Fertilizer manufactured from chemicals; excessive use of them can cause pollution, when all the chemicals are not taken up by the plants and the excess is leached out of the soil into rivers and may cause algal bloom. (Source: PHC)

chemische oceanografie
	English: chemical oceanography

chemische ontbinding
	English: chemical degradation
	English definition: The act or process of simplifying or breaking down a molecule into smaller parts, either naturally or artificially. (Source: OED)

chemische ontsmetting
	English: chemical decontamination
	English definition: Removal of chemical substances from a building, a watercourse, a person's clothes, etc. (Source: PHC)

chemische processen
	English: chemical process
	English definition: The particular method of manufacturing or making a chemical usually involving a number of steps or operations. (Source: KOREN)

chemische reacties
	English: chemical reaction
	English definition: A change in which a substance is transformed into one or more new substances. (Source: MGH)

chemische reductie
	English: chemical reduction
	English definition: Chemical reaction in which an element gains an electron. (Source: MGH)

chemische samenstelling
	English: chemical composition
	English definition: The nature and proportions of the elements comprising a chemical compound. (Source: CED)

chemische structuur
	English: chemical structure
	English definition: The arrangement of atoms in a molecule of a chemical compound. (Source: CED)

chemische technologie
	English: chemical engineering
	English definition: The branch of engineering concerned with industrial manufacture of chemical products. It is a discipline in which the principles of mathematical, physical and natural sciences are used to solve problems in applied chemistry. Chemical engineers design, develop, and optimise processes and plants, operate them, manage personnel and capital, and conduct research necessary for new developments. Through their efforts, new petroleum products, plastics, agricultural chemicals, house-hold products, pharmaceuticals, electronic and advanced materials, photographic materials, chemical and biological compounds, various food and other products evolve. (Source: USTa)

chemische toevoeging
	English: chemical addition
	English definition: Chemical reaction in which one or more of the double bonds or triple bonds in an unsaturated compound is converted to a single bond by the addition of other atoms or groups. (Source: UVAROV)

chemische verontreinigende stof
	English: chemical pollutant

chemische vervuiling
	English: chemical pollution
	English definition: Pollution caused by substances of chemical nature, including chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals as mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, etc. (Source: GILP96)

chemische vervuiling
	English: chemical contamination
	English definition: The addition or presence of chemicals to, or in, another substance to such a degree as to render it unfit for its intended purpose. Also refers to the result(s) of such an addition or presence. (Source: ISEP)

chemische zuurstofverbruik
	English: chemical oxygen demand
	English definition: The quantity of oxygen used in biological and non-biological oxidation of materials in water; a measure of water quality. (Source: LANDY)

chirurgisch (operatie-)afval
	English: surgical waste
	English definition: Any tissue, blood or mucus removed during surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, or other materials requiring special disposal procedures. (Source: UMT)

	English: chlorine
	English definition: A very reactive and highly toxic green, gaseous element, belonging to the halogen family of substances. It is one of the most widespread elements, as it occurs naturally in sea-water, salt lakes and underground deposits, but usually occurs in a safe form as common salt (NaCl). Commercially it is used in large quantities by the chemical industry both as an element to produce chlorinated organic solvents, like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and for the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride plastics, thermoplastic and hypochlorite bleaches. Chlorine was the basis for the organochlorine pesticides, like DDT and other agricultural chemicals that have killed wildlife. The reactivity of chlorine has proved disastrous for the ozone layer and has been the cause of the creation of the ozone hole, which was first detected in the Southern Hemisphere over Antarctica and then over the Northern Hemisphere. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: chloroethylene
	English definition: A flammable, explosive gas with an ethereal aroma; soluble in alcohol and ether, slightly soluble in water; boils at -14deg C; an important monomer for polyvinyl chloride and its copolymers; used in organic synthesis and in adhesives. (Source: MGH)

	English: chlorophenol
	English definition: Major group of chlorinated hydrocarbons, pesticides and biocides which account for a very high percentage of the non-agricultural pesticide use, such as anti-rotting agents in non-woollen textiles and wood preservatives. The chlorophenols act as biocides by inhibiting the respiration and energy-conversion processes of the microorganisms. They are toxic to man above 40 parts per million, to fish above 1 ppm, whilst concentrations as low as one part per thousand million can taint water. (Source: PORT)

	English: chlorofluorocarbon
	English definition: Gases formed of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon whose molecules normally do not react with other substances; they are therefore used as spray can propellants because they do not alter the material being sprayed. (Source: LANDY)

	English: chlorinated hydrocarbon
	English definition: A class of persistent, broad-spectrum insecticides that linger in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. Among them are DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, chlordane, lindane, endrin, mirex, hexachloride, and toxaphene. In insects and other animals these compounds act primarily on the central nervous system. They also become concentrated in the fats of organisms and thus tend to produce fatty infiltration of the heart and fatty degeneration of the liver in vertebrates. In fishes they have the effect of preventing oxygen uptake, causing suffocation. They are also known to slow the rate of photosynthesis in plants. Their danger to the ecosystem resides in their rate stability and the fact that they are broad-spectrum poisons which are very mobile because of their propensity to stick to dust particles and evaporate with water into the atmosphere. (Source: EPAGLO /  PORT)

	English: chlorination
	English definition: The application of chlorine to water, sewage or industrial wastes for disinfection or other biological or chemical purposes. (Source: ALL)

	English: chloride
	English definition: A compound which is derived from hydrochloric acid and contains the chlorine atom in the -1 oxidation state. (Source: MGH)

	English: chlorophyll
	English definition: A green pigment, present in algae and higher plants, that absorbs light energy and thus plays a vital role in photosynthesis. Except in Cyanophyta (blue-green algae), chlorophyll is confined to chloroplasts. There are several types of chlorophyll, but all contain magnesium and iron. Some plants (e.g., brown algae, red algae, copper beech trees) contain additional pigments that masks the green of their chlorophyll. (Source: ALL)

	English: chordate
	English definition: The highest phylum in the animal kingdom, characterized by a notochord, nerve cord, and gill slits; includes the urochordate, lancelets and vertebrates. (Source: MGH)

	English: chorology
	English definition: The study of the causal relations between geographical phenomena occurring within a particular region. (Source: CED)

	English: chromatography
	English definition: A method of separating and analyzing mixtures of chemical substances by selective adsorption in a column of powder or on a strip of paper. (Source: MGH)

chromatografische analyse
	English: chromatographic analysis
	English definition: The analysis of chemical substances that are poured into a vertical glass tube containing an adsorbent where the various components of the substance move through the adsorbent at different rates of speed according to their degree of attraction to it, thereby producing bands of color at different levels of the adsorption column. (Source: KOREN)

	English: chromium
	English definition: A hard grey metallic element that takes a high polish, occurring principally in chromite: used in steel alloys and electroplating to increase hardness and corrosion-resistance. (Source: CED)

cinematografische film
	English: cinematographic film
	English definition: Any motion picture of a story, drama, episode or event, often considered as an art form or used as a medium for entertainment. (Source: OED)

	English: classification
	English definition: An arrangement or organization of persons, items or data elements into groups by reason of common attributes, characteristics, qualities or traits. (Source: RHW)

classificatie op basis van het grondgebruik
	English: land use classification
	English definition: The arrangement of land units into a variety of categories based on the properties of the land or its suitability for a particular purpose. It has become an important tool in rural land-resource planning. (Source: WHIT)

	English: climax
	English definition: A botanical term referring to the terminal community said to be achieved when a sere (a sequential development of a plant community or group of plant communities on the same site over a period of time) achieves dynamic equilibrium with its environment and in particular with its prevailing climate. Each of the world's major vegetation climaxes is equivalent to a biome. Many botanists believe that climate is the master factor in a plant environment and that even if several types of plant succession occur in an area they will all tend to converge towards a climax form of vegetation. (Source: WHIT)

	English: code
	English definition: A systematic collection, compendium or revision of laws, rules, or regulations. A private or official compilation of all permanent laws in force consolidated and classified according to subject matter. Many states have published official codes of all laws in force, including the common law and statutes as judicially interpreted, which have been compiled by code commissions and enacted by the legislatures. (Source: WESTS)

	English: codification
	English definition: The process of collecting and arranging systematically, usually by subject, the laws of a state or country, or the rules and regulations covering a particular area or subject of law or practice. (Source: WESTS)

	English: coke
	English definition: A coherent, cellular, solid residue remaining from the dry distillation of a coking coal or of pitch, petroleum, petroleum residue, or other carbonaceous materials; contains carbon as its principal constituent. (Source: MGH)

	English: coliform bacterium
	English definition: A group of bacteria that are normally abundant in the intestinal tracts of human and other warm-blooded animals and are used as indicators (being measured as the number of individuals found per millilitre of water) when testing the sanitary quality of water. (Source: ALL)

colloidale toestand
	English: colloidal state
	English definition: A system of particles in a dispersion medium, with properties distinct from those of a true solution because of the larger size of the particles. The presence of these particles can often be detected by means of the ultramicroscope. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: colloid
	English definition: An intimate mixture of two substances, one of which, called the dispersed phase, is uniformly distributed in a finely divided state through the second substance, called the dispersion medium. (Source: MGH)

	English: colourimetry
	English definition: Any technique by which an unknown colour is evaluated in terms of standard colours; the technique may be visual, photoelectric or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. (Source: MGH)

	English: colubrid
	English definition: Any snakes of the family of Colubridae, including many harmless snakes, such as the grass snake and whip belonging to the Colubridae. (Source: CED)

combinatie land- en bosbouw
	English: agroforestry
	English definition: The interplanting of farm crops and trees, especially leguminous species. In semiarid regions and on denuded hillsides, agroforestry helps control erosion and restores soil fertility, as well as supplying valuable food and commodities at the same time. (Source: ALL)

	English: commercialisation
	English definition: Holding or displaying for sale, offering for sale, selling, delivering or placing on the market in any other form. (Source: ECHO1)

commerciele verspreiding
	English: distributive trade
	English definition: Distribution of material goods to consumers, through retailing and wholesaling. (Source: GOODa)

	English: communications
	English definition: The concept, science, technique and process of transmitting, receiving or otherwise exchanging information and data.

	English: communications policy
	English definition: Measures and practices adopted by governments relating to the management of communication media. (Source: RRDA)

	English: communications industry

	English: means of communication
	English definition: The agents, instruments, methods or resources used to impart or interchange thoughts, opinions or information. (Source: RHW)

	English: communications system
	English definition: A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources designed to exchange information and data by means of mutually understood symbols. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

compenserende belasting
	English: compensatory tax
	English definition: Compulsory charge levied by a government for the purpose of redressing or countervailing economic disparity. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

compenserende maatregel
	English: compensatory measure
	English definition: Any administrative or legislative action, procedure or enactment designed to redress disruptions of ecological integrity or damage to the supply of natural resources. (Source: BLD / RHW)

	English: complex formation
	English definition: Formation of a complex compound. Also known as complexing or complexation. (Source: MGH)

	English: complexing agent
	English definition: A substance capable of forming a complex compound with another material in solution. (Source: MGH)

	English: compost
	English definition: A mixture of decaying organic matter used to fertilize and condition the soil. (Source: MGH)

compost uit afval en (riool)slib
	English: refuse-sludge compost
	English definition: Compost derived by the biodegradation of the organic constituents of solid wastes and wastewater sludges. The major public health issues associated with composting using solid wastes mixed with sewage sludge are pathogens, heavy metal, and odors. The heat generated during composting, as a result of the activities of thermophilic organisms, is capable of killing bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths present in sewage sludge. The metallic elements in sludge of greatest concern to human health are cadmium, lead, arsenic, selenium, and mercury. Only cadmium is normally found in sewage sludge at levels which, when applied to soils, can be absorbed by plants, and accumulate in edible parts, thereby entering the food chain. (Source: CORBIT)

composteerbaar afval
	English: compostable waste
	English definition: Waste consisting largely of biodegradable organic matter.

	English: composting
	English definition: The natural biological decomposition of organic material in the presence of air to form a humus-like material. Controlled methods of composting include mechanical mixing and aerating, ventilating the materials by dropping them through a vertical series of aerated chambers, or placing the compost in piles out in the open air and mixing it or turning it periodically. (Source: LEE)

compostering door de producent
	English: composting by producer

concentratie [proces]
	English: concentration (process)
	English definition: The process of increasing the quantity of a component in a solution. The opposite of dilution. (Source: CED)

concentratie [waarde]
	English: concentration (value)
	English definition: In solutions, the mass, volume, or number of moles of solute present in proportion to the amount of solvent or total solution. (Source: MGH)

concentratie van nederzettingen
	English: settlement concentration
	English definition: The distribution or total amount of communities, villages and houses within a specified geographic area. (Source: RHW)

concurrentie (economisch)
	English: economic competition
	English definition: The market condition where an individual or firm that wants to buy or sell a commodity or service has a choice of possible suppliers or customers. (Source: ODE)

concurrentie [biologisch]
	English: competition (biological)
	English definition: The simultaneous demand by two or more organisms or species for an essential common resource that is actually or potentially in limited supply. (Source: LBC)

	English: restriction on competition
	English definition: Article 85(1) of the EEC Treaty prohibits all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between member states and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the common market. All such arrangements are automatically nulland void under Article 85(2), unless exempted by the Commission pursuant to Article 85(3). The text of Article 85 is as follows: '1. The following shall be prohibited as incompatible with the common market: all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between member states and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the common market, and in particular those which: (a) directly or indirectly fix purchase or selling prices or any other trading conditions; (b) limit or control production, markets, technical development, or investment; (c) share markets or sources of supply; (d) apply dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby placing them at a competitive disadvantage; (e) make the conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by the other parties of supplementary obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with the subject of such contracts. (Source: CLAORG)

	English: competition law
	English definition: That part of the law dealing with matters such as those arising from monopolies and mergers, restrictive trading agreements, resale price maintenance and agreements involving distortion of competition affected by EU rules. (Source: CURZON)

	English: competitiveness
	English definition: The ability of a firm to strive in the market with rivals in the production and sale of commodities or services and, analogously, the ability of a country to maintain a relatively high standard of living for its citizens through trade in international markets. (Source: / OED)

	English: distortion of competition
	English definition: Article 85(1) of the EEC Treaty prohibits all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between member states and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the common market. All such arrangements are automatically nulland void under Article 85(2), unless exempted by the Commission pursuant to Article 85(3). The text of Article 85 is as follows: '1. The following shall be prohibited as incompatible with the common market: all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between member states and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the common market, and in particular those which: (a) directly or indirectly fix purchase or selling prices or any other trading conditions; (b) limit or control production, markets, technical development, or investment; (c) share markets or sources of supply; (d) apply dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby placing them at a competitive disadvantage; (e) make the conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by the other parties of supplementary obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with the subject of such contracts. (Source: CLAORG)

	English: condensation (process)
	English definition: Transformation from a gas to a liquid. (Source: MGH)

Conferentie van Rio
	English: Rio Conference
	English definition: Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, during which the Rio Declaration, a 27-page document, was approved, laying down broad principles of environmentally-sound development. The principal outcomes of the Summit were a declaration, conventions on controlling climate change and preserving biological diversity, and a lengthy agenda outlining the extent of global environmental problems and the measures needed to tackle them in order to achieve the agreed goal of 'sustainable development'. Opinion was divided as to how far the conference could be termed a success. Many environmentalists stressed its failure to set binding targets for resolving environmental problems, and to address adequately the links between third world poverty and environmental degradation. Others, such as many of the world leaders who attended the conference stressed that it should be seen as a first step towards sustainable development, and an important acknowledgment of the seriousness of the problem and of the fact that global co-operation is needed to overcome it. (Source: PHC)

Conferentie van Stockholm
	English: Stockholm Conference
	English definition: The UN Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm in 1972 attended by representatives of nations. Declarations were made aimed at protection of the environment, and the concept of the UN body the United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP, was agreed. An anniversary conference was held in Stockholm in 1982 on 'acidity in the environment'. (Source: BRACK)

	English: congress
	English definition: A formal meeting, often consisting of representatives of various organizations, that is assembled to promote, discuss or make arrangements regarding a particular subject or some matter of common interest. (Source: RHW)

	English: structure-borne noise
	English definition: Sound that travels over at least part of its path by means of the vibration of a solid structure. (Source: CONFER)

	English: container
	English definition: A large case that can be transported by truck and than easily loaded on a ship. (Source: PHC)

	English: continent
	English definition: A protuberance of the earth's crustal shell, with an area of several million square miles and sufficient elevation so that much of it above sea level. (Source: MGH)

continentaal plat
	English: continental shelf
	English definition: The gently sloping seabed of the shallow water nearest to a continent, covering about 45 miles from the shore and deepening over the sloping sea floor to an average depth of 400 ft. It continues until it reaches the continental slope. The continental shelf contains most of the important fishing grounds and a range of resources, including gas and oil, sand and gravel. However, the shelf is, in general, a structural extension of the continent, and so may also be a source of minerals found in that region, such as tin, gold and platinum. (Source: WRIGHT)

continue belasting
	English: continuous load
	English definition: The amount or quantity of polluting material found in a transporting agent that flows at a steady rate, in contrast to a sudden or dramatic influx. (Source: APD)

	English: contour farming
	English definition: The performing of cultivations along lines connecting points of equal elevation so reducing the loss of top soil by erosion, increasing the capacity of the soil to retain water and reducing the pollution of water by soil. (Source: ALLa)

controle op seismische activiteit
	English: seismic monitoring
	English definition: The gathering of seismic data from an area. (Source: BJGEO)

controle op teratogenese
	English: teratogenesis screening

controle van de zee
	English: marine monitoring
	English definition: The assessment of marine pollution by an integrated chemical, ecological and toxicological survey. (Source: ENVAR)

	English: monitoring equipment
	English definition: Specific equipment used in remote sensing. (Source: RRDA)

controlenorm voor bestrijdingsmiddelen
	English: pesticide control standard
	English definition: A norm or measure applicable in legal cases pertaining to the production, dissemination or use of substances designed to mitigate or eliminate insects or small animals that harm vegetation. (Source: BLD / TOE)

controlerende instantie
	English: controlling authority
	English definition: The power of a person or an organized assemblage of persons to manage, direct, superintend, restrict, regulate, govern, administer or oversee. (Source: BLD)

Conventie inzake de internationale handel in bedreigde in het wild levende dier-en plantesoorten
	English: Washington species protection convention
	English definition: A Convention adopted in 1973, providing for the regulation of trade in whole plants and animals, dead or alive, and their readily recognizable parts and derivatives. Excessive international trade has contributed directly to the decline of many wild population of rare and endangered species. The Convention states that a protected species may not be the subject of international trade without a permit granted under the CITES procedures. (Source: GILP96)

Conventie van Bazel
	English: Basel Convention
	English definition: The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary movements on hazardous wastes and their disposal was an agreement drawn up under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). It came into effect in May 1992 and was adopted by 116 governments and the European Community. Its main aim was to impose strict controls on the trans-border transport of hazardous wastes, and on their disposal. It gives developing countries the right to turn away shipments of hazardous waste from their shores. It means that a country exporting substances that it considers hazardous has to get permission for their delivery from the proposed importer, who then has 60 days to issue a 'prior informed consent'. The ultimate goal of the convention is to cut the generation of hazardous wastes to a minimum. (Source: WRIGHT)

Conventie van Bern
	English: Bern Convention
	English definition: Name given to the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. It aims to protect all forms of endangered wildlife in specified parts of Europe. (Source: WRIGHT)

Conventie van Geneve
	English: Geneva Convention
	English definition: A Convention initiated by the UN ECE for the purpose of curbing the incidence of acid rain arising from the long range transportation of pollutants, most notably sulphur dioxide. The Convention was signed in 1979 and came into effect in 1983. Basically, it was a statement of desirable objectives without numerical limits. In 1983 the Nordic Countries proposed a 30% reduction in sulphur dioxide emissions in all member countries to be achieved by 1993. The move was welcomed by most member countries. Regulations began to be introduced requiring power plants to be equipped with high-performance gas scrubbers, unless being retired by 1993. (Source: GILP96)

Conventie van Lome
	English: Lome Convention
	English definition: The Lome Conventions are multilateral trade and development agreements between the EU and the 70 ACP countries. They give the ACP countries associated status with the EU, offering them not only financial assistance but also substantial trading advantages on exports to the EU. The Conventions are the heart of the EU's development policy. Lome I was concluded in 1975, running for five years; it was followed by Lome II (1980), Lome III (1985) and finally Lome IV in 1990, which will run for 10 years, with a budget of ECU 13.2 billion over the first five years. The main focus of the Convention is the long-term development of the countries involved. Lome IV also incorporates agreements for the protection of human rights and the development of democracy. (Source: INFREG)

Conventie van Ramsar
	English: Ramsar Convention
	English definition: The Convention's broad aims are to halt the worldwide loss of wetlands and to conserve, through wise use and management, those that remain. There are currently over 80 countries which are Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention covering 75% of the world's lands. The Ramsar Convention Bureau, based at Gland in Switzerland, provides secretariat support for the implementation of the treaty. The Bureau is funded by annual contributions from each of the contracting countries. Every three years a Conference of Contracting Parties is held where the activities of the Convention are reviewed andnew policies and initiatives are set. (Source: ANBG)

conventionele [niet-nucleaire] energie
	English: conventional energy
	English definition: Power provided by traditional means such as coal, wood, gas, etc., as opposed to alternative energy sources such as solar power, tidal power, wind power, etc. (Source: PHC)

	English: co-ordinate system
	English definition: A reference system used to measure horizontal and vertical distances on a planimetric map. A coordinate system is usually defined by a mapprojection, a spheroid of reference, a datum, one or more standard parallels, a central meridian, and possible shifts in the x- and y-directions to locate x, y positions of point, line, and area features. A common coordinate system is used to spatially register geographic data for the same area. (Source: ESRI)

	English: co-ordination

	English: corrosion
	English definition: A process in which a solid, especially a metal, is eaten away and changed by a chemical action. (Source: CED)

corrosiegraad van water
	English: water corrosivity
	English definition: Complex series of reactions between the water and metal surfaces and materials in which the water is stored or transported. Thecorrosion process is an oxidation/reduction reaction that returns refined or processed metal to their more stable ore state. With respect to thecorrosion potential of drinking water, the primary concerns include the potential presence of toxic metals , such as lead and copper. (Source: WILKES)

	English: cosmetic industry
	English definition: Industry for the production of substances for improving the appearance of the body. (Source: CEDa)

	English: bocage
	English definition: The wooded countryside characteristic of northern France, with small irregular-shaped fields and many hedges and copses. In the French language the word bocage refers both to the hedge itself and to a landscape consisting of hedges. Bocage landscapes usually have a slightly rolling landform, and are found mainly in maritime climates. Being a small-scale, enclosed landscape, the bocage offers much variations in biotopes, with habitats for birds, small mammals, amphibians, reptiles and butterflies. (Source: CED /  DOBRIS)

	English: criminality
	English definition: A violation of the law, punishable by the State in criminal proceedings. (Source: WEBSTEa)

	English: crisis management
	English definition: The technique, practice or science of handling or controlling situations of acute difficulty, danger or instability; or the total of measures taken to provide a solution for political, economic, environmental or other similar dangers and conflicts. (Source: ISEP)

cultureel erfgoed
	English: cultural heritage
	English definition: The inherited body of beliefs, customs, artistic activity and knowledge that has been transmitted by ancestors. (Source: RHW)

culturele ontwikkeling
	English: cultural development
	English definition: The process whereby the capabilities or possibilities inherent in a people's beliefs, customs, artistic activity and knowledge are brought out or made more effective. (Source: PPP /  RHW)

culturele voorziening
	English: cultural facility
	English definition: Any building or structure used for programs or activities involving the arts or other endeavors that encourage refinement or development of the mind. (Source: WCD / OED)

culturelel goederen
	English: cultural goods

	English: cultural policy

	English: cultural indicator
	English definition: Cultural indicators give information about societies, which may be interesting even when one is not trying to evaluate the cultures of thesesocieties from any normative point of view. Cultural indicators may also have an evaluative purpose involving explicit or implicit normative criteria. (Source: UNESCO)

	English: cultivated plant
	English definition: Plants specially bred or improved by cultivation. (Source: CED)

	English: cyanate
	English definition: A salt or ester of cyanic acid containing the radical OCN. (Source: MGH)

	English: cyanide
	English definition: Any of a group of compounds containing the CN group and derived from hydrogen cyanide, HCN. (Source: MGH)

cycloalifatische koolwaterstof
	English: alicyclic hydrocarbon
	English definition: A class of organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms joined to form one or more rings and having the properties of both aliphatic and cyclic substances. (Source: MGH /  RRDA)

	English: cytology
	English definition: A branch of the biological sciences which deals with the structure, behaviour, growth, and reproduction of cells and the functions and chemistry of cell components. (Source: MGH)

	English: cytotoxicity
	English definition: The degree to which an agent possesses a specific destructive action on certain cells or the possession of such action; used particularly in referring to the lysis of cells by immune phenomena and to antineoplastic drugs that selectively kill dividing cells.

	English: opencast mining
	English definition: Extracting metal ores and minerals that lie near the surface by removing the overlying material and breaking and loading the ore. (Source: MGH)

	English: strip mining
	English definition: Superficial mining, in which the valuable rock is exposed by removal of overburden. Coal, numerous nonmetals and metalliferous ores (iron and copper) are worked in this way. Sinonym: strip mining, opencast mining, openpit mining. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: valley
	English definition: Any low-lying land bordered by higher ground; especially an elongate, relatively large, gently sloping depression of the Earth's surface, commonly situated between two mountains or between ranges of hills or mountains, and often containing a stream with an outlet. It is usually developed by stream erosion, but may be formed by faulting. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: dam
	English definition: Structure constructed across a watercourse or stream channel. (Source: LANDY)

	English: fume
	English definition: Solids in the air that have been generated by the condensation of vapors, chemical reactions or sublimation (a direct change from solid to gas). Often metallic oxides or metals, these particles are less than 1 micrometer in diameter and may be toxic. (Source: ALL)

	English: vapour pressure
	English definition: The partial pressure of water vapour in the atmosphere. For a liquid or solid, the pressure of the vapour in equilibrium with the liquid or solid. (Source: MGH)

	English: DDT
	English definition: A persistent organochlorine insecticide, also known as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, that was introduced in the 1940s and used widely because of its persistence (meaning repeated applications were unnecessary), its low toxicity to mammals and its simplicity and cheapness of manufacture. It became dispersed all over the world and, with other organochlorines, had a disruptive effect on species high in food chains, especially on the breeding success of certain predatory birds. DDT is very stable, relatively insoluble in water, but highly soluble in fats. Health effects on humans are not clear, but it is less toxic than related compounds. It is poisonous to other vertebrates, especially fish, and is stored in the fatty tissue of animals as sublethal amounts of the less toxic DDE. Because of its effects on wildlife its use in most countries is now forbidden or strictly limited. (Source: MGH /  ALL)

de drie principes van milieubeleid
	English: trinity of principles
	English definition: Three fundamental principles of environmental policy: precautionary principle, polluter pays-principle and cooperation principle. (Source: RRDA)

de gezamenlijke genen (van een soort)
	English: genetic pool
	English definition: The total number of genes or the amount of genetic information possessed by all the reproductive members of a population of sexually reproducing organisms. (Source: ALL2)

de invloed van veranderingen in het klimaat
	English: climatic effect
	English definition: Climate has a central influence on many human needs and activities, such as agriculture, housing, human health, water resources, and energy use. The influence of climate on vegetation and soil type is so strong that the earliest climate classification schemes where often based more on these factors than on the meteorological variables. While technology can be used to mitigate the effects of unfavorable climatic conditions, climate fluctuations that result in significant departures from normal cause serious problems for modern industrialized societies as much as for primitive ones. The goals of climatology are to provide a comprehensive description of the Earth's climate, to understand its features in terms of fundamental physical principles, and to develop models of the Earth's climate that will allow the prediction of future changes that may result from natural and human causes. (Source: PARCOR)

de kosten van het opwekken van elektriciteit
	English: electricity generation cost
	English definition: The value or amount of money exchanged for the production and sustained supply of charged ion current used as a power source. (Source: EFP / OED)

de toestand van het milieu
	English: state of the environment
	English definition: Condition and trends of different environmental compartments and systems, as regards the influence of human populations, the consumption of non-renewable resources and sustainable development. (Source: RRDA)

de verhoging van de efficientie
	English: improvement of efficiency
	English definition: The beneficial development or progress in the volume of output that is achieved in terms of productivity and input, or in getting the maximum possible output from given or allocated resources. (Source: ODE)

	English: decentralisation
	English definition: Basic organizational leadership concept and process of shifting and delegating power and authority from a higher level to subordinate levels within the administrative/managerial hierarchy in order to promote independence, responsibility, and quicker decision-making in applying or interpreting policies and procedures to the needs of these levels.

	English: decibel
	English definition: A unit used to express relative difference on power, usually between acoustic or electric signals, equal to ten times the common logarithm of the ratio of the two level. (Source: AMHER)

	English: participation
	English definition: The act of sharing or taking part in a civic, community or public action. (Source: RHW)

deelname van het publiek
	English: public participation
	English definition: The involvement, as an enfranchised citizen, in public matters, with the purpose of exerting influence. (Source: NRW)

	English: particle
	English definition: 1) Any very small part of matter, such as a molecule, atom, or electron. 2) Any relatively small subdivision of matter, ranging in diameter from a few angstroms to a few millimeters. (Source: MGH)

	English: particle separator
	English definition: A device for segregation of solid particles by size range, as a screening. (Source: MGH)

degeneratie (biologisch)
	English: devolution
	English definition: The act of assigning or entrusting authority, powers or functions to another as deputy or agent, typically to a subordinate in the administrative structure of an organization or institution. (Source: RHW)

dekking (door een verzekering)
	English: insurance coverage
	English definition: The protection provided against risks or a risk, often as specified by the type of protection or the item being protected. (Source: RHW)

	English: coating
	English definition: A material applied onto or impregnated into a substrate for protective, decorative, or functional purposes. Such materials include, but are not limited to, paints, varnishes, sealers, adhesives, thinners, diluents, and inks. (Source: LEE)

	English: mineral
	English definition: A naturally occurring substance with a characteristic chemical composition expressed by a chemical formula; may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other material or rock. (Source: MGH)

	English: mineral deposit
	English definition: A mass of naturally occurring mineral material, e.g. metal ores or nonmetallic mineral, usually of economic value, without regard to mode of origin. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: mineral resource
	English definition: Valuable mineral deposits of an area that are presently recoverable and may be so in the future; includes known ore bodies and potential ore. (Source: MGH)

	English: mineral industry
	English definition: Industry for the exploitation of minerals from soil deposits by underground excavations or open workings, employing adequate plants and equipment. (Source: FLGISA)

	English: mineral extraction
	English definition: The process of extracting metallic or nonmetallic mineral deposits from the Earth. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: delta
	English definition: A delta is a vast, fan-shaped creation of land, or low-lying plain, formed from successive layers of sediment washed from uplands to the mouth of some rivers, such as the Nile, the Mississippi and the Ganges. The nutrient-rich sediment is deposited by rivers at the point where, or before which, the river flows into the sea. Deltas are formed when rivers supply and deposit sediments more quickly that they can be removed by waves of ocean currents. The importance of deltas was first discovered by prehistoric man, who was attracted to them because of their abundant animal and plant life. Connecting waterways through the deltas later provided natural routes for navigation and trade, and opened up access to the interior. Deltas are highly fertile and often highly populated areas. They would be under serious threat of flooding from any sea-level rise. (Source: WRIGHT)

demineralisatie van water
	English: water demineralisation
	English definition: The removal of minerals from water by chemical, ion-exchange, or distillation procedures. (Source: MGH)

	English: democracy
	English definition: A system of governance in which ultimate authority power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their freely elected agents. (Source: APS)

	English: demography
	English definition: The statistical study of human vital statistics and population dynamics. (Source: LANDY)

demografische evolutie
	English: demographic evolution
	English definition: The gradual pattern of change in the growth of human populations in a particular region or country, from a rapid increase in the birth and death rates to a leveling off in the growth rate due to reduced fertility and other factors. (Source: DOE / ANT)

demografische ontwikkeling
	English: demographic development
	English definition: Growth in the number of individuals of a population. (Source: ZINZANa)

	English: dendrochronology
	English definition: The science of dating the age of a tree by studying annual growth rings. It is also employed to interpret previous environments and climatic variations by examining certain kinds of trees. It is based on the theory that the width of the growth ring reflects the amount of rainfall and the temperature of the year in which it was formed. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: dendrometry
	English definition: The measuring of the diameter of standing trees from the ground with a dendrometer that can also be used to measure tree heights. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: denitrification
	English definition: 1) The loss of nitrogen from soil by biological or chemical means. It is a gaseous loss, unrelated to loss by physical processes such as through leachates. 2) The breakdown of nitrates by soil bacteria, resulting in the release of free nitrogen. This process takes place under anaerobic conditions, such as are found in water-logged soil, and it reduces soil fertility. (Source: WRIGHT /  ALL)

denitrificatie van afvalgas
	English: denitrification of waste gas
	English definition: Current methods for controlling NOx emissions in motor vehicles include retardation of spark timing, increasing the air/fuel ratio, injecting water into the cylinders, decreasing the compression ratio, and recirculating exhaust gas. For stationary sources, one abatement method is to use a lower NOx producing fuel or to modify the combustion process by injecting steam into the combustion chamber. (Source: PZ)

	English: deregulation
	English definition: The removal or relaxation of government control over the economic activities of some commercial entity, industry or economic sector. (Source: ODE)

	English: dermapteran

	English: desorption
	English definition: The process of removing a sorbed substance by the reverse of adsorption or absorption. (Source: MGH)

	English: retail trade
	English definition: The sale of goods to ultimate consumers, usually in small quantities.

	English: exchange policy
	English definition: Course of action or procedure by government, business, or an individual concerning trade activities. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

	English: dialysis
	English definition: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane; usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (Source: MGH)

	English: diatom
	English definition: Unicellular algae, some of which are colonial, green or brownish in colour (but all contain chlorophyll) and with siliceous and often highly sculptured cell walls. Diatoms make up much of the producer level in marine and freshwater food chains, and they have contributed to the formation of oil reserves. Deposits of diatomaceous earths were formed by the accumulation of diatom cell walls. (Source: ALL)

	English: density
	English definition: The mass of unit volume of a substance. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: seal (technical)
	English definition: Any device or system that creates a nonleaking union between two mechanical or process-system elements. (Source: MGH)

	English: didactics
	English definition: The art or science of teaching. (Source: CED)

dienstverlenende bedrijvigheid
	English: services providing company

	English: service area
	English definition: The area served by a particular public facility such as school, library, police station, park, etc. (Source: LANDY)

	English: deep sea
	English definition: Region of open ocean beyond the continental shelf. (Source: ECHO1)

	English: deep sea deposit

	English: deep sea mining
	English definition: The most valuable of the marine mineral resources is petroleum. About 15% of the world's oil is produced offshore, and extraction capabilities are advancing. One of the largest environmental impacts of deep sea mining are discharged sediment plumes which disperse with ocean currents and thus may negatively influence the marine ecosystem. Coal deposits known as extensions of land deposits , are mined under the sea floor in Japan and England. (Source: PARCOR /  ERIB)

	English: deep-sea disposal
	English definition: The disposal of solid waste or sludge by carrying the wastes out to sea, usually in a barge, and dumping into deep water. (Source: WWC)

diepzeevisserij; zeevisserij
	English: deep sea fishing
	English definition: Fishing in the deepest parts of the sea. (Source: PHC)

dieren [algemeen, niet systematisch]
	English: animal
	English definition: Any living organism characterized by voluntary movement, the possession of cells with noncellulose cell walls and specialized sense organs enabling rapid response to stimuli, and the ingestion of complex organic substances such as plants and other animals. (Source: CED)

	English: animal corridor
	English definition: Line corridors (roads, paths, and hedgerows) which lack interior habitat but may serve as movement groups for organisms. Corridors may also provide an efficient migratory pathway for animals. The presence or absence of breaks in a corridor may be a very important factor in determining the effectiveness of its conduit and barrier functions. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: animal shelter
	English definition: A protection providing housing for animals in bad weather.  (Source: RRDA)

	English: animal protection
	English definition: Precautionary actions or procedures taken to prevent or reduce the harm to sentient, non-human species, posed, in most cases, by humans. (Source: ONE /  RHW)

	English: protection of animals

	English: animal biology
	English definition: The scientific study of the natural processes of animals. (Source: CAMBa)

	English: animal ecology
	English definition: A study of the relationships of animals to their environment. (Source: MGH)

	English: animal physiology
	English definition: Study of the normal processes and metabolic functions of animal organisms. (Source: LBC)

	English: animal behaviour
	English definition: Behaviour of animals in their normal environment, including all the processes, both internal and external, by which they respond to changes in their environment. (Source: ALL2)

	English: animal noise
	English definition: Noise caused by animals such as dogs kept in kennels or in private homes as pets. (Source: RRDA)

	English: animal habitat
	English definition: The locality in which an animal naturally grows or lives. It can be either the geographical area over which it extends, or the particular station in which an animal is found. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: animal trade
	English definition: The process or act of exchanging, buying or selling animals, especially livestock. (Source: RHW)

	English: animal housing
	English definition: Any kind of shelter, refuge affording protection to animals. (Source: CEDa)

	English: animal life

	English: crossing place for animals
	English definition: Bridges and tunnels provided for animals for crossing roads and railways. Railway and road infrastructures represent an hindrance to wildlife migration. (Source: DOBRIS)

	English: animal population
	English definition: A group of animals inhabiting a given area. (Source: CED)

	English: animal experiment
	English definition: Investigation carried out in animals for research purposes. (Source: LEEa)

	English: animal rights
	English definition: Just claims, legal guarantees or moral principles accorded to sentient, non-human species, including freedom from abuse, consumption, experimentation, use as clothing or performing for human entertainment. (Source: ONE /  RHW)

	English: animal conservatory
	English definition: Areas for the conservation of rare or endangered animal species. (Source: RAMADE)

	English: animal resource

	English: zoological garden
	English definition: Area in which animals, especially wild animals, are kept so that people can go and look at them, or study them. (Source: CAMB)

	English: animal foodstuff
	English definition: Any crops or other food substances for animal consumption. (Source: MGHa)

	English: animal nutrition
	English definition: Ingestion, digestion and/or assimilation of food by animals. (Source: LBC)

	English: animal disease

	English: veterinary medicine
	English definition: The branch of medical practice which treats of the diseases and injuries of animals. (Source: MGH)

dierlijk afval
	English: animal waste
	English definition: Discarded material from industries directly associated with the raising of animals, such as those wastes produced by livestock farming (manure, milk, etc.), meat production and animal testing (animal bodies, animal parts, feathers, etc.) and fur breeding (fur, blood, etc.). (Source: AWM)

dierlijk erfgoed
	English: animal heritage
	English definition: The sum of the earth's or a particular region's non-human, non-vegetable, multicellular organisms viewed as the inheritance of the present generation, especially animal species deemed worthy of preservation and protection from extinction. (Source: OED)

dierlijk product
	English: animal product

dierlijke erfelijkheidsleer
	English: animal genetics
	English definition: The scientific study of the hereditary material of animals for theoretical and practical applications such as increased population, conservation and disease research. (Source: EEN)

dierlijke mest
	English: animal manure
	English definition: Animal excreta collected from stables and barnyards with or without litter; used to enrich the soil. (Source: MGH)

dierlijke productie
	English: animal production

dierlijke resten
	English: animal remain
	English definition: Any substances or components left over from animal life, including body parts and, later, decomposed materials. (Source: RHW)

dierlijke uitwerpselen
	English: animal excrement
	English definition: Waste matter discharged from the body of an animal. (Source: CED)

dierlijke uitwerpselen als  brandstof
	English: animal dung as fuel
	English definition: Excrement from animals that may be dried and burned to generate energy or converted to liquid or gaseous fuels, such as methane, through chemical processes. (Source: GET)

dierlijke voortplanting
	English: animal reproduction
	English definition: Any of various processes, either sexual or asexual, by which an animal produces one or more individuals similar to itself. (Source: CED)

	English: animal species
	English definition: Species belonging to the animal kingdom. (Source: RRDA)

	English: diesel engine
	English definition: An internal combustion engine operating on a thermodynamic cycle in which the ratio of compression of the air charge is sufficiently high to ignite the fuel subsequently injected into the combustion chamber. (Source: MGH)

	English: diesel fuel
	English definition: Heavy oil residue used as fuel for certain types of diesel engines. (Source: MGH)

	English: differentiation
	English definition: The development of cells so that they are capable of performing specialized functions in the organs and tissues of the organisms to which they belong. (Source: UVAROV)

diffuse bron
	English: diffuse source
	English definition: Pollution which arises from various activities with no discrete source. (Source: GRAHAW)

diffuse verontreiniging
	English: diffuse pollution
	English definition: Pollution from widespread activities with no one discrete source, e.g. acid rain, pesticides, urban run-off etc. (Source: HGD)

	English: diffusion
	English definition: The spontaneous movement and scattering of particles (atoms and molecules), of liquid, gases, and solids. (Source: MGH)

digitaal beeldverwerkingssysteem
	English: image processing digital system
	English definition: A coordinated assemblage of computer devices designed to capture and manipulate pictures stored as data in discrete, quantized units or digits. (Source: GIS)

digitaal terreinmodel
	English: digital land model
	English definition: A representation of a surface's topography stored in a numerical format. Each pixel has been assigned coordinates and an altitude. (Source: CCRS)

digitale beeldverwerkingstechniek
	English: digital image processing technique
	English definition: Techniques employed in the calibration of image data, the correction or reduction of errors occurring during capture or transmission of the data and in various types of image enhancement-operations which increase the ability of the analyst to recognize features of interest. (Source: YOUNG)

	English: digitising
	English definition: The process of converting data to a form used in computers, transmitted or stored with digital technology and expressed as a string of 0's and 1's. (Source: WIC)

	English: dyke
	English definition: An artificial wall, embankment, ridge, or mound, usually of earth or rock fill, built around a relatively flat, low-lying area to protect it from flooding; a levee. A dyke may be also be constructed on the shore or border of a lake to prevent inflow of undesirable water. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: dyke reinforcement
	English definition: The addition of material to strengthen the structure of the dykes. (Source: HARRIS)

	English: dioxin
	English definition: A by-product formed during the preparation of the herbicide 2, 4, 5-T, and sometimes produced by the incineration of chlorinated organic compounds. It may also occur naturally and is distributed widely in the environment, except locally in extremely low concentrations. Substantial amounts were released by the industrial accident of Seveso in 1976. (Source: ALL)

dispersie [chem. en fys.]
	English: dispersion
	English definition: A distribution of finely divided particles in a medium. (Source: MGH)

	English: dispersion calculation
	English definition: The calculation of pollutant dispersion is based on the use of air dispersion models that mathematically simulate atmospheric conditions and behaviour. Dispersion models can provide concentration or deposition estimates and can be used to evaluate both existing and hypothetical emissions scenarios. (Source: ENVAR)

	English: distillation
	English definition: The process of producing a gas or vapour from a liquid by heating the liquid in a vessel and collecting and condensing the vapours into liquids. (Source: MGH)

	English: distilling industry
	English definition: A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the manufacture and marketing of alcoholic beverages made by a distillation process of vaporization and condensation, such as vodka, rum, whiskey and other related beverages. (Source: RHW / SIC)

divers product
	English: miscellaneous product

	English: DNA
	English definition: The principal material of inheritance. It is found in chromosomes and consists of molecules that are long unbranched chains made up of many nucleotides. Each nucleotide is a combination of phosphoric acid, the monosaccharide deoxyribose and one of four nitrogenous bases: thymine, cytosine, adenine or guanine. The number of possible arrangements of nucleotides along the DNA chain is immense. Usually two DNA strands are linked together in parallel by specific base-pairing and are helically coiled. Replication of DNA molecules is accomplished by separation of the two strands, followed by the building up of matching strands by means of base-pairing, using the two halves as templates. By a mechanism involving RNA, the structure of DNA is translated into the structure of proteins during their synthesis from amino acids. (Source: ALL)

	English: document
	English definition: Material of any kind, regardless of physical form, which furnishes information, evidence or ideas, including items such as contracts, bills of sale, letters, audio and video recordings, and machine readable data files. (Source: CCL)

	English: documentary film
	English definition: Any motion picture or movie in which an actual event, era or life story is presented factually, with little or no fiction. (Source: C / RHW)

	English: documentation
	English definition: The process of accumulating, classifying and disseminating information, often to support the claim or data given in a book or article. (Source: OED)

documentatie centrum
	English: documentation centre
	English definition: Centre for assembling, coding, and disseminating recorded knowledge comprehensively treated as an integral procedure, utilizing various techniques for giving documentary information maximum accessibility and usability. (Source: WEBSTE)

	English: documentary system
	English definition: A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources providing written, printed or digitized items that furnish or substantiate information or evidence. (Source: RHW)

	English: target group
	English definition: A collection of people selected and approached by some entity for a variety of purposes, including assistance, recruitment, information dissemination, marketing and research. (Source: RHW)

doelstellingen van individuele economische ondernemingen
	English: goal of individual economic business
	English definition: The aim, purpose, objective, or end for a profit-seeking enterprise engaged in commerce, manufacturing, or a service. (Source: RHW)

door aardbeving veroorzaakte zeegolven
	English: seismic sea wave
	English definition: A large seismically generated sea wave which is capable of considerable destruction in certain coastal areas, especially where submarine earthquakes occur. Although in the open ocean the wave height may be less than one meter it steepens to hights of 15 metres or more on entering shallow coastal water. The wavelength in the open ocean is of the order of 100 to 150 km and the rate of travel of a seismic sea wave is between 640 and 960 km/h. (Source: WHIT)

door bestrijdingsmiddelen gevolgde weg
	English: pesticide pathway
	English definition: The specific or known route or vector of any chemical substance released into the environment to prevent, destroy or mitigate any pest that is directly or indirectly detrimental to harvest crops and other human interests. (Source: TOE / FAI / DOE)

door de mens veroorzaakte klimaatsverandering
	English: man-made climate change
	English definition: Man-made climate changes may be due to the greenhouse effect and other human activities. A change in albedo of the land brought about by desertification and deforestation affects the amount of solar energy absorbed at the earth's surface. Man-made aerosols produced from the sulphur released from power stations can modify clouds. Changes in ozone levels in the stratosphere due to CFCs may influence climate. (Source: WRIGHT)

door de mens veroorzaakte ramp
	English: human-made disaster
	English definition: Violent, sudden and destructive change in the environment caused by man. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

door de wet beschermd recht
	English: legally protected right
	English definition: A justifiable claim to have or obtain something or to act in a certain way, which is supported by law and is covered or shielded from the danger of being revoked or repealed. (Source: OED)

doordrenking (materialen)
	English: impregnation (materials)
	English definition: The forcing of a liquid substance into the spaces of a porous solid in order to change its properties, as the impregnation of wood with creosote to preserve its integrity against water damage. (Source: MGHa)

	English: permeability
	English definition: The ability of a membrane or other material to permit a substance to pass through it. (Source: MGH)

	English: audit
	English definition: The periodic or continuous verification of the accounts, assets and liabilities of a company or other organization, often to confirm compliance with legal and professional standards. (Source: West's / ODE)

doorlopende scholing
	English: continuing education
	English definition: Various forms, methods, and processes of formal and informal education for the continued learning of all ages and categories of the general public. Oriented toward the continued learning/developmental processes of the individual throughout life. (Source: UNUN)

doorsijpeling van water in de bodem
	English: water infiltration into the ground
	English definition: The movement of surface water into soil or rock through cracks and pores. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: flow field
	English definition: The velocity and the density of a fluid as functions of position and time. (Source: MGH)

	English: village
	English definition: A group of houses and other buildings, such as a church, a school and some shops, which is smaller than a town, usually in the countryside. (Source: CAMB)

	English: dosage
	English definition: The amount of a substance required to produce an effect. (Source: CONFER)

	English: dose
	English definition: The amount of test substance administered. Dose is expressed as weight of test substance (g, mg) per unit weight of test animal (e.g., mg/kg), or as weight of food or drinking water. (Source: LEE)

	English: dose-effect relationship
	English definition: The relation between the quantity of a given substance and a measurable or observable effect. (Source: KOREN)

	English: customs
	English definition: Duties charged upon commodities on their importation into, or exportation out of, a country.

	English: customs regulation
	English definition: A body of rules or orders generally issued by the executive authority of a government to establish and direct the taxes, duties or tariffs payable upon merchandise exported or imported. (Source: BLD)

	English: customs tariff
	English definition: An official list or schedule setting forth the duties imposed by a government on imported or exported goods. (Source: OED)

	English: load bearing capacity
	English definition: The maximum load that a system can support before failing. (Source: LEEa)

	English: rotary furnace
	English definition: A heat-treating furnace of circular construction which rotates the workpiece around the axis of the furnace during heat treatment; workpieces are transported through the furnace along a circular path. (Source: MGH)

	English: carrier

	English: beverage
	English definition: Any one of various liquids for drinking, usually excluding water. (Source: AMHER)

	English: beverage industry

	English: propellant
	English definition: A gas used in aerosol preparations to expel the liquid contents through an atomizer. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: drift net fishing
	English definition: The use of fishing nets of great length and depth, aptly described as 'walls of death' because of the huge numbers of marine mammals, birds, and turtles that became ensnared in them. The Tarawa Declaration of 1989 formulated at the 20th South Pacific Forum, aimed at banning drift netting in the South Pacific. In June 1992 the UN banned drift netting in all the world's oceans. (Source: GILP96)

drijvende olielaag
	English: oil slick
	English definition: The mass of oil that floats on a surface of water, which is discharged accidentally, naturally or by design, and can be moved by currents, tides and the wind. (Source: ALL)

	English: drinking water
	English definition: Water that is agreeable to drink, does not present health hazards and whose quality is normally regulated by legislation. (Source: GUNN)

	English: drinking water protection area
	English definition: Area surrounding a water recovery plant in which certain forms of soil utilization are restricted or prohibited in order to protect the groundwater. (Source: AZENP)

	English: drinking water supply
	English definition: The provision and storage of potable water, or the amount of potable water stored, for the use of a municipality, or other potable water user. (Source: ISEP)

droge depositie
	English: dry deposition
	English definition: The accumulation of both particles and gases as they come into contact with soil, water or vegetation on the earth's surfaces. (Source: DES)

	English: drying
	English definition: The process of partially or totally removing water or other liquids from a solid. (Source: ZINZAN)

droog gazon
	English: dry lawn

droogontsmetting van zaad
	English: seed dressing
	English definition: A chemical applied before planting to protect seeds and seedlings from disease or insects. (Source: EPAGLO)

	English: drought
	English definition: A period of abnormally dry weather sufficiently prolonged so that the lack of water causes a serious hydrologic imbalance (such as crop damage, water supply shortage) in the affected area. (Source: MGH)

	English: drought control
	English definition: Measures taken to prevent, mitigate or eliminate damage caused to the ecosystem, especially crops, by a sustained period of dry weather. (Source: ISEP)

	English: pressure
	English definition: A type of stress which is exerted uniformly in all directions; its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (Source: MGH)

	English: printing work
	English definition: The art, process or business of producing reproductions of written text or images in multiple copies, in book, periodical or newspaper formats, or in other similar formats. (Source: SIC / RHW)

	English: printing industry
	English definition: A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the reproduction of written text or images in multiple copies such as books, periodicals, newspapers or other similar formats. (Source: SIC)

druppelsgewijze bevloeiing
	English: trickle irrigation
	English definition: Method in which water drips to the soil from perforated tubes or emitters. This irrigation technology is water conserving compared to flooding, furrows, and sprinklers. (Source: CNIE)

dry farming
	English: dry farming
	English definition: A system of extensive agriculture allowing the production of crops without irrigation in areas of limited rainfall. Dry farming involves conserving soil moisture through mulching, frequent fallowing, maintenance of a fine tilth by cross-ploughing, repeated working of the soil after rainfall and removal of any weeds that would take up some of the moisture. (Source: GOOD)

	English: dune
	English definition: A low mound, ridge, bank, or hill of loose, windblown granular material (generally sand, sometimes volcanic ash), either bare or covered with vegetation, capable of movement from place but always retaining its characteristic shape. (Source: BJGEO)

duurzaam gebruik
	English: sustainable use
	English definition: Use of the environment and its living resources at a rate that does not exceed its capacity for renewal in order to ensure its availability for future generations. (Source: DUNSTE /  UNUNa)

	English: durability
	English definition: The state or quality of being able to last or continue in a particular condition, resisting wear, decay or significant deterioration. (Source: RHW)

	English: principle of sustainability
	English definition: Principle stated by the World Commission on Environment and Development (The Bruntland Commission) in 1987: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations. Sustainable development is a process of integrating economic, social and ecological goals, and should not mean a trade-off between the environment and development. Sustainable development should imply balance rather than conflict. (Source: GRAHAWa)

duurzame goederen
	English: durable goods
	English definition: Goods which have a reasonably long life and which are not generally consumed in use: e.g. refrigerator. (Source: WESTS)

duurzame ontwikkeling
	English: sustainable development
	English definition: Development that provides economic, social and environmental benefits in the long term having regard to the needs of living and future generations. Defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987 as: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Source: GILP96)

duurzame ontwikkelingsindicator
	English: sustainable development indicator
	English definition: Statistical indicators used for measuring sustainable development that may be chosen among a wide range of themes as, for example, environmental capacity and quality of life. (Source: PORT)

	English: penalty
	English definition: 1) A punishment for a crime.2) A sum specified in a contract as payable on its breach but not constituting a genuine estimate of the likely loss. (Source: DICLAW)

	English: ecophysiology
	English definition: The study of biophysical, biochemical and physiological processes used by animals to cope with factors of their physical environment, or employed during ecological interactions with other organisms. (Source: PARCOR)

ecologie (als onderdeel van de sociologie)
	English: human ecology
	English definition: The study of the growth, distribution, and organization of human communities relative to their interrelationships with other humans and other species and with their environment. (Source: UNUN)

ecologie van het water
	English: aquatic ecology
	English definition: The study of the relationships among aquatic living organisms and between those organisms and their environment. (Source: ALLa)

ecologisch bouwen
	English: green building
	English definition: The self-contained dwelling where man simulates the ways of ecosystems, i.e. his wastes are converted to fuel by anaerobic digestion for methane production and the residues from the digestion are used for growing food. The food residues are composted and/or used for methane production. Solar energy is trapped by the greenhouse effect and used for house, crop and water heating. A windmill would be used for electricity. Thus, given sufficient space, sunshine, rainfall and wind, the ecohouse is in theory a self-contained system recycling its own wastes and using the sun as its energy input. (Source: PORT)

ecologisch evenwicht
	English: ecological balance
	English definition: The condition of equilibrium among the components of a natural community such that their relative numbers remain fairly constant and their ecosystem is stable. Gradual readjustments to the composition of a balanced community take place continually in response to natural ecological succession and to alterations in climatic and other influences. (Source: ALL)

ecologisch evenwicht
	English: eco-balance
	English definition: An eco-balance refers to the consumption of energy and resources and the pollution caused by the production cycle of a given product. The product is followed throughout its entire life cycle, from the extraction of the raw materials, manufacturing and use, right through to recycling and final handling of waste. (Source: DUNI)

ecologisch gevoelig gebied
	English: ecologically sensitive area
	English definition: Area where it is likely that a change in some parts of the system will produce a recognizable response. (Source: ALL2a)

ecologische (levens)gemeenschap
	English: ecological community
	English definition: 1) All of the plants and animals in an area or volume; a complex association usually containing both animals and plants. 2) Any naturally occurring group of organisms that occupy a common environment. (Source: LANDY /  ALL)

ecologische aanpassing
	English: ecological adaptation
	English definition: Change in an organism so that it is better able to survive or reproduce, thereby contributing to its fitness. (Source: PHC)

ecologische abondantie
	English: ecological abundance
	English definition: Number of individual specimens of an animal or plant seen over a certain period of time in a certain place. (Source: PHC)

ecologische beoordeling
	English: ecological assessment
	English definition: Ecological assessment consists in monitoring the current and changing conditions of ecological resources from which success or failure of the ecosystem can be judged without bias; understanding more fully the structure and function of ecosystems in order to develop improved management options; developing models to predict the response of ecosystems to changes resulting from human-induced stress from which possible ecosystem management strategies can be assessed and assessing the ecological consequences of management actions so that decisionmakers can best understand the outcomes of choosing a particular management strategy. (Source: ESEPA)

ecologische boekhouding
	English: ecological bookkeeping
	English definition: The systematic accounting or recordkeeping of a company's impact on the environment or its progress towards environmentally sound business practices. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

ecologische cultuur
	English: environmental culture
	English definition: The total of learned behavior, attitudes, practices and knowledge that a society has with respect to maintaining or protecting its natural resources, the ecosystem and all other external conditions affecting human life. (Source: ANT / TOE)

ecologische draagvermogen
	English: ecological carrying capacity
	English definition: 1) The maximum number of species an area can support during the harshest part of the year, or the maximum biomass it can support indefinitely. 2) The maximum number of grazing animals an area can support without deterioration. (Source: ALL)

ecologische factor
	English: ecological factor
	English definition: An environmental factor that, under some definite conditions, can exert appreciable influence on organisms or their communities, causing the increase or decrease in the number of organisms and/or changes in the communities. (Source: UNUN)

ecologische inventarisatie
	English: ecological stocktaking
	English definition: Taking stock of, evaluating, or inventorying a company's impact on the environment or its progress towards environmentally sound business practices. (Source: RHW)

ecologische niche
	English: ecological niche
	English definition: 1) The space occupied by a species, which includes both the physical space as well as the functional role of the species.2) Ecological niche refers to the characteristics of an environment that provides all the essential food and protection for the continued survival of a particular species of flora or fauna. In addition to food and shelter, there is no long-term threat to existence in that place from potential predators, parasites and competitors. The concept of the ecological niche goes a long way beyond the idea of the species habitat. (Source: LBC /  WRIGHT)

ecologische ongelijkheid
	English: ecological inequality
	English definition: Any imbalance or disparity among inhabitants of the same living environment deemed inappropriate, unjust or detrimental to that environment's integrity. (Source: TOE / RHW)

ecologische ontwikkeling
	English: ecodevelopment
	English definition: 1) Conservative development based on long term optimization of biosphere resources.2)An approach to development through rational use of natural resources by means of appropriate technology and system of production which take into account and provide for the conservation of nature. (Source: GREMES /  UNUN)

ecologische parameter
	English: ecological parameter
	English definition: A variable, measurable property whose value is a determinant of the characteristics of an ecosystem. (Source: EPAGLOa)

ecologische zone
	English: ecozone
	English definition: A broad geographic area in which there are distinctive climate patterns, ocean conditions, types of landscapes and species of plants and animals. (Source: SCHNET)

	English: economics
	English definition: The social study of the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth. (Source: GREENW)

	English: economy
	English definition: The system of activities and administration through which a society uses its resources to produce wealth. (Source: GOOD)

	English: economics

economie, financien
	English: economics, finance

economisch beleid
	English: economic policy
	English definition: A definite course of action adopted and pursued by a government, political party or enterprise pertaining to the production, distribution and use of income, wealth and commodities. (Source: RHW)

economisch gebied
	English: economic region
	English definition: A district or an administrative division of a city or territory that is designed according to some material, distributive or productive criteria. (Source: RHW)

economisch managementsinstrumenten
	English: economic management instrument
	English definition: A tool or method used by any organization in the management of developmental processes used in the production of, or in the regulation of, material resources. (Source: OED)

economisch plan
	English: economic plan
	English definition: A design, scheme or project pertaining to the production, distribution and use of income, wealth and commodities. (Source: RHW)

economisch systeem
	English: economic system
	English definition: Organized sets of procedures used within or between communities to govern the production and distribution of goods and services. (Source: TEA)

economische activiteit
	English: economic activity
	English definition: Any effort, work, function or sphere of action pertaining to the production of goods, services or any other resource with exchange value. (Source: RHW / NDECON)

economische analyse
	English: economic analysis
	English definition: The quantitative and qualitative identification, study, and evaluation of the nature of an economy or a system of organization or operation. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

economische concentratie
	English: economic concentration
	English definition: The extent to which a market is taken up by producers within a given industry. (Source: ODE)

economische gegevens
	English: economic data

economische geografie
	English: economic geography
	English definition: The geography of people making a living, dealing with the spatial patterns of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. The development of economic geography over the past three decades has witnessed the substitution of analysis for description, leading to an identification of the factors and an understanding of the processes affecting the spatial differentiation of economic activities over the earth's surface. (Source: GOOD)

economische groei
	English: economic growth
	English definition: An increase over successive periods in the productivity and wealth of a household, country or region, as measured by one of several possible variables, such as the gross domestic product. (Source: ODE)

economische instrumenten
	English: economic instrument
	English definition: Any tool or method used by an organization to achieve general developmental goals in the production of, or in the regulation of, material resources. (Source: OED)

economische levensvatbaarheid
	English: economic viability
	English definition: Capability of developing and surviving as a relatively independent social, economic or political unit. (Source: WEBSTEa)

economische ontwikkeling
	English: economic development
	English definition: The state of nations and the historical processes of change experienced by them, the extent to which the resources of a nation are brought into productive use; the concept of development subsumes associated social, cultural and political changes as well as welfare measures. (Source: GOOD)

economische planning
	English: economic planning
	English definition: An economy in which prices, incomes etc. are determined centrally by government rather than through the operation of the free market, and in which industrial production is governed by an overall national plan.

economische rechten
	English: economic rights
	English definition: The just claims and legal guarantees to access, participate in and profit from the production, distribution and use of property, intellectual property, income and wealth. (Source: RHW)

economische sector
	English: economic sector
	English definition: A part of a country's or region's commercial, industrial and financial activity, delimited either by public, corporate and private organization of expenditures or by agriculture, manufacturing and service product types. (Source: ODE)

economische steun
	English: economic support
	English definition: Any form of financial assistance or inducement for persons or institutions. (Source: ISEP)

economische stimuleringsmaatregel
	English: economic incentive
	English definition: Rewards or penalties offered by government or management to induce an economic sector, company or group of workers to act in such a way as to produce results that plan objectives or policy goals. (Source: ODE)

economische structuur
	English: economic structure
	English definition: The underlying framework, including transportation and communications systems, industrial facilities, education and technology, that enables a country or region to produce goods, services and other resources with exchange value. (Source: MGHME / RHW)

economische theorie
	English: economic theory
	English definition: The study of relationships in the economy. Its purpose is to analyze and explain the behaviour of the various economic elements. The body of economic theory can be divided into two broad categories, positive theory and welfare theory. Positive theory is an attempt to analyze the operation of the economy without considering the desirability of its results in terms of ultimate goals. Welfare theory is concerned primarily with an evaluation of the economic system in terms of ethical goals which are not themselves derived from economic analysis. (Source: GREENW)

economische toestand
	English: economic situation
	English definition: The complex of elements which, in a given period, characterize the condition or state of a country or region's ability to produce goods, services and other resources with exchange value. (Source: trZ / RHW)

economische trend
	English: economic trend
	English definition: Changes of variables and parameters of an economic system, analysed in statistical calculations.

economisch-ecologische efficientie
	English: economical-ecological efficiency
	English definition: The competency in performance in business matters involving the relation between financial and environmental principles. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

	English: eco-paediatrics
	English definition: Branch of medical science concerning the study and the therapy of children diseases caused by environmental factors. (Source: CEDa /  RRDA)

	English: ecosystem
	English definition: A community of organisms and their physical environment interacting as an ecological unit. (Source: LBC)

ecosysteem in water
	English: aquatic ecosystem
	English definition: Any watery environment, from small to large, from pond to ocean, in which plants and animals interact with the chemical and physical features of the environment. (Source: GILP96)

ecosysteem riviermonding
	English: estuarine ecosystem

ecosysteem van bosgebeid
	English: woodland ecosystem
	English definition: The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings in wooded areas or land areas covered with trees and shrubs. (Source: TOE / WOR)

ecosysteem van de bodem
	English: terrestrial ecosystem
	English definition: Any terrestrial environment, from small to large, in which plants and animals interact with the chemical and physical features of the environment. (Source: GILP96)

ecosysteem van de zeebodem
	English: benthic ecosystem
	English definition: The interacting system of the biological communities located at the bottom of bodies of freshwater and saltwater and their non-living environmental surroundings. (Source: TOE / DOE)

ecosysteem van een onvruchtbaar gebied
	English: arid land ecosystem
	English definition: The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings in a climatic region where the annual precipitation averages less than 10 inches per year. (Source: TOE / DOE)

ecosysteem van grasland
	English: grassland ecosystem
	English definition: The interacting system of the biological communities located in biomes characterized by the dominance of indigenous grasses, grasslike plants and forbs, and their non-living environmental surroundings. (Source: TOE / DOE)

ecosysteem van hooglanden
	English: highland ecosystem
	English definition: The interacting systems of the biological communities and their non-living surroundings in regions of relatively high elevation, typically characterized by decreased air pressure and temperature, reduced oxygen availability and increased isolation. (Source: TOE / APD)

ecosysteem van waterrijke gebied
	English: wetlands ecosystem
	English definition: Ecosystems of areas largely inundated with water but offering elevated lands as a habitat for wildlife. This areas include swamps, both seasonal and permanent, marsh, open fresh water, shallow saline lagoons, the estuaries of rivers, floodplains and coastal sand dunes. They provide food, breeding grounds, water and sanctuary for many forms of fish, birds and other animal and plant life. They are among the most productive ecosystems producing timber, peat moss and crops such as rice and a variety of berries. (Source: GILP96 /  WRIGHT)

ecosysteem van/in koude gebieden
	English: cold zone ecosystem
	English definition: The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings located in climatic regions where the air temperature is below 10deg Celsius for eight to eleven months of the year. (Source: TOE / EOC)

	English: ecosystem analysis
	English definition: Detailed study of an ecosystem carried out to ascertain its features from the point of view of its soil composition, energy flux, biogeochemical cycles, biomass, organisms and their relationship with the environment. (Source: RRDA)

ecosystemen van halfdroog land
	English: semi-arid land ecosystem
	English definition: The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings in regions that have between 10 to 20 inches of rainfall and are capable of sustaining some grasses and shrubs but not woodland. (Source: TOE / DOE)

ecosyteem van het tropisch woud
	English: tropical forest ecosystem
	English definition: The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings in forests found in tropical regions near the equator, which are characterized by warm to hot weather and abundant rainfall. (Source: TOE / DOE)

	English: ecotourism
	English definition: Excursions to relatively untouched lands, which for the tourist promise the chance to observe unusual wildlife and indigenous inhabitants. The travel industry, in an attempt to market adventure and authenticity to those travellers weary of 'civilisation' promote travel to environments free of modern technology. Ecotourism's inherent contradiction is the promotion of untouched lands, which immediately become touched by the hands of tourism. (Source: WPR)

	English: ecotoxicology
	English definition: The science dealing with the adverse effects of chemical, physical agents, and natural products on populations and communities of plants, animals and human beings. (Source: GILP96)

ecotoxicologische evaluatie
	English: ecotoxicological evaluation
	English definition: Evaluation of the adverse effects of chemicals, physical agents, and natural products on population and communities and plants, animals and human beings. (Source: GILP96)

	English: ecotype
	English definition: Species that has special characteristics which allow it to live in a certain habitat. (Source: PHC)

een onderneming sluiten
	English: closing down of firm
	English definition: The termination or shutdown, temporary or permanent, of a corporation, factory or some other business organization. (Source: RHW)

een plaats ophogen
	English: raising a site
	English definition: The building up of land by the deposition of allochthonous material, such as rocks, gravel, etc. (Source: RRDA)

een steengroeve ontginnen
	English: quarrying
	English definition: The surface exploitation and removal of stone or mineral deposits from the earth's crust. (Source: MGH)

	English: single family dwelling
	English definition: An unattached dwelling unit inhabited by an adult person plus one or more related persons. (Source: KOREN)

Eerste Kamer
	English: Upper House
	English definition: The body of a bicameral legislature comprising either representatives of member states in a federation or a select number of individuals from certain privileged estates or social classes.  (Source: (Source: CIV / RHW)

eetbare vetten
	English: edible fat
	English definition: An oil that can be eaten as a food or food accessory. (Source: MGH)

effect op het microklimaat
	English: microclimate effect

effect van handel op het milieu
	English: trade impact on environment
	English definition: Trade impacts on the environment can be direct, such as trade of endangered species, of natural resources, of natural products such as tropical timber, etc., or indirect, such as deforestation, loss of habitats, pollution from mining, from energy production, oil spills, global warming, etc., increases in transport infrastructures. (Source: NWFa)

	English: effect
	English definition: Effects include: a) direct effects, which are caused by the action and occur at the same time and place, b) indirect effects, which are caused by the action and are later in time or farther removed in distance, that are still reasonably foreseeable. (Source: LANDY)

	English: efficiency criterion
	English definition: Parameter or rule for assessing the competency in performance of production relative to the input of resources. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

	English: efficiency level
	English definition: The ratio of output to input, usually given as a percentage. (Source: ECHO2)

	English: effluent
	English definition: The waste liquid from domestic sewage, industrial sites or from agricultural processes. Effluents are harmful when they enter the environment, especially in freshwater, because of their polluting chemical composition. (Source: WRIGHT)

EG Raad van Ministers
	English: EC Council of Ministers
	English definition: The organ of the EU that is primarily concerned with the formulation of policy and the adoption of Community legislation. The Council consists of one member of government of each of the member states of the Community, and its presidency is held by each state in turn for periods of six months. (Source: DICLAW)

	English: EC policy

	English: EC ecolabel
	English definition: The European Community (EC) initiative to encourage the promotion of environmentally friendly products. The scheme came into operation in late 1992 and was designed to identify products which are less harmful to the environment than equivalent brands. For example, eco-labels will be awarded to products that do not contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which damage ozone layer, to those products that can be, or are, recycled, and to those that are energy efficient. The labels are awarded on environmental criteria set by the EC. These cover the whole life cycle of a product, from the extraction of raw materials, through manufacture, distribution, use and disposal of the product. The first products to carry the EC eco-labels were washing machines, paper towels, writing paper, light bulbs and hairsprays. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: EU Council
	English definition: The Council of the European Union is an institution which exercises legislative and decision-making powers. At the same time, it is the forum in which the representatives of the Governments of the 15 Member States can assert their interests and try to reach compromises. The Council ensures general coordination of the activities of the European Community, the main objective of which is the establishment of an internal market, i.e. an area without internal frontiers guaranteeing four freedoms of movement - for goods, persons, services and capital - to which should soon be added a single currency. In addition, the Council is responsible for intergovernmental cooperation, in common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and in the areas of justice and home affairs (JHA), including for example matters of immigration and asylum, combating terrorism and drugs and judicial cooperation. (Source: UEEU)

	English: EC directive
	English definition: A type of legislation issued by the European Union which is binding on Member States in terms of the results to be achieved but which leaves to Member States the choice of methods. (Source: BUSIN)

EG-richtlijn betreffende afvalverwerking
	English: EC directive on waste disposal
	English definition: EC Directive whose main object concerns waste prevention, recycling and transformation into alternative energy sources. (Source: DIRAMB)

EG-richtlijn betreffende biociden
	English: EC directive on biocides
	English definition: Directive regulating the placing of biocidal products on the market. (Source: GRAHAW)

EG-richtlijn betreffende de bescherming van water
	English: EC directive on water protection
	English definition: Directive concerning the use and management of water resources for a rational economical and social development and the protection of the related environmental features. (Source: DIRAMB)

EG-richtlijn betreffende verpakkingen
	English: EC directive on packaging
	English definition: EC Directive proposed on 15 July 1992 aiming at harmonizing national measures concerning the management of packaging and packaging waste; the directive covers all packaging placed on the market. (Source: PORT)

	English: EC Treaty

	English: EC regulation

EG-verordening betreffende milieubeheer en
	English: EC regulation on eco-management and audit

EG-verordening inzake bestaande chemicalien
	English: EC regulation on existing chemicals
	English definition: Regulation designed to identify and control of risks deriving from existing chemicals. According to this program the main goal is the collection of basic information about existing chemicals including their uses and characteristics, environmental fate and pathways, toxicity and ecotoxicity. (Source: DOBRIS)

	English: egg
	English definition: A large, female sex cell enclosed in a porous, calcareous or leathery shell, produced by birds and reptiles. (Source: MGH)

eigenaar van het afval
	English: owner of waste
	English definition: Any possessor or proprietor of refuse from places of human or animal habitation, or of unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process. (Source: TOE)

	English: ownership
	English definition: Collection of rights to use and enjoy property, including right to transmit it to others. The complete dominion, title, or proprietary right in a thing or claim. (Source: BLACK)

	English: property protection
	English definition: That benefit or safety which the government affords to the citizens to insure their individual or corporate right to exclusive enjoyment and disposal of property, money and any other thing tangible or intangible that represents a source of income or wealth. (Source: LLL)

	English: right of property
	English definition: The legal guarantee or just claim inhering in a citizen's relation to some physical thing, but especially a plot of land, including the right to possess, use and dispose of it. (Source: BLD)

	English: land and property register
	English definition: The system of registering certain legal estates or interests in land. It describes the land and any additional rights incidental to it, such as rights of way over adjoining land. (Source: DICLAW)

	English: attribute
	English definition: A distinctive feature of an object. In mapping and GIS applications, the objects are points, lines, or polygons that represent features such as sampling locations, section corners (points); roads and streams (lines); lakes, forest and soil types (polygons). These attributes can be further divided into classes such as tree species Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine) for forest types and paved and gravel for road types. Multiple attributes are generally associated with objects that are located on a single map layer. (Source: FORUMT)

	English: oak
	English definition: Any tree of the genus Quercus in the order Fagales, characterized by simple, usually lobed leaves, scaly winter buds, a star-shaped pith, and its fruit, the acorn, which is a nut; the wood is tough, hard, and durable, generally having a distinct pattern. (Source: MGH)

	English: island
	English definition: A land mass, especially one smaller than a continent, entirely surrounded by water. (Source: AMHER)

	English: island ecosystem
	English definition: Unique but fragile and vulnerable ecosystems due to the fact that the evolution of their flora and fauna has taken place in relative isolation. Many remote islands have some of the most unique flora in the world; some have species of plants and animals that are not found anywhere else, which have evolved in a specialized way, sheltered from the fierce competition that species face on mainland. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: archipelago
	English definition: A chain of many islands including the waters that surround them. (Source: DOE)

	English: final storage
	English definition: A system where inert materials, which are not to be mobilized by natural processes even for long time periods, are confined by three barriers: the natural impermeable surroundings, an artificial barrier (such as liner) which can be controlled and, most important, the inert material itself. The concept of final storage includes the possibility to mine the materials in the future if such materials are sufficiently 'clean' (mono-landfills) and if it becomes economic to mine such ores.

	English: protein
	English definition: Any of a class of high-molecular weight polymer compounds composed of a variety of alfa-amino acids joined by peptide linkages. (Source: MGH)

eiwithoudend product
	English: protein product

	English: elasticity
	English definition: Ability of a material to return to original dimensions after deformation. (Source: LEE)

	English: off-site
	English definition: Activities taking place or located away from the site. (Source: AMHER)

	English: electricity
	English definition: A general term used for all phenomena caused by electric charge whether static or in motion. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: electricity company
	English definition: Company which is responsible for the supply and distribution of electric energy to a given area. (Source: RRDA)

	English: electricity supply industry
	English definition: Industry for the supply and distribution of electric power. (Source: RRDA)

	English: electric power plant
	English definition: A stationary plant containing apparatus for large-scale conversion of some form of energy (such as hydraulic, steam, chemical, or nuclear energy) into electrical energy. (Source: MGH)

	English: power station
	English definition: A stationary plant containing apparatus for large-scale conversion of some form of energy (such as hydraulic, steam, chemical, or nuclear energy) into electrical energy. (Source: MGH)

	English: electricity generation
	English definition: The act or process of transforming other forms of energy into electric energy. (Source: LEE)

	English: electricity consumption
	English definition: Amount of electricity consumed by an apparatus. (Source: PHC)

	English: electric power supply

elektrische batterij
	English: electrical storage device

elektrische batterij
	English: electric battery
	English definition: A direct-current voltage source made up of one or more units that convert chemical, thermal, nuclear, or solar energy into electrical energy. (Source: MGH)

elektrische leiding
	English: electric line
	English definition: Wires conducting electric power from one location to another; also known as electric power line. (Source: MGH)

elektrische stroom
	English: electric power
	English definition: The rate at which electric energy is converted to other forms of energy, equal to the product of the current and the voltage drop. (Source: MGH)

	English: electrokinetics
	English definition: The study of the motion of electric charges, especially of steady currents in electric circuits, and of the motion of electrified particles in electric or magnetic fields. (Source: MGH)

	English: electrolysis
	English definition: The production of a chemical reaction by passing an electric current through an electrolyte. In electrolysis, positive ions migrate to the cathode and negative ions to the anode. (Source: DICCHE)

	English: electronics
	English definition: Study, control, and application of the conduction of electricity through gases or vacuum or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (Source: MGH)

elektronisch afval
	English: electronic scrap
	English definition: Any material from electronic devices and systems, generated as a waste stream in a processing operation or discarded after service. (Source: APD / RHW)

elektronisch materiaal
	English: electronic material

elektronische informatienetwerk
	English: electronic information network
	English definition: A system of interrelated computer and telecommunications devices linked to permit the exchange of data in digital or analog signals. (Source: WIC)

elektronische post
	English: electronic mail
	English definition: Information or computer stored messages that are transmitted or exchanged from one computer terminal to another, through telecommunication. (Source: CED / WIC)

	English: electrosmog
	English definition: Pollution caused by electric and magnetic fields generated by power lines, electrical equipment, mobile and cordless phones, radar, electrical household appliances, microwave ovens, radios, computers, electric clocks, etc. (Source: NPLa)

	English: electrical engineering
	English definition: Engineering that deals with practical applications of electricity; generally restricted to applications involving current flow through conductors, as in motors and generators. (Source: MGH)

elektrotechnische apparatuur
	English: electrotechnical equipment
	English definition: All the equipment connected with the technological use of electric power. (Source: CEDa)

elektrotechnische industrie
	English: electrical industry
	English definition: Industry for the production of electric energy. (Source: CED)

elektrotechnische industrie
	English: electrotechnical industry
	English definition: A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the design, manufacture and marketing of machinery, apparatus and supplies for the generation, storage and utilization of electrical energy, such as household appliances, radio and television receiving equipment, and lighting and wiring equipment. (Source: SIC)

elektrotechnische industrie
	English: electrical goods industry
	English definition: Economic activity for manufacturing electric material and devices. (Source: RRDA)

	English: electric vehicle
	English definition: Vehicle driven by an electric motor and characterized by being silent and less polluting. (Source: RRDA)

element dat inwerkt op de oppervlakte
	English: surface active compound
	English definition: Any soluble substance composed of two or more unlike atoms held together by chemical bonds that reduces interfacial tension between liquids or a liquid and a solid, often used as detergents, wetting agents and emulsifiers. (Source: APD / WQA)

elementen uit groep 0
	English: element of group 0
	English definition: A group of monatomic gaseous elements forming group 18 (formerly group 0) of the periodic table: helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn). (Source: DICCHE)

elementen uit groep I (alkalimetalen)
	English: element of group I (alkaline)
	English definition: Any of the monovalent metals lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, and francium, belonging to group 1A of the periodic table. They are all very reactive and electropositive. (Source: CED)

elementen uit groep II (aardalkalimetalen)
	English: element of group II (alkaline earth metals)
	English definition: Any of the divalent electropositive metals beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium, belonging to group 2A of the periodic table. (Source: CED)

elementen uit groep III
	English: element of group III
	English definition: Group III consists of two subgroups: group IIIb and group IIIa. Group IIIa consists of scandium, yttrium, and lanthanium, which is generally considered with the lanthanoids, and actinium, which is classified with the actinoids. Group IIIb, the main group, comprises boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium. (Source: CHSK)

elementen uit groep IV
	English: element of group IV
	English definition: Group IV consists of two subgroups: group IVb, main group, and group IVa. Group IVa consists of titanium, zirconium, and hafnium which are generally classified as transition metals. The main group consists of carbonium, silicium, germanium, tin, and lead. The main valency of the elements is IV, and the members of the group show a variation from nonmetallic to metallic behaviour in moving down the group. The reactivity of the elements increases down the group from carbon to lead. All react with oxygen on heating. (Source: CHSK)

elementen uit groep V
	English: element of group V
	English definition: Group V consists of two subgroups: group Vb, the main group, and group Va. Group Va consists of vanadium, niobium, and tantalum, which are generally considered with the transition elements. The main group consists of nitrogen, phosphorous, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth. (Source: CHSK)

elementen uit groep VI
	English: element of group VI
	English definition: Group VI consists of two subgroups: group VIb, the main group, and group VIa. Group VIa consists of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten. The main group consists of oxygen, sulphur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium. (Source: CHSK)

elementen uit groep VII
	English: element of group VII
	English definition: Any of the elements of the halogen family, consisting of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. (Source: MGH)

	English: emancipation
	English definition: The state of being free from social or political restraint or from the inhibition of moral or social conventions.

	English: embryo
	English definition: An early stage of development in multicellular organisms. (Source: MGH)

	English: embryogenesis
	English definition: The formation and development of an embryo from an egg. (Source: MGH)

emissie door vliegtuigmotoren
	English: aircraft engine emission
	English definition: The formation and discharge of gaseous and particulate pollutants into the environment, especially the stratosphere, chiefly from airplanes, helicopters and other high-altitude aircrafts. (Source: MHE)

	English: emission control
	English definition: Procedures aiming at reducing or preventing the harm caused by atmospheric emissions. (Source: RRDA)

	English: emission source
	English definition: A chemical process, building, furnace, plant or other entity responsible for the discharge of pollutants or contaminants into the environment. (Source: DES / DEP)

	English: emission factor
	English definition: The relationship between the amount of pollutants produced to the amount of raw materials processed, or fuel consumed, in any polluting process. (Source: TOE)

	English: emission data
	English definition: Data concerning pollutants released into the environment from a permanent or mobile installation or from products. (Source: AZENP)

	English: emission standard
	English definition: The maximum amount of discharge legally allowed from a single source, mobile or stationary. (Source: LANDY)

	English: emission reduction
	English definition: The act or process of limiting or restricting the discharge of pollutants or contaminants, such as by setting emission limits or by modifying the emission source. (Source: EEN)

	English: emission register
	English definition: A listing, by source, of the amounts of air pollutants discharged in the atmosphere of a community daily. (Source: LANDY)

	English: emission
	English definition: A discharge of particulate gaseous, or soluble waste material/pollution into the air from a polluting source. (Source: UNUN)

	English: emission situation

	English: emission forecast
	English definition: The final step in a clean air plan is to predict future air quality to demonstrate that we can (if we can) meet the health standards by implementing the measures proposed in the plan. This is done by first projecting the emission inventory into the future, taking into account changes in population, housing, employment in specific business sectors, and vehicle miles traveled. These data are obtained from various sources and the resulting emissions are adjusted to account for regulations and control measures scheduled for implementation during the same time period. Additional adjustments are made to reflect large facilities that are expected to start up, modify, or shut down. The resulting inventory is an emission forecast, and is usually expressed in tons per day of particular pollutants for a given year. Additional steps may be required to determine how the forecasted quantities of air pollution will affect the overall air quality. One way to accomplish this is through computer modeling. A computer model simulates how pollutants disperse, react, and move in the air. The inputs to such a computer model are complex. They include weather patterns, terrain, and the chemical nature of air pollutants. (Source: APCD)

	English: emulsification
	English definition: The process of dispersing one liquid in a second immiscible liquid. (Source: MGH)

	English: emulsion
	English definition: A stable dispersion of one liquid in a second immiscible liquid, such as milk (oil dispersed in water). (Source: MGH)

	English: encyclopaedia
	English definition: A comprehensive, often multivolume, reference work containing articles on a wide rage of subjects or on various aspects of a particular field, usually, alphabetically arranged. (Source: AMHER)

endemische soorten
	English: endemic species
	English definition: Species native to, and restricted to, a particular geographical region. (Source: LBC)

endocrien systeem
	English: endocrine system
	English definition: The chemical coordinating system in animals, that is, the endocrine glands that produce hormones. (Source: MGH)

end-of-pipe technologie
	English: end-of-pipe technology
	English definition: An approach to pollution control which concentrates upon effluent treatment or filtration prior to discharge into the environment, as opposed to making changes in the process giving rise to the wastes. (Source: GRAHAW)

	English: energy
	English definition: The capacity to do work; involving thermal energy (heat), radiant energy (light), kinetic energy (motion) or chemical energy; measured in joules. (Source: LBC)

	English: energy

	English: energy

	English: energy balance
	English definition: The energetic state of a system at any given time. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: power company
	English definition: Company which is responsible for the supply and distribution of electric energy to a given area. (Source: RRDA)

	English: energy management
	English definition: The administration or handling of power derived from sources such as fossil fuel, electricity and solar radiation. (Source: RHW / FFD)

	English: energy demand

	English: energy conservation
	English definition: The strategy for reducing energy requirements per unit of industrial output or individual well-being without affecting the progress of socio-economic development or causing disruption in life style. In temperate developed countries most energy is used in heating and lighting industrial and domestic buildings. Industrial processes, transport and agriculture are the other main users. During the 1970s it was demonstrated that substantial savings could be achieved through appropriate building technologies and the use of energy-efficient equipment for heating, air-conditioning and lighting. Most goods could and should be both manufactured and made to work more efficiently. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: energy policy
	English definition: A statement of a country's intentions in the energy sector. (Source: BRACK)

	English: energy saving
	English definition: Avoiding wasting energy. (Source: PHC)

	English: energy source
	English definition: Potential supplies of energy including fossil and nuclear fuels as well as solar, water, wind, tidal and geothermal power. (Source: PHC)

	English: energy source material
	English definition: Sources from which energy can be obtained to provide heat, light, and power. Energy resources, including fossil and nuclear fuels as well as solar, water, tidal and geothermal energy, may be captured or recovered and converted into other energy forms for a variety of household, commercial, transportation, and industrial applications. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: energy resource
	English definition: Potential supplies of energy which have not yet been used (such as coal lying in the ground, solar heat, wind power, geothermal power, etc.). (Source: PHC)

	English: energy utilisation

	English: energy utilisation pattern

	English: energy recovery
	English definition: A form of resource recovery in which the organic fraction of waste is converted to some form of usable energy. Recovery may be achieved through the combustion of processed or raw refuse to produce steam through the pyrolysis of refuse to produce oil or gas; and through the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes to produce methane gas. (Source: LANDY)

	English: energy industry
	English definition: Industry which converts various types of fuels as well as solar, water, tidal, and geothermal energy into other energy forms for a variety of household, commercial, transportation, and industrial application. (Source: PZ)

	English: energy market
	English definition: The trade or traffic of energy sources treated as a commodity (such as fossil fuel, electricity, or solar radiation). (Source: RHW)

	English: energy conversion
	English definition: The process of changing energy from one form to another. (Source: MGH)

	English: energy storage
	English definition: Amount of energy reserves; often refers to the stocks of non-renewable fuel, such as oil, which a nation, for example, possesses. (Source: PHC)

	English: energy production
	English definition: Generation of energy in a coal fired power station, in an oil fired power station, in a nuclear power station, etc. (Source: RRDA)

	English: energy process
	English definition: Any natural phenomenon or series of actions by which energy is converted or made more usable. (Source: MES)

	English: energy efficiency
	English definition: Refers to actions to save fuels by better building design, the modification of production processes, better selection of road vehicles and transport policies, the adoption of district heating schemes in conjunction with electrical power generation, and the use of domestic insulation and double glazing in homes. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: energy technology

	English: energy consumption
	English definition: Amount of energy consumed by a person or an apparatus shown as a unit. (Source: PHC)

	English: energy dissipation
	English definition: Any loss of energy, generally by conversion into heat. (Source: MGH)

	English: energy supply
	English definition: The provision and storage of energy (the capacity to do work or produce a change), or the amount of energy stored, for the use of a municipality, or other energy user. (Source: ISEP /  FFD)

	English: energy legislation

Engelse tuin
	English: English garden
	English definition: A plot of ground consisting of an orderly and balanced arrangement of masses of flowers, shrubs and trees, following British traditions or style. (Source: CBO)

	English: survey
	English definition: A critical examination of facts or conditions to provide information on a situation. Usually conducted by interviews and/or on-site visitations. (Source: LANDY)

	English: enterovirus
	English definition: Any of a subgroup of the picornaviruses infecting the gastrointestinal tract and discharged in feces, including coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and polioviruses; may be involved in respiratory disease, meningitis, and neurological disease. (Source: KOREN)

	English: enzyme
	English definition: Any of a group of catalytic proteins that are produced by living cells and that mediate and promote the chemical processes of life without themselves being altered or destroyed. (Source: MGH)

	English: epidemic
	English definition: A sudden increase in the incidence rate of a disease to a value above normal, affecting large numbers of people and spread over a wide area. (Source: MGH)

	English: epidemiology
	English definition: 1) The study of the mass aspects of disease.2) The study of the occurrence and distribution of disease and injury specified by person, place, and time. (Source: MGH /  KOREN)

equatoriaal klimaat
	English: equatorial climate
	English definition: Climate characterized by constant temperatures, abundant rainfall and a very short dry season. (Source: RAMADE)

equivalente dosis
	English: equivalent dose
	English definition: A quantity used in radiation protection, expressing all radiation on a common scale for calculating the effective absorbed dose. The unit of dose equivalent is the rem. which is numerically equal to the absorbed dose in rads multiplied by certain modifying factors such as the quality factor, the distribution factor, etc. (Source: KOREN)

	English: easement
	English definition: The rights of use over the property of another; a burden on a piece of land causing the owner to suffer access by another. (Source: DUHA)

erfgoed aan planten
	English: plant heritage
	English definition: The sum of the earth's or a particular region's herb, vegetable, shrub and tree life viewed as the inheritance of the present generation, especially plant species deemed worthy of preservation and protection from extinction. (Source: PPP / OED)

	English: ergonomics
	English definition: The study of human capability and psychology in relation to the working environment and the equipment operated by the worker. (Source: MGH)

	English: erosion
	English definition: The general process or the group of processes whereby the materials of Earth's crust are loosened , dissolved, or worn away and simultaneously moved from one place to another, by natural agencies, which include weathering, solution, corrosion, and transportation, but usually exclude mass wasting. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: erosion control
	English definition: Practices used during construction or other land disturbing activities to reduce or prevent soil erosion. Typical practices include planting of trees and quick growing grass on disturbed areas and other means to slow the movement of water across a disturbed site and trap the soil that does get transported by runoff. (Source: YORK)

	English: ore
	English definition: A mineral or mineral aggregate, more or less mixed with gangue, that can be worked and treated at a profit. (Source: ALL)

	English: aesthetics
	English definition: Considerations, values, and judgements pertaining to the quality of the human perceptual experience (including sight, sound, smell, touch, taste, and movement) evoked by phenomena or components of the environment. (Source: UNUN)

	English: estuary
	English definition: Area at the mouth of a river where it broadens into the sea, and where fresh and sea water intermingle to produce brackish water. The estuarine environment is very rich in wildlife, particularly aquatic, but it is very vulnerable to damage as a result of the actions of humans. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: estuary pollution
	English definition: Contamination of the generally broad portion of a stream near its outlet which is influenced by the tide of the water body into which it flows. Many estuaries have become badly contaminated by wastes that have been generated from heavily populated areas.

	English: ethanol
	English definition: A colorless liquid, miscible with water, used as a reagent and solvent. Also known as alcohol; ethyl alcohol; grain alcohol. (Source: MGH)

	English: ether
	English definition: A colorless liquid, slightly soluble in water; used as a reagent, intermediate, anesthetic, and solvent. (Source: MGH)

	English: ethics
	English definition: The philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it. (Source: AMHER)

	English: ethology
	English definition: The study of animal behaviour in a natural context. (Source: MGH)

	English: labelling
	English definition: Attaching a notice to a product or container bearing information concerning its contents, proper use, manufacturer and any cautions or hazards of use. (Source: KOREN)

	English: obligation to label
	English definition: The legal responsibility or duty compelling manufacturers to affix certain marks or other written identification to their products, as is directed by laws, regulations or government standards. (Source: BLD / FPL)

	English: etching
	English definition: The incision of lines on a plate of metal, glass, or other material by covering it with an acid-resistant coating, scratching through the coating, and then permitting an acid bath to erode exposed parts of the plate. (Source: MGH)

etsende stoffen
	English: etching substance
	English definition: Substance capable of wearing away the surface of a metal, glass, etc. by chemical action. (Source: CEDa)

	English: Euratom
	English definition: A precursor to the European Community, the European Atomic Energy Community was founded in 1958 by the European Common Market to conduct research, develop nuclear energy, create a common market for nuclear fuels and supervise the nuclear industry so as to prevent abuse and protect health. (Source: ERD)

	English: Europe
	English definition: The second smallest continent, forming the W extension of Eurasia: the border with Asia runs from the Urals to the Caspian and the Black Sea. The coastline is generally extremely indented and there are several peninsulas (notably Scandinavia, Italy and Iberia) and offshore islands (including the British Isles and Iceland). It contains a series of great mountain systems in the south (Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines, Carpathians, Caucasus), a large central plain, and a N region of lakes and mountains in Scandinavia. (Source: CED)

Europees Eenheidsverdrag
	English: single European act
	English definition: A 1987 amendment to the founding treaties dealing primarily with the internal market,European Political Cooperation (EPC), and institutional reform of the EC. The measures covered by the legislation include: the elimination of frontiers controls, the acceptance throughout the market of professional qualification, the acceptance of natural standards for product harmonization, open tendering for public supply contracts, the free movement of capital between states, etc. (Source: INFOAB /  DICLAW)

Europees Hof van Justitie
	English: European Court of Justice
	English definition: The supreme court of The European Union which oversees the application of theEU treaties, decides upon the validity and the meaning of Community legislation and determines whether any act or omission by the European Commission, the Council of Minister or any member state constitutes a breach of Community law. (Source: EUEN /  DICLAW)

Europees Hof van Justitie
	English: Court of Justice of the European Communities
	English definition: Institution set up under Treaty of Rome to ensure that in interpretation and application of the Treaty the law is observed. It consists of judges from each member state, appointed for 6-year periods, assisted by three Advocates General. It sits in Luxembourg, expressing itself in judgements when called upon to do so in proceedings initiated by member states, institutions of the EC and natural or legal persons. Procedures are generally inquisitorial. (Source: CURZON)

Europees Milieuagentschap
	English: European Environment Agency
	English definition: The EEA is being set up to provide the European Community and its member states with objective, reliable and standardized information on the environment. It will assess the success of existing environmental policies and the data will be used to develop new policies for environmental protection measures. It will gather information covering the present, and foreseeable, state of the environment. The priority area are: air quality and emissions; water quality, pollutants and resources; soil quality, flora and fauna, and biotopes; land use and natural resources; waste management; noise pollution; chemicals; and protection of coastal areas. The Agency will also take into account the socio-economics dimension, cover transboundary and international matters, and avoid the duplication of the activities of other bodies. (Source: WRIGHT)

Europees Monetair Stelsel
	English: European Monetary System
	English definition: An organization established in Europe in 1979 to coordinate financial policy and exchange rates for the continent by running the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) and assisting movement toward a common European currency and a central European bank. (Source: ODE)

EuroPees natuurreservaat
	English: European nature reserve

Europees Parlement
	English: European Parliament
	English definition: Formerly the 'Assembly' of EEC. Comprises some 520 'representatives of the peoples' of European Community states, directly elected, and based in Strasbourg. Exercises advisory and supervisory powers; debates and passes resolutions and may veto admission of new member states. (Source: CURZON)

Europese binnenmarkt
	English: internal European market

Europese Commissie
	English: European Commission
	English definition: The European Union's administrative body, composed of twenty independent members appointed by the Member States for five-year terms and vested with powers of initiative, implementation, management and control according to the mandates established in EU Treaties or handed down by the EU Council. (Source: EUR)

Europese Gemeenschappen
	English: European Communities
	English definition: The collective body that resulted in 1967 from the merger of the administrative networks of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), and the European Economic Community (EEC). The singular term has also been widely used. (Source: ABDN)

Europese Herstelprogramma
	English: European Recovery Programme

Europese Milieuraad
	English: European Environmental Council

Europese Monetair Fonds
	English: European Monetary Fund
	English definition: Fund organized by the European Monetary System in which members of the European Community deposit reserves to provide a pool of resources to stabilize exchange rates and to finance balance of payments in support of the pending full European Monetary Union.

Europese norm
	English: European standard
	English definition: A standard which has been approved pursuant to the statutes of the standards bodies with which the Community has concluded agreements. (Source: ECHO2)

Europese Unie
	English: European Union
	English definition: The 15 nations (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the UK, Austria, Finland and Sweden) that have joined together to form an economic community with common monetary, political and social aspirations. The EU came into being on 1 November 1993 according to the terms of the Maastricht Treaty; it comprises the three European Communities, extended by the adoption of a common foreign and security policy which requires cooperation between member states in foreign policy and security and cooperation in justice and home affairs. (Source: DICLAW)

	English: eutrophication
	English definition: A process of pollution that occurs when a lake or stream becomes over-rich in plant nutrient; as a consequence it becomes overgrown in algae and other aquatic plants. The plants die and decompose. In decomposing the plants rob the water of oxygen and the lake, river or stream becomes lifeless. Nitrate fertilizers which drain from the fields, nutrients from animal wastes and human sewage are the primary causes of eutrophication. They have high biological oxygen demand (BOD). (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: evaluation

evaluatie van technologie
	English: evaluation of technology

	English: evaluation criterion
	English definition: A standard, norm, value or measurement by which the quantity or quality of a process, object or person's work performance is ascertained through an analysis and judgment of the relevant information in context and in view of established goals, objectives and standards. (Source: DAM)

	English: evaluation method

	English: evolution
	English definition: The biological theory or process whereby species of plants and animals change with the passage of time so that their descendants differ from their ancestors, i.e. development from earlier forms by hereditary transmission of slight variations in successive generations. (Source: UNUN)

exacte wetenschap(pen)
	English: exact science
	English definition: Mathematics and other sciences based on calculation. (Source: CED)

executie (hypotheek)
	English: foreclosure
	English definition: To shut out, to bar, to destroy an equity of redemption. A termination of all rights of the mortgagor or his grantee in the property covered by the mortgage. The process by which a mortgagor of real or personal property, or other owner of property subject to a lien, is deprived of his interest therein. Procedure by which mortgaged property is sold on default of mortgagor in satisfaction of mortgage debt. In common usage, refers to enforcement of lien, trust deed, or mortgage in any method provided by law. (Source: WESTS)

	English: forwarding agent
	English definition: A person or business that specializes in the shipment and receiving of goods. (Source: OED)

	English: experiment
	English definition: A test under controlled conditions that is made to demonstrate a known truth, examine the validity of a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy of something previously untried. (Source: MGH)

experimentele studie
	English: experimental study
	English definition: Study based on experimentation. (Source: CED)

	English: expert system
	English definition: A computer configuration of hardware and software that simulates the judgment and behavior of a human or an organization with extensive knowledge in a particular field, often by giving answers, solutions or diagnoses. (Source: RHW / WIC)

exploitatie van (natuurlijke) hulpbronnen
	English: resource exploitation

exploitatie van de oceaan
	English: ocean exploitation
	English definition: The utilization of the ocean for its food resources, mineral resources, and energy and water sources. (Source: PARCORa)

exploitatie van de zeebodem
	English: sea bed exploitation
	English definition: Marine mineral resources extend far beyond those presently exploited; minerals are derived from two separate types of marine sources: from sedimentary deposits underlying the continental shelves and from inshore deposits on the surface of the continental shelves. By far the most valuable of the mineral resources exploited from marine environments is petroleum. Offshore placer deposits on the surface of the continental shelves yield gold, platinum, and tin. On the floors of the world's oceans manganese nodules are found as a result of pelagic sedimentation or precipitation; they are small, irregular, black to brown, friable, laminated concretionary masses consisting primarily of manganese salts and manganese-oxide minerals. (Source: PARCOR /  BJGEO)

extensieve veehouderij
	English: extensive cattle farming
	English definition: Farming system practiced in very large farms, characterized by low levels of inputs per unit area of land; in such situations the stocking rate, the number of livestock units per area , is low. (Source: GOODa)

extractieve bedrijfstakken
	English: extractive industry
	English definition: Primary activities involved in the extraction of non-renewable resources. (Source: GOOD)

	English: industrial plant (building)
	English definition: Buildings where the operations related to industrial productive processes are carried out. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: plant equipment
	English definition: The equipment, including machinery, tools, instruments, and fixtures necessary for an industrial or manufacturing operation. (Source: AMHER)

	English: manufacturing trade
	English definition: The process or act of exchanging, buying or selling any manufactured product, or the raw materials for any manufacturing process. (Source: RHW /  ISEP)

	English: faecal bacterium
	English definition: Bacteria contained in human and animal faeces. (Source: RRDA)

	English: family
	English definition: A group comprising parents, offsprings and others closely related or associated with them. (Source: LBC)

	English: family law
	English definition: Branch of specialty of law, also denominated 'domestic relations' law, concerned with such subjects as adoption, annulment, divorce, separation, paternity, custody, support and child care. (Source: BLACK)

farmaceutische industrie
	English: pharmaceutical industry
	English definition: Concerted activity concerned with manufacturing pharmaceutical goods. (Source: MGH)

	English: pharmacokinetics
	English definition: The study of the rates of absorption, tissue distribution, biotransformation, and excretion. (Source: LEE)

	English: pharmacology
	English definition: The science dealing with the nature and properties of drugs, particularly their actions. (Source: MGH)

	English: fauna
	English definition: The entire animal life of a given region, habitat or geological stratum. (Source: LBC)

	English: bastardisation of fauna
	English definition: One of the possible consequences of the introduction of animal species in an area where they are not indigenous. Such translocation of species always involves an element of risk if not of serious danger. Newly arrived species may be highly competitive with or otherwise adversely affect native species and communities. (Source: RRDA /  WPRa)

federaal recht (D)
	English: federal law
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules established by a government that has been constituted as a union of independent political units or states. (Source: BLD)

Federal Immission Control Act
	English: Federal Immission Control Act
	English definition: The 1974 act, which protects against environmentally harmful effects of air pollution, noise, vibration and similar occurrences, was redrafted on 14/5/90, and amended last on 23/11/95. It forms the basis of nation-wide, comprehensive law on air quality, noise abatement and plant safety. The act contains, among other things, regulations for the construction and running of environmentally hazardous facilities, requirements for substances, the composition and running of motor vehicles, protection of particular areas and the appointment of company representatives for immissions and faults. (Source: UBADE)

federale overheid
	English: federal authority
	English definition: The power of a central government agency or its administrators to carry out the terms of the law creating the agency as well as to administer and implement regulations, laws and government policies. (Source: BLD)

federale regering
	English: federal government
	English definition: A system in which a country or nation formed by a union or confederation of independent states is governed by a central authority or organization. (Source: BLD)

	English: phenol
	English definition: A white crystalline soluble poisonous acidic derivative of benzene, used as an antiseptic and disinfectant and in the manufacture of resins, nylon, dyes, explosives and pharmaceuticals. (Source: CED)

	English: pheromone
	English definition: Any substance secreted by an animal which influences the behaviour of other individuals of the same species. (Source: MGH)

	English: bicycle
	English definition: A vehicle with two wheels in tandem, pedals connected to the rear wheel by a chain, handlebars for steering, and a saddlelike seat.

	English: cycle path
	English definition: Part of the road or a special path for the use of people riding bicycles. (Source: CAMB)

fijne stof
	English: fine dust
	English definition: Air-borne solid particles, originating from human activity and natural sources, such as wind-blown soil and fires, that eventually settle through the force of gravity, and can cause injury to human and other animal respiratory systems through excessive inhalation. (Source: ALL)

	English: precision engineering
	English definition: Research and development, design, manufacture and measurement of high accuracy components and systems. It is related to mechanical, electronic, optical and production engineering, physics, chemistry, and computer and materials science. (Source: ASPE)

	English: film
	English definition: A motion picture; a thin flexible strip of cellulose coated with a photographic emission, used to make negatives and transparencies. (Source: CED)

	English: philosophy
	English definition: The academic discipline concerned with making explicit the nature and significance of ordinary and scientific beliefs and investigating the intelligibility of concepts by means of rational argument concerning their presuppositions, implications, and interrelationships; in particular, the rational investigation of the nature and structure of reality (metaphysics), the resources and limits of knowledge (epistemology), the principles and import of moral judgment (ethics), and the relationship between language and reality (semantics). (Source: CED)

	English: filter
	English definition: A porous material for separating suspended particulate matter from liquids by passing the liquid through the pores in the filter and sieving out the solids. (Source: MGH)

filteren van een beeld
	English: image filtering
	English definition: A remote sensing term related to image enhancement that refers to the removal of a spatial component of electromagnetic radiation. (Source: WHITa)

	English: filter cake
	English definition: Accumulated solids, wet or dry, generated by any filtration process, including accumulation on fabric filters in air filtering processes, or accumulation of wet solids in liquid filtering processes. (Source: EED /  ISEP)

	English: filtration
	English definition: Separation of suspended particles from a liquid, gas, etc., by the action of a filter. (Source: CED)

financieel beheer
	English: financial management
	English definition: The management of acquisitions and the use of long- and short-term capital by a business.

financieel fonds
	English: financial fund
	English definition: Monetary resources set aside for some purpose. (Source: RHW)

financieel instrumenten
	English: financial instrument
	English definition: A generic term that refers to the many different forms of financing a business may use. For example - loans, shares, and bonds are all considered financing instruments. (Source: PGE)

financiele bijdrage
	English: financial contribution
	English definition: Something given, including any form of income or price support; individual investor's monetary offering or contribution to common fund or stock; government agency's or lending aid agency's subsidy, grant, or other contribution to help bolster an economy. (Source: OED)

financiele hulp
	English: financial aid
	English definition: The transfer of funds from developed to underdeveloped countries. (Source: GOODa)

financiele markt
	English: financial market
	English definition: A place or institution in which buyers and sellers meet and trade monetary assets, including stocks, bonds, securities and money. (Source: RHW)

financiele ondersteuning
	English: financial assistance
	English definition: Help and support provided on matters concerning money. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

financiele vergoeding
	English: financial compensation
	English definition: The financial reparations that a claimant seeks or a court awards for injuries sustained or property harmed by another. (Source: IVW)

financiele wet
	English: financial law

	English: finances
	English definition: The monetary resources or revenue of a government, company, organization or individual. (Source: RHW)

	English: financing
	English definition: Procurement of monetary resources or credit to operate a business or acquire assets. (Source: WESTS)

	English: rainout
	English definition: Process by which particles in the atmosphere act as centres round which water can form drops which then falls as rain. (Source: PHC)

	English: apartment block
	English definition: An apartment building in which each apartment is individually wholly owned and the common areas are jointly owned. (Source: CED)

	English: bottle cap

flora (gezamenlijke vegetatie)
	English: flora (biology)
	English definition: The plant life characterizing a specific geographic region or environment. (Source: MGH)

	English: flora restoration
	English definition: The process of returning plant ecosystems and habitats to their original conditions. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: bastardisation of flora
	English definition: One of the possible consequences of the introduction of plant species in an area where they are not indigenous. (Source: RRDA)

	English: flotation
	English definition: A process used to separate particulate solids by causing one group of particles to float; utilizes differences in surface chemical properties of the particles, some of which are entirely wetted by water, others are not. (Source: MGH)

	English: fluidics
	English definition: A control technology that employs fluid dynamic phenomena to perform sensing, control, information, processing, and actuation functions without the use of moving mechanical parts. (Source: MGH)

	English: fluorine
	English definition: A gaseous or liquid chemical element; a member of the halide family, it is the most electronegative element and the most chemically energetic of the nonmetallic elements; highly toxic, corrosive, and flammable; used in rocket fuels and as a chemical intermediate. (Source: MGH)

	English: fluoridation
	English definition: The addition of the fluorine ion to municipal water supplies in a final concentration of 0.8-1.6 ppm (parts per million) to help prevent dental caries in children. (Source: MGH)

	English: breeding
	English definition: The application of genetic principles to the improvement of farm animals and cultivated plants. (Source: MGH)

	English: breeding technique
	English definition: Term referring to the systems employed in animal rearing (extensive and intensive). (Source: RRDA)

	English: folklore
	English definition: The traditional and common beliefs, practices and customs of a people, which are passed on as a shared way of life, often through oral traditions such as folktales, legends, anecdotes, proverbs, jokes and other forms of communication. (Source: VFP)

	English: fountain
	English definition: A stream of water that is forced up into the air through a small hole, especially for decorative effect or the structure in a lake or pool from which this flows. (Source: CAMB)

	English: phosphate
	English definition: 1) Generic term for any compound containing a phosphate group.2) Any salt or ester of any phosphoric acid, especially a salt of orthophosphoric acid. (Source: MGH /  CED)

	English: substitution of phosphate
	English definition: Replacement of phosphate in detergents by environmentally safer substances, such as zeolite. The substitute will not act as a nutrient, and so will not cause eutrophication as a result of the accelerated growth of plants and microorganisms if it is released into waterways. (Source: WRIGHTa)

	English: phosphate substitute
	English definition: All substances that are able to substitute phosphate compounds in detergents; they must have the same chemical and physical properties and must be less polluting for the environment. (Source: RRDA)

	English: phosphate removal
	English definition: Replacement of phosphate in detergents by environmentally safer substances, such as zeolite. The substitute will not act as a nutrient, and so will not cause eutrophication as a result of the accelerated growth of plants and microorganisms if it is released into waterways. (Source: WRIGHTa)

	English: phosphorus
	English definition: A nonmetallic element used to manufacture phosphoric acid, in phosphor bronzes, incendiaries, pyrotechnics, matches, and rat poisons; the white or yellow allotrope is a soft waxy solid, soluble in carbon disulfide, insoluble in water and alcohol, and is poisonous and self-igniting in air; the red allotrope is an amorphous powder, insoluble in all solvents and is nonpoisonous; the black allotrope comprises lustrous crystals similar to graphite, and is insoluble in most solvents. (Source: MGH)

fosforzuurhoudende meststof
	English: phosphatic fertiliser
	English definition: Fertilizer compound or mixture containing available (soluble) phosphate; examples are phosphate rock (phosphorite), superphosphates or triple superphosphates, nitrophosphate, potassium phosphate, or N-P-K mixtures. (Source: MGH)

	English: fossil
	English definition: Any remains, trace, or imprint of a plant or animal that has been preserved in the Earth's crust since some past geologic or prehistoric time. (Source: BJGEO)

fossiele brandstof
	English: fossil fuel
	English definition: The energy-containing materials which were converted over many thousands of years from their original form of trees, plants and other organisms after being buried in the ground. Physical and chemical processes occurred in the Earth's crust that changed them into coal, peat, oil or natural gas. (Source: WRIGHT)

fossiele bron
	English: plane source
	English definition: Pollution which arises from various activities with no discrete source. (Source: GRAHAW)

	English: photograph
	English definition: An image captured by a camera or some other device and reproduced as a picture, usually on a sensitized surface and formed by the chemical action of light or of radiant energy. (Source: MHD / RHW)

fotochemisch effect
	English: photochemical effect
	English definition: The result or consequence of a chemical reaction caused by light or ultraviolet radiation. (Source: MHD)

fotochemisch middel
	English: photochemical agent
	English definition: Agents which trigger off photochemical reactions. (Source: RRDA)

fotochemische oxidant
	English: photochemical oxidant
	English definition: Any of the chemicals which enter into oxidation reactions in the presence of light or other radiant energy. (Source: MGH)

fotochemische product
	English: photochemical product
	English definition: Degradation products that are produced by the action of light radiation. (Source: FLGISAa)

fotochemische reactie
	English: photochemical reaction
	English definition: Chemical reaction which is initiated by light of a specific wavelength. In an environmental context an example is the potential action of ultraviolet light on CFCs which may bring about the detrimental degradation of the ozone layer. Photochemical reactions initiate the process of photosynthesis in which plants convert carbon dioxide into sugars, which are incorporated into cell materials. (Source: GRAHAW)

fotochemische smog
	English: photochemical smog
	English definition: A combination of fog and chemicals that come from automobile and factory emissions and is acted upon by the action of the sun. Nitrogen dioxide, in the presence of the sun and some hydrocarbons, is turned into nitric oxide and atomic oxygen. The atomic oxygen reacts with the oxygen molecules and other constituents of automobile exhaust fumes to form a variety of products including ozone. The ozone is harmful in itself and is also implicated in a highly complex series of continuing reactions. As long as there is ozone or nitrogen dioxide and sunlight present, other undesirable reactions will occur.

fotochemische vervuiling
	English: photochemical pollution
	English definition: Air pollution containing ozone and other reactive chemical compounds formed by the action of sunlight on nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, especially those in automobile exhaust.

	English: photography
	English definition: The process of forming visible images directly or indirectly by the action of light or other forms of radiation on sensitive surfaces. (Source: MGH)

	English: photogrammetry
	English definition: The process of making measurements from photographs, used especially in the construction of maps from aerial photographs and also in military intelligence, medical and industrial research, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: photosynthesis
	English definition: The process by which plants transform carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and other compounds, using energy from the sun captured by chlorophyll in the plant. Oxygen is a by-product of the process. Photosynthesis is the essence of all plant life (autotrophic production) and hence of all animal life (heterotrophic production) on the planet Earth. The rate of photosynthesis depends on climate, intensity and duration of sunlight, available leaf area, soil nutrient availability, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, and soil moisture regimes. (Source: DUNSTE)

Franse tuin
	English: French formal garden

freatisch water
	English: water table
	English definition: Water that occupies pores, cavities, cracks and other spaces in the crustal rocks. It includes water precipitated from the atmosphere which has percolated through the soil, water that has risen from deep magmatic sources liberated during igneous activity and fossil water retained in sedimentary rocks since their formation. The presence of groundwater is necessary for virtually all weathering processes to operate. Phreatic water is synonymous with groundwater and is the most important source of any water supply. (Source: WHIT)

	English: freon
	English definition: Trade name for a group of polyhalogenated hydrocarbons containing fluorine and chlorine; an example is trichlorofluoromethane. (Source: MGH)

	English: fruit
	English definition: A fully matured plant ovary with or without other floral or shoot parts united with it at maturity. (Source: MGH)

	English: fruit cultivation
	English definition: Cultivation of fruit trees for home consumption or on a commercial basis. (Source: CED)

functionele (geschikte) termen
	English: functional terms

	English: furan
	English definition: A colourless flammable toxic liquid heterocyclic compound, used in the synthesis of nylon. (Source: CED)

fysico-chemische analyse
	English: physicochemical analysis
	English definition: Analysis based on the physical changes associated with chemical reactions. (Source: UVAROVa)

fysico-chemische behandeling
	English: physicochemical treatment
	English definition: Any processing of wastewater, toxic substances or other materials involving a combination of physical and chemical methods, such as physical processes including air-stripping or filtration and chemical processes including coagulation, chlorination or ozonation. (Source: TOE)

fysico-chemische processen
	English: physicochemical process
	English definition: Processes involving changes in the physical properties and chemical structure of substances. (Source: CED)

fysico-chemische zuivering
	English: physicochemical purification
	English definition: Used to concentrate waste brines and to remove solid organics and ammonia from aqueous solutions. Physical treatment consists of reverse osmosis, dialysis, electrodialysis, evaporation, carbon, adsorption, ammonia stripping, filtration, sedimentation, and flocculation. Chemical treatment consists of ion exchange, neutralization, oxidation, reduction, precipitation, and calcination.

	English: physiology
	English definition: The biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts. (Source: AMHER)

fysisch milieu
	English: physical environment
	English definition: The material surroundings of a system, process or organism. (Source: APD)

fysische aspecten, geluid,trillingen, straling
	English: physical aspects, noise, vibrations, radiations

fysische chemie
	English: physical chemistry
	English definition: A science dealing with the effects of physical phenomena on chemical properties. (Source: LEE)

fysische eigenschappen
	English: physical property
	English definition: Property of a compound that can change without involving a change in chemical composition. (Source: MGH)

fysische geografie
	English: physical geography
	English definition: The study of the spatial and temporal characteristics and relationships of all phenomena within the Earth's physical environment. (Source: WHIT)

fysische meting van milieuvervuiling
	English: physical measurement of pollution
	English definition: The quantitative determination of the presence, extent or type of pollutant substances in the environment using mechanical means, including optical, electrical, acoustical and thermodynamic techniques. (Source: APD / RHW)

fysische oceanografie
	English: physical oceanography
	English definition: The study of the physical aspects of the ocean, the movements of the sea, and the variability of these factors in relationship to the atmosphere and the ocean bottom. (Source: MGH)

fysische processen
	English: physical process
	English definition: A continuous action or series of changes which alters the material form of matter. (Source: RHW)

fysische verontreiniging
	English: physical pollution
	English definition: The introduction or presence of harmful substances or forces in the environment that cause damage to the environment and its processes due to their material actions, as through vibration, thermal alteration or electromagnetic radiation. (Source: TOE / APD / LES)

fysische vervuiler
	English: physical pollutant
	English definition: A pollutant characterized by its influence on environmental conditions caused by forces and operations of physics, such as noise, microwave radiation, vibration, etc. (Source: Landy)

	English: phytomass
	English definition: Plant biomass; any quantitative estimate of the total mass of plants in a stand, population, or within a given area, at a given time. (Source: LBC)

	English: phytoplankton
	English definition: Planktonic plant life. (Source: MGH)

fytosanitaire behandeling
	English: phytosanitary treatment
	English definition: Removal of heavy metals from water by the employment of plants or treatment by which plant organisms act to degrade hazardous organic contaminants or transform hazardous inorganic contaminants to environmentally safe levels in soils, subsurface materials, water, sludges, and residues. (Source: ENVAR /  LBL)

	English: phytotoxicity

	English: galvanisation
	English definition: The act of coating iron or steel with zinc, either by immersion in a bath of molten zinc or by deposition from a solution of zinc sulphate, to give protection against corrosion. (Source: ALL)

	English: gamma radiation
	English definition: Radiation of gamma rays. (Source: MGH)

gang; brede doorgang; doorgang
	English: corridor
	English definition: A physical linkage, connecting two areas of habitat and differing from the habitat on either side. Corridors are used by organisms to move around without having to leave the preferred habitat. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: garrigue
	English definition: Mediterranean bush consisting of low evergreen shrubs and abundant herbaceous plants. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: gas
	English definition: A substance that continues to occupy in a continuous manner the whole of the space in which it is placed, however large or small this place is mad, the temperature remaining constant. (Source: PITT)

	English: gas company
	English definition: Company charged with the production and distribution of gas for domestic use. (Source: RRDA)

	English: gas powered plant
	English definition: Power station which burns gas, as opposed to a coal-fired station or nuclear power station. (Source: GILP96)

	English: gas chromatography
	English definition: A separation technique involving passage of a gaseous moving phase through a column containing a fixed phase; it is used principally as a quantitative analytical technique for volatile compounds. (Source: MGH)

	English: gaswork
	English definition: Place where gas, especially coal gas, is made. (Source: PHC)

	English: gas mixture

	English: gas engine
	English definition: An internal combustion engine that uses gaseous fuel. (Source: MGH)

	English: gas network
	English definition: Interconnected system of pipes for the distribution and supply of gas. (Source: PHC)

	English: gas pipeline
	English definition: A long pipe, especially underground, used to transport gas over long distances. (Source: CED)

	English: gas reservoir
	English definition: Large tank for storing coal gas or natural gas. (Source: PHC)

	English: migrant labour
	English definition: Temporary employment performed by persons who move from place to place, such as agricultural workers following crop seasons. (Source: RHW)

	English: gas supply
	English definition: The provision and storage of any fuel gas, or the amount of any fuel gas stored, for the use of a municipality, or other fuel gas user. (Source: ISEP)

	English: gaseous state
	English definition: State of matter in which the matter concerned occupies the whole of its container irrespective of its quantity. (Source: DICCHE)

gasvormige luchtverontreiniger
	English: gaseous air pollutant
	English definition: Uncondensed or volatile gases, usually comprised of chemical compounds, discharged to the atmosphere. (Source: DEE)

	English: gas purification
	English definition: Removal of pollutants or contaminants from waste incineration or other combustion processes. (Source: MGHa)

	English: orography
	English definition: A rarely used word referring to the study of mountain systems and the depiction of their relief. (Source: WHIT)

	English: mountain ecosystem
	English definition: Ecosystems found on high-mountains at low latitudes. Mountain ecosystems are very vulnerable. They are increasingly sensitive to soil erosion, landslide and rapid loss of habitat and genetic diversity. Widespread poverty and an increase in the numbers of mountain inhabitants lead to deforestation, cultivation of marginal lands, excessive livestock grazing, loss of biomass cover and other forms of environmental degradation. Because little is known about mountain ecosystems, Agenda 21 has proposed the establishment of a global mountain database. This is essential for the launch of programmes that would contribute to the sustainable development of mountain ecosystems. The proposals also focus on promoting watershed development and alternative employment for people whose livelihoods are linked to practices that degrade mountains. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: distribution area
	English definition: 1) The overall geographical distribution of a talon. 2) The range occupied by a community or other group. (Source: LBC)

gebied dat voor meerdere doeleinden wordt gebruikt
	English: mixed use area
	English definition: Use of land for more than one purpose; e.g. grazing of livestock, watershed and wildlife protection, recreation, and timber production. (Source: RRDA)

gebied tussen de hoog- en de laagwaterlijn
	English: intertidal zone
	English definition: 1) The area between land and sea which is regularly exposed to the air by the tidal movement of the sea. Marine organisms that inhabit the intertidal zones have to adapt to periods of exposure to air and to the waves created by wind, which makes it the most physically demanding of the marine habitats. 2) The shore zone between the highest and lowest tides. (Source: WRIGHT /  LBC)

	English: foliage
	English definition: The green leaves of a plant. (Source: CED)

	English: birth control
	English definition: Limitation of the number of children born by preventing or reducing the frequency of impregnation. (Source: MGH)

	English: building
	English definition: Something built with a roof and walls, such as a house or factory. (Source: CED)

gebruik van (natuurlijke) hulpbronnen
	English: resource utilisation

gebruik van afval als materiaal
	English: use of waste as material

gebruik van afval voor energie-doeleinden
	English: use of waste as energy source

gebruik van afvalwarmte
	English: waste heat utilisation
	English definition: Waste heat applications include space heating and refrigeration in urban areas, thawing of ice-bound seaways, agricultural use to stimulate growth and to extend the growing season and in aquaculture to stimulate the growth of algae, shellfish, and other potential marine food sources. (Source: PZ)

gebruik van het warmtegevend vermogen
	English: utilisation of calorific value
	English definition: Calorific value is the heat per unit mass produced by complete combustion of a given substance. Calorific values are used to express the energy values of fuels; usually these are expressed in megajoules per kilogram. They are also used to measure the energy content of foodstuffs; i.e. the energy produced when the food is oxidized in the body. The units here are kilojoules per gram. Calorific values are measured using a bomb calorimeter (apparatus consisting of a strong container in which the sample is sealed with excess oxygen and ignited electrically. The heat of combustion at constant volume can be calculated from the resulting rise in temperature). (Source: DICCHE)

gebruik van insektenbestrijdingsmiddelen
	English: utilisation of pesticides
	English definition: Use of chemical or biological substances to deliberately kill unwanted plants or animals. (Source: DUNSTE)

gebruik vanplaatselijke grondstoffen
	English: local resource utilisation
	English definition: The use of a source of supply from a municipal or regional area, which can be readily drawn upon when needed. (Source: RHW)

	English: user advantage

	English: restriction on use
	English definition: A limitation on the utilization of land or some other property, often inscribed in a deed or lease document. (Source: BLD)

gebruikt water
	English: used water
	English definition: Wastewater or utilized water from a home, community, farm or industry, which is often discharged after utilization. (Source: WRT / TOE)

geclassificeerde inrichting
	English: classified facility
	English definition: Facility that is forbidden to be disclosed outside a specified ring of secrecy for reasons of national security. (Source: WEBSTE)

geclassificeerde plaats
	English: classified site
	English definition: Site which is declared protected because of its natural, landscape, artistic or archeological features in order to guarantee its conservation, maintenance and restoration. (Source: SKENEa)

gecombineerd afvalwater
	English: combined waste water
	English definition: A mixture of domestic or industrial wastewater and surface runoff. (Source: ISEP /  WWC)

gecombineerd rioolsysteem
	English: combined sewer system
	English definition: A sewer intended to serve as a sanitary sewer and a storm sewer, or as an industrial sewer and a storm sewer. (Source: JJK)

gecombineerd vervoer
	English: combined transport
	English definition: Transport in which more than one carrier is used, e.g. road, rail and sea. (Source: ECHO1)

	English: behaviour
	English definition: Any observable action or response of an organism, group or species to environmental factors. (Source: LBC)

gedrag verbruiker
	English: consumer behaviour
	English definition: An observable pattern of activity concerned with the purchase of goods and services and susceptible to the influence of marketing and advertising strategies. (Source: CON)

gedraging van verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant behaviour

	English: behaviour pattern
	English definition: A relatively uniform series of overt activities that can be observed with some regularity. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: behavioural science
	English definition: The study of the behaviour of organisms. (Source: ZINZAN /  ALL)

gegevens met geografische componenten
	English: geo-referenced data

gegevens over de toestand van het milieu
	English: data on the state of the environment

gegevens per hoofd (van de bevolking)
	English: per capita data

	English: data analysis
	English definition: The evaluation of digital data, i.e. data represented by a sequence of code characters. (Source: MGH)

	English: data base
	English definition: A computerized compilation of data, facts and records that is organized for convenient access, management and updating. (Source: WIC)

	English: data protection
	English definition: Policies, procedures or devices designed to maintain the integrity or security of informational elements in storage or in transmission. (Source: ISEP)

	English: data centre
	English definition: An organization established primarily to acquire, analyze, process, store, retrieve, and disseminate one or more types of data. (Source: MGH)

	English: data carrier
	English definition: A medium on which data can be recorded, and which is usually easily transportable, such as cards, tape, paper, or disks. (Source: MGH)

	English: data processing
	English definition: Any operation or combination of operations on data, including everything that happens to data from the time they are observed or collected to the time they are destroyed. (Source: MGH)

	English: data acquisition
	English definition: The act of collecting and gathering individual facts, statistics or other items of information. (Source: RHW)

gehalte aan adsorbeerbare organohalogenen (AOX)
	English: AOX value
	English definition: Organic halogens subject to absorption. This is a measure of the amount of chlorine (and other halogens) combined with organic compounds. (Source: PORT)

gehalte aan rottend organisch materiaal
	English: saprobic index
	English definition: Indication or measure of the level of organic pollution. (Source: ALLa)

gehalte aan verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant concentration
	English definition: A measure of the amount of a polluting substance in a given amount of water, soil, air, food or other medium. (Source: FFD)

gehalte aan zware metalen
	English: heavy metal load
	English definition: The amount of stress put on an ecosystem by heavy metal pollution released into it. (Source: ISEP)

gehoor (zintuig)
	English: hearing (sense)
	English definition: The general perceptual behaviour and the specific responses made in relation to sound stimuli. (Source: MGH)

	English: hearing system
	English definition: The system that is concerned with the perception of sound, is mediated through the organ of Corti of the ear in mammals or through corresponding sensory receptors of the lagena in lower vertebrates, is normally sensitive in man to sound vibrations between 16 and 27.000 cycles per second but most receptive to those between 2.000 and 5.000 cycles per second, is conducted centrally by the cochlear branch of the auditory nerve, and is coordinated especially in the medial geniculate body. (Source: WEBSTE)

	English: hearing protection
	English definition: The total of measures and devices implemented to preserve persons from harm to the faculty of perceiving sound. (Source: OED)

	English: hearing impairment
	English definition: A decrease in strength or any abnormality or partial or complete loss of hearing or of the function of ear, or hearing system, due directly or secondarily to pathology or injury; it may be either temporary or permanent.

geintegreerd bedrijfsbeheer
	English: integrated management
	English definition: Unified, combined and coordinated management of environmental problems which correlates relevant organisations, groups, individuals and disciplines by bringing the parts together for a complete approach. (Source: UNUN)

geintegreerde milieubeschermingstechnologie
	English: integrated environmental protection technology
	English definition: Technologies that meet environmental objectives by incorporating pollution prevention concepts in their design. Integrated environmental control strategies introduced in the early design stages of a process, rather than an end-of-pipe control option introduced in the later stages, improve the technical and economic performance of a process. (Source: ENVAR)

geintegreerde ongediertebestrijding
	English: integrated pest control
	English definition: A systematic, comprehensive approach to pest control that uses the insect's or rodent's own biology and behaviour to find the least toxic control methods at the lowest cost. (Source: KOREN)

geintegreerde vervuilingsbeheersing
	English: integrated pollution control
	English definition: A procedure whereby all major emissions to land, air, and water are considered simultaneously and not in isolation to avoid situations in which one control measure for one medium adversely affects another. (Source: GILP96)

	English: stratification
	English definition: The arrangement of a body of water, as a lake, into two or more horizontal layers of different characteristics, especially densities. (Source: MGH)

gelaagdheid van de dampkring
	English: atmospheric layering
	English definition: Any one of a number of strata or layers of the earth's atmosphere; temperature distribution is the most common criterion used for denoting the various shell. Also known as atmospheric shell; atmospheric region. (Source: MGH)

gelastigde  voor gevaarlijke goederen
	English: commissioner for dangerous goods
	English definition: An authorized or appointed government official that regulates the production, use, transport or clean-up of materials that pose a threat to human health and to the environment, particularly materials that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, explosive or chemically reactive. (Source: TOE)

	English: theory of money
	English definition: A coherent group of general propositions about the supply and demand of money, interest rates, the flow of money's influence on the overall economy or the policies that should be adopted by institutions controlling the money supply. (Source: ODE / MGHME)

	English: arthropod
	English definition: The largest phylum in the animal kingdom; adults typically have segmented body, a sclerotized integument, and many-jointed segmental limbs. (Source: MGH)

geleidend vermogen
	English: conductivity
	English definition: The ratio of the electric current density to the electric field in a material. Also known as electrical conductivity. (Source: MGH)

	English: noise
	English definition: Sound which is unwanted, either because of its effects on humans, its effect on fatigue or malfunction of physical equipment, or its interference with the perception or detection of other sounds. (Source: MGH)

	English: sound
	English definition: Auditory sensation produced by the oscillations, stress, pressure, particle displacement, and particle velocity in a medium with internal forces; pressure variation that the human ear can detect. (Source: KOREN)

geluid van vliegtuigen
	English: aircraft noise
	English definition: Effective sound output of the various sources of noise associated with aircraft operation, such as propeller and engine exhaust, jet noise, and sonic boom. (Source: MGH)

	English: noise, vibrations

geluiddicht maken
	English: soundproofing
	English definition: Reducing or eliminating reverberation in a room by placing sound-absorbing materials on the walls and ceiling. (Source: MGH)

	English: noise barrier
	English definition: Barriers for reducing the propagation of sound: they are widely used in industry and alongside roads and railways to shield receivers from noise sources. Barriers will not reduce the noise on the receivers side, but will increase it, unless the barrier is also covered in absorbing material. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: noise analysis
	English definition: Determination of the frequency components that make up a particular noise being studied. (Source: MGH)

	English: noise control
	English definition: The process to control the audible sound to an acceptable level. (Source: LEE)

	English: acoustic comfort

	English: noise effect

	English: acoustic property
	English definition: The characteristics found within a structure that determine the quality of sound in its relevance to hearing. (Source: KOREN)

	English: noise emission
	English definition: The release of noise into the environment from various sources that can be grouped in: transportation activities, industrial activities and daily normal activities. (Source: DIFID)

	English: sound emission
	English definition: Diffusion into the environment of a sound emitted from a given source. (Source: RRDA)

	English: acoustic filter
	English definition: A device employed to reject sound in a particular range of frequencies while passing sound in another range of frequencies. (Source: MGH)

	English: noise disturbance
	English definition: Noise interferes with communication and interferes with thought processes. Noise interferes with sleep, it causes anger and frustration, and has been implicated as a contributor to various psychological and physiological problems. Noise detracts from the quality of life and the environment. (Source: PZ)

	English: noise pollution
	English definition: Harmful or unwanted sounds in the environment, which in specific locals, can be measured and averaged over a period of time. (Source: APD)

	English: noise immission
	English definition: Immission in the environment of acoustic vibrations that negatively affect human beings, animals, plants or other objects. (Source: RRDA)

	English: sound immission
	English definition: The introduction in the environment of noise deriving from various sources that can be grouped in: transportation activities, industrial activities and daily normal activities. (Source: DIFIDa)

	English: acoustic insulation
	English definition: The process of preventing the transmission of sound by surrounding with a nonconducting material. (Source: CED)

	English: acoustical quality
	English definition: The characteristics of a confined space that determines its ability to enable music and speech to be heard clearly within it. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: acoustics
	English definition: The science of the production, transmission and effects of sound. (Source: MGH)

	English: noise measurement
	English definition: The process of quantitatively determining one or more properties of acoustic noise. (Source: MGH)

	English: noise monitoring
	English definition: The systematic deployment of monitoring equipment for the purpose of detecting or measuring quantitatively or qualitatively the presence, effect, or level of noise. (Source: GILP96)

	English: sound measurement
	English definition: Because of the large variations in sound magnitudes, and because the human hearing sensation seems to vary in a logarithmic way, logarithms are used in measurement of sound. The sound pressure level is given in decibels (dB). (Source: PARCOR)

	English: acoustic level
	English definition: Physical quantity of sound measured, usually expressed in decibels. (Source: KORENa)

	English: noise level
	English definition: Physical quantity of unwanted sound measured, usually expressed in decibels. (Source: KOREN)

	English: sound transmission
	English definition: Passage of a sound wave through a medium or series of media. (Source: MGH)

	English: noise spectrum
	English definition: The range of frequencies occurring in the noise emitted by a source. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: loudness
	English definition: The magnitude of the physiological sensation produced by a sound, which varies directly with the physical intensity of sound but also depends on frequency of sound and waveform. (Source: MGH)

	English: sound level
	English definition: The sound pressure level (in decibels) at a point in a sound field, averaged over the audible frequency range and over a time interval. (Source: MGH)

	English: sound propagation
	English definition: The travelling of acoustic waves in the atmosphere with a speed independent of their amplitude. The speed only depends on the acoustic medium and is proportional to the square route of the absolute temperature for any given medium. (Source: RRDA /  PARCOR)

	English: noise legislation
	English definition: Legislation introduced by many governments to prevent or restrict the emission of noise from industrial, commercial and domestic premises; from motor vehicles and aircraft; and from consumer appliances and equipment. (Source: GILP96)

gemakkelijk afbreekbare stof
	English: weakly degradable substance
	English definition: A substance that is not easily converted to another, usually less complex compound. (Source: GILP96a)

gematigd ecosysteem
	English: temperate ecosystem
	English definition: The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings in regions of or related to moderate climates, intermediate between tropical and polar zones and having distinct warm to hot summer seasons and cool to cold winter seasons. (Source: TOE / DOE)

gematigd klimaat
	English: temperate climate
	English definition: The climate of the middle latitudes; the climate between the extremes of tropical climate and polar climate. (Source: MGH)

	English: society
	English definition: Human group of people, more or less large and complex, associated for some common interest and characterized by distinctive hierarchical relationships. (Source: ZINZAN)

gemeenschap levend op een grondgebied
	English: territorial community
	English definition: An infrastructure, body of people or homogenous constituency that is physically situated in a localized exurban area. (Source: RHW / TEF)

gemeenschappelijk handelsbeleid
	English: common commercial policy
	English definition: The set of uniform trade principles or practices established by an European Community customs union, which implements common tariff rates, tariff and trade agreements with non-member countries, import and export policies, and export promotion. (Source: EUR)

gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid
	English: common agricultural policy
	English definition: The set of regulations and practices adopted by member countries of the European Community that consolidates efforts in promoting or ensuring reasonable pricing, fair standards of living, stable markets, increased farm productivity and methods for dealing with food supply or surplus. (Source: CNI)

gemeenschappelijk tariefbeleid
	English: common tariff policy
	English definition: A course of action adopted and pursued by member countries, in which it is agreed to impose a system of duties or tax charges on imports from non-member countries. (Source: ODE)

gemeenschappelijke regeling
	English: common agreement
	English definition: A system of law established by following earlier judicial decisions and customs, rather than statutory or legislatively enacted law. (Source: BLD / WOR)

gemeenschappelijke voorziening
	English: community facility
	English definition: Buildings, equipment and services provided for a community. (Source: CAMB)

	English: Community ruling

	English: local authority
	English definition: The power of a government agency or its administrators to administer and implement laws and government policies for a city, town or small district. (Source: BLD)

	English: municipality
	English definition: A town, city, or other district having powers of local self-government. (Source: LANDY)

	English: Community budget
	English definition: A schedule of revenues and expenditures for a specific time period that is devised by the European Community, a body of people organized into a political unity. (Source: MGHME /  OED)

gemeentelijk (vuil)stortplaats
	English: municipal dumping
	English definition: Place where a town's refuse is disposed of after it has been collected. (Source: PHC)

gemeentelijk afval
	English: municipal waste
	English definition: The combined residential and commercial waste materials generated in a given municipal area. (Source: LANDY)

gemeentelijk milieuplan
	English: municipal environment plan
	English definition: A formulated or systematic method for the management of a city or town's natural or ecological resources. (Source: OED)

gemeentelijk verwarmingsnetwerk
	English: municipal heating network
	English definition: System of heating all houses in a urban district from a central source (as from hot springs in Iceland or by cooling water from a power station). (Source: PHC)

gemeentelijk waterbeheer
	English: municipal water management
	English definition: Municipal water management deals with aspects of water supply and water technology concerning planning, processing, building and producing. It also concerns the problems of waste water collection, sewage disposal, waste water treatment in rural areas, water economising measures, water body quality management. (Source: TUBERL)

gemeentelijke financien
	English: Community finance
	English definition: The financial resources or income of the European Community, a body of people organized into a political unity. (Source: ISEP /  OED)

gemeentelijke reiniging
	English: municipal cleansing
	English definition: The aggregation of services offered by a town or city in which streets and other public areas are kept clean, such as through trash pick-ups, street sweeping and decontamination of water, soil and other natural resources. (Source: FFD)

gemeentelijke watervoorziening
	English: municipal water distribution system
	English definition: Any publicly or privately organized setup in which water is processed at a central plant and delivered to homes and businesses via water pipes. (Source: WQA)

	English: municipal level
	English definition: The jurisdiction, position or status of city, town or local government. (Source: DAM / OED)

	English: municipal cleansing service
	English definition: Removal for treatment or disposal of those residues that can be regarded as waste including removal of litter from public places, public thoroughfares or the countryside. (Source: ECHO1)

	English: municipal engineering
	English definition: Branch of engineering dealing with the form and functions of urban areas. (Source: MGH)

	English: Community act

gemengd (landbouw)bedrijf
	English: mixed farming
	English definition: Type of agriculture based on the combination of crop production and cattle raising. (Source: GREMES)

gemengd bos
	English: mixed forest
	English definition: A forest composed of several tree species. (Source: FORGOVa)

gemengd bos
	English: mixed woodland

gemorste hoeveelheid
	English: spillage
	English definition: The uncontrolled discharge, leakage, dripping or running over of fluids or liquid substances. (Source: HMD)

	English: gene
	English definition: A unit of heredity composed of DNA occupying a fixed position on a chromosome. A gene may determine a characteristic of an individual by specifying a polypeptide chain that forms a protein or part of a protein (structural gene); or repress such operation (repressor gene). (Source: CED)

geneeskrachtige plant(ensoort)
	English: medicinal plant
	English definition: Plants having therapeutic properties. (Source: CEDa)

	English: medicine (practice)
	English definition: The science and art of treating and healing. (Source: MGH)

	English: drug (medicine)
	English definition: A chemical substance used internally or externally as a medicine for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment or cure of disease, for the relief of pain or to control or enhance physical or mental well-being. (Source: RHW, APD)

	English: gene bank
	English definition: Storehouses of seeds or vegetative tissue, kept in low humidity and temperature, to help maintain genetic diversity. Sometimes known as seed banks or germ plasm banks. their contents mostly originate from a wide range of primitive strains and wild crop varieties. The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), which was established in 1974, promotes the collection, documentation, evaluation, conservation and eventual use of genetic resources of significant plant species. Gene banks are the subject of international controversy because they contain seeds that have mostly been acquired from the developing countries by the industrially rich countries, where they have been used in breeding programmes to develop new strains. Instead of taking decades over a traditional plant breeding programme by fertilization, it is now possible to manipulate directly the genes of plants, creating genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which are plants modified to give a higher resistance to disease and improved growth and yields and, therefore, increase the profit of the plant breeder and farmer. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: genetics
	English definition: The science that is concerned with the study of biological inheritance. (Source: MGH)

genetisch effect
	English: genetic effect
	English definition: Inheritable change, chiefly mutations produced by chemical substances, herbicides, radiations, etc. (Source: RRDA)

genetisch gewijzigd organisme
	English: genetically modified organism
	English definition: An organism that has undergone external processes by which its basic set of genes has been altered. (Source: LEE)

genetische diversiteit
	English: genetic diversity
	English definition: The variation between individuals and between populations within a species. (Source: WRIGHT)

genetische hulpbronnen
	English: genetic resource
	English definition: The gene pool in natural and cultivated stocks of organisms that are available for human exploitation. It is desirable to maintain as diverse a range of organisms as possible, particularly of domesticated cultivars and their ancestors, in order to maintain a wide genetic base. The wider the genetic base, the greater the capacity for adaptation to particular environmental conditions. (Source: ALL2)

genetische informatie
	English: genetic information
	English definition: The information for protein synthesis contained in the nucleotide sequences of the DNA polynucleotide chain. (Source: RRDA)

genetische manipulatie
	English: genetic engineering
	English definition: 1) The complex of techniques for the production of new genes and the alteration of the structure of the chromosomes to produce effects beneficial to man, in agriculture and medicine.2) The intentional production of new genes and alteration of genomes by the substitution or addition of new genetic material. (Source: ZINZAN /  MGH)

genetische variatie
	English: genetic variation
	English definition: Change in one or more phenotypic characteristics, due to gene mutation or rearrangement, environmental effects, etc. (Source: DELFIN)

genetische wijziging
	English: genetic modification
	English definition: Inheritable changes produced by ionizing radiation, exposure to certain chemicals, ingestion of some medication and from other causes. (Source: CONFER)

	English: genotoxicity

	English: geodesy
	English definition: A subdivision of geophysics which includes determination of the size and shape of the earth, the earth's gravitational field, and the location of points fixed to the earth's crust in an earth-referred coordinate system. (Source: MGH)

	English: geophysics
	English definition: The physics of the earth and its environment, that is, earth, air and space. (Source: MGH)

geofysisch milieu
	English: geophysical environment
	English definition: The physical earth and its surroundings, consisting of the oceans and inland waters, lower and upper atmosphere, space, land masses and land forms. (Source: APD / ENZ)

geogene factor
	English: geogenic factor
	English definition: Geogenic factors are those which originate in the soil, as opposed to those of anthropic origin (anthropogenic). (Source: RRDA)

	English: geography
	English definition: The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, comprising topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc. and man's response to them. (Source: CED)

geografisch informatiesysteem
	English: geographic information system
	English definition: An organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information that can be drawn from different sources, both statistical and mapped. (Source: SFRC /  GILP96)

geografische eigenschap
	English: geographic attribute
	English definition: A characteristic or data element of a database that is associated with a geographical feature, such as the geographical location of a landform, property or structure. (Source: APD / FRE / KIN)

geografische projectie
	English: geographical projection
	English definition: A representation of the globe constructed on a plane with lines representative of and corresponding to the meridians and parallels of the curved surface of the earth. (Source: GIS /  RHW)

geografische spreiding van hulpbronnen
	English: geographic distribution of resources
	English definition: The physical character and distribution of natural resources at the face of the Earth. The fundamental differences between land and ocean, latitudinal differences in insulation, spatial variations in receipts of precipitation, and patterns of geological composition and deformation of the Earth's crust together provide the basis for distinguishing definite geographical patterns of resource availability over the world. (Source: PARCORa)

geografische verspreiding van de bevolking
	English: geographical distribution of population
	English definition: The number of inhabitants in or spread across designated subdivisions of an area, region, city or country. (Source: RHW)

	English: geology
	English definition: The study or science of the earth, its history, and its life as recorded in the rocks; includes the study of geologic features of an area, such as the geometry of rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (Source: MGH)

geologische processen
	English: geological process
	English definition: Dynamic actions or events that occur at the Earth's surface due to application of natural forces resulting from gravity, temperature changes, freezing and thawing, chemical reactions, seismic shaking, and the agencies of wind and moving water, ice and snow. Where and when a force exceeds the strength of the earth material, the material is changed by deformation, translocation, or chemical reactions. (Source: DUNSTE)

geologische ramp
	English: geological disaster
	English definition: Disasters caused by movements and deformation of the earth's crust. (Source: ZINZANa)

geometrische correctie
	English: geometric correction
	English definition: A remote sensing term referring to the adjustment of an image for geometric errors. (Source: DWEB)

	English: geomorphology
	English definition: The study of the classification, description, nature, origin, and development of present landforms and their relationships to underlying structures, and of the history of geologic changes as recorded by these surface features. (Source: BJGEO)

geomorfologische processen
	English: geomorphic process
	English definition: The physical and chemical interactions between the Earth's surface and the natural forces acting upon it to produce landforms. The processes are determined by such natural environmental variables as geology, climate, vegetation and baselevel, to say nothing of human interference. The nature of the process and the rate at which it operates will be influenced by a change in any of these variables. (Source: WHIT)

	English: geotechnics
	English definition: The application of scientific methods and engineering principles to civil engineering problems through acquiring, interpreting, and using knowledge of materials of the crust of the earth. (Source: MGH)

	English: geotechnology
	English definition: The application of scientific methods and engineering techniques to the exploitation and use of natural resources. (Source: BJGEO)

geothermische energie
	English: geothermal energy
	English definition: An energy produced by tapping the earth's internal heat. At present, the only available technologies to do this are those that extract heat from hydrothermal convection systems, where water or steam transfer the heat from the deeper part of the earth to the areas where the energy can be tapped. The amount of pollutants found in geothermal vary from area to area but may contain arsenic, boron, selenium, lead, cadmium, and fluorides. They also may contain hydrogen sulphide, mercury, ammonia, radon, carbon dioxide, and methane. (Source: KOREN)

geplande stedelijke ontwikkeling
	English: planned urban development
	English definition: Any physical extension of, or changes to, the uses of land in metropolitan areas following certain preparations or designs. (Source: CGP)

geprefabriceerd gebouw
	English: prefabricated building
	English definition: Building whose sections are manufactured in specialized factories and later transported and assembled on a building site. (Source: CEDa)

gerechtelijke handeling
	English: juridical act
	English definition: Acts relating to the administration of justice. (Source: CURZON)

	English: justice
	English definition: The correct application of law as opposed to arbitrariness. (Source: CURZON)

	English: court of justice
	English definition: A tribunal having jurisdiction of appeal and review, including the ability to overturn decisions of lower courts or courts of first instance. (Source: BLD)

geregistreerde plaats
	English: registered site
	English definition: Area which is officially registered because of its unique features; a description is provided concerning its location, size, latitude, longitude, orientation, elevation, boundaries, wildlife, hydrological and soil characteristics, etc. (Source: IUCNa)

gescheiden afvalverwerking
	English: dual waste management
	English definition: To reduce the quantity of packaging waste, and thereby of overall MSW, Germany introduced a far-reaching legislation to reduce waste, based on the producer's responsibility principle. Industry was given the option to set up a third party organization which would carry out the collection and sorting of sales packaging for care of manufacturers and retailers. Thus, Some 600 companies created 'Duales System Deutschland' in 1990 ('Dual' because it meant creating a second collection system in parallel to the existing waste collection system of the local authorities). Duales System Deutschland (DSD), now has overall responsibility for the separate collection and recycling of packaging. At present, the Dual System is the only nationwide system for the collection and sorting of sales packaging. Packaging participating in this collection system is marked with the Green Dot. (Source: EPEBE)

gescheiden inzameling
	English: separated collection
	English definition: The collection of individual components of solid waste from any source, usually separated into different collection containers, in order to recover, reuse or recycle the material or to facilitate its collection and disposal. (Source: GSW)

gescheiden ophaling aan de bron
	English: sorting at source
	English definition: The classification and separation of solid waste, according to type, at the location where it is generated. (Source: EEN / FFD)

gescheiden rioolstelsel
	English: separate sewer system
	English definition: Sewer system having distinct pipes for collecting superficial water and sewage water. (Source: FLGISA)

	English: history
	English definition: A systematic written account comprising a chronological record of events (as affecting a city, state, nation, institution, science, or art) and usually including a philosophical explanation of the cause and origin of such events. (Source: WEBSTE)

geschiedkundig monument
	English: historical monument
	English definition: Monument built in memory of an historical event. (Source: RRDA)

geschiedkundig onderzoek
	English: historical research
	English definition: The study of events in relation to their development over time. (Source: GOOD)

geschiedkundige evolutie
	English: historical evolution
	English definition: The process by which small but cumulative changes in the learned, nonrandom, systematic behavior and knowledge of a people occur from generation to generation. (Source: ANT)

geschiedkundige kern
	English: historic centre
	English definition: That part of a town or city in which the principal public and historic buildings are located. (Source: GOOD)

geschiedkundige plaats
	English: historical site
	English definition: Place where significant historical events occurred and which is important to an indigenous culture or a community. (Source: LANDYa)

geschikte technologie
	English: appropriate technology
	English definition: 1) A flexible and participatory approach to developing economically viable, regionally applicable and sustainable technology.2) Technology designed to be used in developing countries. Typical requirements arethat it should: be easy to use by the unskilled; have no difficult-to-get parts; be easily repaired on the spot. Typical example: a simple windmill to pump water rather than a diesel-driven pump. The terms `alternative', `intermediate' and`appropriate' are often used interchangeably. (Source: IISD /  VCN)

	English: rock
	English definition: Any aggregate of minerals that makes up part of the earth's crust. It may be unconsolidated, such as sand, clay, or mud, or consolidated, such as granite, limestone, or coal. (Source: CED)

	English: rock mechanics
	English definition: The theoretical and applied science of the physical behavior of rocks, representing a 'branch of mechanics concerned with the response of rock to the force fields of its physical environment'. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: tidal power station
	English definition: Power station where the generation of power is provided by the ebb and flow of the tides. The principle is that water collected at high tide behind a barrage is released at low tide to turn a turbine that, in turn, drives a generator. (Source: PORT /  BRACK)

	English: tidal power
	English definition: Mechanical power, which may be converted to electrical power, generated by the rise and fall of ocean tides. The possibilities of utilizing tidal power have been studied for many generations, but the only feasible schemes devised so far are based on the use of one or more tidal basins, separated from the sea by dams (known as barrages), and of hydraulic turbines through which water passes on its way between the basins and the sea. (Source: ALL)

	English: tidal water
	English definition: Any water whose level changes periodically due to tidal action. (Source: MGH)

	English: odour nuisance

	English: aromatic substance
	English definition: Substance having a distinctive, usually fragrant smell. (Source: CED)

	English: olfactory pollution
	English definition: Pollution produced by gaseous emissions in the atmosphere that, even in very small amounts, may cause injuries or a condition of general unease or sickness to persons living in the vicinity. (Source: FLGISA)

gevaar van vervuilende stoffen
	English: hazard of pollutants
	English definition: Risk or danger to human health, property or the environment posed by the introduction of a harmful substances into the ecosystem. (Source: RHW / TOE)

gevaar voor de gezondheid
	English: health hazard

gevaar voor de milieuhygiene
	English: environmental health hazard
	English definition: Any physical, chemical or other agent capable of causing harm to the interrelationship between humans and the surrounding external conditions, threatening both human well-being and ecological integrity. (Source: TOE)

gevaar voor het milieu
	English: environmental hazard
	English definition: A physical or chemical agent capable of causing harm to the ecosystem or natural resources. (Source: FFD)

gevaarlijk afval
	English: hazardous waste
	English definition: Any waste or combination of wastes with the potential to damage human health, living organisms or the environment. Hazardous wastes usually require special handling and disposal procedures which are regulated by national and international laws. (Source: HMD /  DEE /  HMH)

gevaarlijk bouwmateriaal
	English: hazardous working material
	English definition: A poison, corrosive agent, flammable substance, explosive, radioactive chemical, or any other material which can endanger human health or well-being if handled improperly. (Source: MGH)

gevaarlijk getij
	English: red tide
	English definition: Sea water which is covered or discoloured by the sudden growth of algal bloom or by a great increase in single-celled organisms, dinoflagellates. Red tides are often fatal to many forms of marine life and, in some cases, can result in human deaths because the dinoflagellates are eaten by clams and mussels which concentrate the paralysing toxins which they produce. (Source: WRIGHT)

gevaarlijke goederen
	English: dangerous goods
	English definition: Goods or products that are full of hazards or risks when used, transported, etc. (Source: ISEP)

gevaarlijke installatie
	English: dangerous installation
	English definition: Installations whose functioning involves the possibility of major hazards such as chemical plants, nuclear, coal and oil power production plants, etc. (Source: WPRa)

gevaarlijke stof
	English: hazardous substance
	English definition: Any material that poses a threat to human health and/or the environment. Typical hazardous substances are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, explosive, or chemically reactive. (Source: LEE)

gevaarlijke stoffen voor het milieu
	English: environmentally dangerous substance
	English definition: Substance that causes undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of the air, water, or land that can harmfully affect the health, survival, or activities of human or other living organisms. (Source: VIRPURa)

	English: hazardous substances legislation
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the production, use or clean-up of materials that pose a threat to human health and the environment, particularly materials that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, explosive or chemically reactive. (Source: TOE / BLD)

	English: hazard
	English definition: A physical or chemical agent capable of causing harm to persons, property, animals, plants or other natural resources. (Source: FFD / HMD)

gevaren, veiligheid
	English: risks, safety

	English: hazard area
	English definition: Any site or region in which there is a physical or chemical agent capable of causing harm to property, persons, animals, plants or other natural resources. (Source: FFD / HMD)

gevoelig gebied
	English: sensitive area
	English definition: Areas of a country where special measures may be given to protect the natural habitats which present a high level of vulnerability. (Source: BRACK)

gevoelig natuurgebied
	English: sensitive natural area
	English definition: Terrestrial or aquatic area or other fragile natural setting with unique or highly-valued environmental features. (Source: EPAGLO)

gevoelige omgeving
	English: sensitive environment
	English definition: Any parcel of land, large or small, under public or private control, that already has, or with remedial action could achieve, desirable environmental attributes. These attributes contribute to the retention and/or creation of wildlife habitat, soils stability, water retention or recharge, vegetative cover, and similar vital ecological functions. Environmentally sensitive areas range in size from small patches to extensive landscape features. They can include rare or common habitats, plants and animals. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: sensitivity analysis
	English definition: A formalized procedure to identify the impact of changes in various model components on model output. Sensitivity analysis is an integral part of simulation experimentation and may influence model formulations. It is commonly used to examine model behaviour. The general procedure is to define a model output variable that represents an important aspect of model behaviour. The values of various inputs of the model are then varied and the resultant change in the output variable is monitored. Large changes in the output variable imply that the particular input varied is important in controlling model behaviour. Within this general definition, sensitivity analysis has been applied to a variety of model inputs including state variables, environmental variables and initial conditions. (Source: YOUNG)

gevolgd onderwijs
	English: educational path
	English definition: A guided trail, designed to explain to children a piece of countryside, the type of soil, flora, fauna, etc. Such trails may be self-guiding, using either explanatory notices set up at intervals or numbered boards referring to a printed leaflet: in other cases parties may be led by a demonstrator or warden. (Source: GOOD)

gevolgen van lawaai op de gezondheid
	English: health effect of noise
	English definition: Noise consequences on human health consist in loss of hearing and psychological effects. (Source: KOREN)

gevolgen van milieuverontreiniging
	English: pollution effect
	English definition: The main pollution effects concern human health and cover all aspects of the physical environment - air, water and land, including the effects of climate change. Human activities which are sources of pollution arise from domestic, commercial, industrial and military sectors and their effects are influenced by various issues, trends and public sector programmes, such as safe water and food, management of waste, increasing use of chemicals in agriculture, and urbanization. Types of pollutants which are negatively impacting health include litter, toxic chemicals, nuclear waste, lead, spoil from mining, food and water contaminants; and the polluting effects of over-population. (Source: WPR)

gevolgen, invloeden, effecten
	English: effects, impacts

	English: crop treatment
	English definition: Use of chemicals in order to avoid damage of crops by insects or weeds. (Source: WRIGHTa)

	English: crop protection
	English definition: The problem of crop protection has changed dramatically since 1945. There is now a whole arsenal of chemicals with which to combat agricultural pests and diseases, but this development has itself many drawbacks. Such sophisticated techniques are available only to a minority of farmers; in most parts of the world the standard of crop protection remains abysmally low. In addition, modern crop protection methods have been criticized for relying too heavily on chemical control. Biological controls, both natural and contrived, have been neglected. In some cases involving misuse of agricultural chemicals, crops must be protected from the very measures intended for their protection. Meanwhile previously localized pests and diseases continue to spread worldwide. (Source: WPR)

	English: plant protection
	English definition: Conservation of plant species that may be rare or endangered, and of other plants of particular significance. (Source: GILP96)

	English: plant protection product
	English definition: Any substance or mixture of substances which through physiological action protects the plants against parasites, fungi, virus, or other damaging factors. (Source: KORENa)

	English: crop production
	English definition: The act or process of yielding produce from farmland, for livestock or human consumption. (Source: RHW / AGP)

gewervelde dieren
	English: vertebrate
	English definition: Any chordate animal of the subphylum Vertebrata, characterized by a bony or cartilaginous skeleton and a well-developed brain: the group contains fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. (Source: CED)

	English: region
	English definition: A designated area or an administrative division of a city, county or larger geographical territory that is formulated according to some biological, political, economic or demographic criteria. (Source: RHW / ISEP)

gewestelijk natuurpark
	English: regional natural park
	English definition: A park operated and managed by a region. (Source: LANDY)

gewestelijk voorschrift
	English: regional law

gewestelijke gezag
	English: regional authority
	English definition: The power of a government agency or its administrators to administer and implement laws and government policies applicable to a specific geographical area, usually falling under the jurisdiction of two or more states. (Source: BLD)

gewestelijke ontwikkeling
	English: regional development
	English definition: The progress or advancement for a large geographical territory or a designated division of a country or state, particularly in economic growth that leads to modernization or industrialization. (Source: RHW)

gewestelijke overeenkomst
	English: regional convention
	English definition: An assembly of national, political party or organizational delegates representing persons or the interests of a specific geographic area, or the pact or the agreement that arises from such an assembly. (Source: BLD)

gewestelijke planning
	English: regional planning
	English definition: The step by step method and process of defining, developing and outlining various possible courses of actions to meet existing or future needs, goals and objectives for a designated area or an administrative division of a city, county or larger geographical area. (Source: RHW / BLD)

gewestelijke verordening
	English: regional regulation
	English definition: A body of rules or orders prescribed by government, management or an international organization or treaty pertaining to or effective within a specific territory of one or more states. (Source: BLD / RHW)

	English: regional plan
	English definition: The plan for a region according to some physiographic, biological, political, administrative, economic, demographic, or other criteria. (Source: LANDY)

	English: regional statistics

	English: regional structure
	English definition: The organization or arrangement of a large geographical territory or a designated division of a country or state that may be formulated according to some administrative, biological, political, economic or demographic criteria. (Source: RHW)

geweven stof
	English: fabric
	English definition: Any cloth made from yarn or fibres by weaving, knitting, felting, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: weight
	English definition: The gravitational force with which the earth attracts a body. By extension, the gravitational force with which a star, planet, or satellite attracts a nearby body. (Source: MGH)

gewoonte en gebruik
	English: custom and usage
	English definition: A group pattern of habitual activity usually transmitted across generations and, in some instances, having the force of law. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

gezagsdragende instelling
	English: authority body
	English definition: An organized assemblage of authorized persons or officials empowered to implement and enforce laws, oversee jurisdictions, settle disputes, adjudicate or make some other legal determination. (Source: RHW / BLD)

gezamenlijke afvalwaterverwerking
	English: collective wastewater treatment

gezamenlijke tenuitvoerlegging (Conferentie van Rio de Janeiro)
	English: joint implementation (Rio Conference)

gezamenlijke verbranding
	English: co-incineration
	English definition: Joint incineration of hazardous waste, in any form, with refuse and/or sludge. (Source: LEE)

	English: private household
	English definition: Living quarters where a group of persons (family) live together. (Source: GOOD)

	English: family planning
	English definition: The control of the number of children in a family and of the intervals between them, especially by the use of contraceptives. (Source: CED)

	English: marital status
	English definition: The standing of an individual with regard to a legally recognized conjugal relationship, either in the present or past. (Source: RHW)

	English: health
	English definition: A state of dynamic equilibrium between an organism and its environment in which all functions of mind and body are normal. (Source: MGH)

gezondheid van dieren
	English: animal health

gezondheid, voeding
	English: health, nutrition

	English: health protection

	English: health service
	English definition: The supply of health care to the public. (Source: CEDa)

	English: sanitary assistance

	English: health regulation
	English definition: A body of rules or orders prescribed by government or management to promote or protect the soundness of human bodies and minds in the workplace, at home or in the general environment. (Source: BLD / RHW)

	English: health legislation
	English definition: Laws, ordinances, or codes prescribing sanitary, clean air, etc., standards and regulations, designed to promote and preserve the health of the community and working conditions of businesses. (Source: BLACK)

	English: health care

gezondmaking van het milieu
	English: environmental sanitation

giftig afval
	English: toxic waste
	English definition: Refuse posing a significant hazard to the environment or to human health when improperly handled; includes carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic or phytotoxic wastes, or wastes harmful to aquatic species, or poisonous wastes. (Source: DEE / HMD)

giftig effect
	English: toxic effect
	English definition: A result produced by the ingestion or contact of poisonous materials. (Source: RRDA)

giftig metaal
	English: toxic metal
	English definition: Metals (usually heavy metals) which interfere with the respiration, metabolism or growth of organisms. (Source: EPAGLO)

giftig product
	English: toxic product
	English definition: Any product which can cause acute or chronic injury to the human body or which is suspected of being able to cause disease or injury under some conditions. (Source: KOREN)

giftige stof
	English: toxic substance
	English definition: A chemical or mixture that may present a risk or injury to health or the environment. (Source: LANDY)

giftige stof
	English: toxin
	English definition: A poisonous substance generally of plant or animal origin. (Source: LANDY)

	English: toxicity
	English definition: The degree of danger posed by a substance to animal or plant life. (Source: LANDY)

giftigheid van bestrijdingsmiddelen
	English: toxicity of pesticides

	English: toxicological assessment
	English definition: The process of characterizing and evaluating the inherent toxicity of a chemical substance, a poison, etc. (Source: KORENa)

	English: toxicological testing
	English definition: Test for the determination of the inherent toxicity of a chemical. (Source: KOREN)

	English: gypsum
	English definition: A colourless or white mineral used in the building industry and in the manufacture of cement, rubber, paper and plaster of Paris. (Source: CED)

	English: waste gypsum
	English definition: By-product of the wet limestone flue gas desulphurisation process. (Source: PORTa)

GIS digitaal formaat
	English: GIS digital format
	English definition: The digital form of data collected by remote sensing. (Source: YOUNG)

GIS digitaal systeem
	English: GIS digital system
	English definition: An organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information that can be drawn from different sources, both statistical and mapped. (Source: SFRC /  GILP96)

GIS digitale techniek
	English: GIS digital technique
	English definition: The transformation to digital form of data collected by remote sensing, traditional field and documentary methods and of existing historical data such as paper maps, charts, and publications. (Source: YOUNG)

GIS laboratorium
	English: GIS laboratory
	English definition: A laboratory where GIS data drawn from different sources are stored, handled, analyzed and updated. (Source: GILP96a)

	English: yeast
	English definition: Many species of unicellular fungi, most of which belong to the Ascomycetes and reproduce by budding. The genus Saccharomyces is used in brewing and winemaking because in low oxygen concentration it produces zymase, an enzyme system that breaks down sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide. Saccharomyces is also used in bread-making. Some yeasts are used as a source of protein and of vitamins of the B group. (Source: ALL)

	English: fermentation
	English definition: Any enzymatic transformation of organic substrates, especially carbohydrates, generally accompanied by the evolution of gas; a physiological counterpart of oxidation, permitting certain organisms to live and grow in the absence of air; used in various industrial processes for the manufacture of products, such as alcohols, acids, and cheese by the action of yeasts, molds, and bacteria; alcoholic fermentation is the best-known example. Also known as zymosis. (Source: MGH)

	English: glaciology
	English definition: 1) The study of all aspects of snow and ice; the science that treats quantitatively the whole range of processes associated with all forms of solid existing water. 2) The study of existing glaciers and ice sheets, and of their physical properties. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: glass
	English definition: A hard, amorphous, inorganic, usually transparent, brittle substance made by fusing silicates, sometimes borates and phosphates, with certain basic oxides and then rapidly cooling to prevent crystallization. (Source: MGH)

	English: waste glass
	English definition: Discarded material from the glass manufacturing process or from used consumer products made of glass. (Source: GMR)

	English: glass industry
	English definition: Industry for the production of glassware. (Source: CED)

	English: greenhouse cultivation
	English definition: Cultivation of plants, especially of out-of-season plants, in glass-enclosed, climate-controlled structures. (Source: MGH)

	English: fibreglass
	English definition: A material made from small fibres of glass twisted together, which is used for keeping buildings warm, or a plastic strengthened by these fibres and used for making structures such as the outsides of cars and boats. (Source: CAMB)

	English: glacier
	English definition: Slow moving masses of ice which have accumulated either on mountains or in polar regions. They are found where warm, moist air or warm water meets cold air or water. They move, influenced by the force of gravity and the pressure of the ice, above the underlying slush layers and slide downhill, eventually melting at lower levels to form rivers or reaching sea-level, where they form ice shelves or fall into the water as icebergs. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: religion
	English definition: The expression of man's belief in and reverence for a superhuman power recognized as the creator and governor of the universe.

	English: goods
	English definition: A term of variable content and meaning. It may include every species of personal chattels or property. Items of merchandise, supplies, raw materials, or finished goods. Land is excluded. (Source: DICLAW /  WESTS)

goederen en diensten
	English: goods and services
	English definition: The total of economic assets, including both physical or storable objects and intangible acts of human assistance. (Source: ODE)

	English: approval

goedkeuring van installaties
	English: approval of installations
	English definition: Authorization or permission for setting up or making adjustments to a building or to a mechanical or electrical system or apparatus. (Source: OED)

goedkope vlag
	English: flag of convenience
	English definition: Practice of registering a merchant vessel with a country that has favourable (i.e. less restrictive ) safety requirements, registration fees, etc.

	English: golf
	English definition: A game played on a large open course, the object of which is to hit a ball using clubs, with as few strokes as possible, into each of usually 18 holes.

	English: wave energy
	English definition: Power extracted from the motion of sea waves at the coast. (Source: CED)

golvenstroming op zee
	English: swell
	English definition: A regular movement of marine waves created by wind stress in the open ocean which travels considerable distances away from the generating field and into another wind field. The waves are characterized by relatively smooth, generally unbroken, crests and a fairly regular wavelength, but swell increases in wavelength and decreases in wave height as it moves away from the generating area. Local wind waves may be superimposed upon swell waves as they approach a coastline, thereby creating sharper crests and a choppy sea. (Source: WHIT)

	English: chrysophyta
	English definition: The golden-brown and orange-yellow algae; a diverse group of microscopically small algae which inhabit fresh and salt water, many being planktonic. They contain carotenoid pigments and may be unicellular, colonial, filamentous or amoeboid. (Source: ALL)

	English: rate
	English definition: The amount of change in some quantity during a time interval divided by the length of the time interval. (Source: MGH)

	English: grain
	English definition: Edible, starchy seeds of the grass family (Graminae) usable as food by man and his livestock. (Source: MGH)

	English: progress line
	English definition: A diagrammatic presentation of observed data in the sequence of their occurrence in time, in the context of water flow. (Source: ECHO1)

	English: granulometry
	English definition: 1) The determination of the different grain size in a granular material.2) The proportion by weight of particles of different sizes in granular material. (Source: ECHO2)

	English: graminaceous plant
	English definition: A very large family of plants including cereals such as wheat, maize, etc. (Source: PHC)

	English: grass fire
	English definition: A conflagration in or destroying large areas of any vegetation in the Gramineae family as found in fields, meadows, savannas or other grasslands. (Source: ISEP /  ALL)

	English: grassland
	English definition: Grassland cover nearly one-fifth of the Earth's land surface. They include savannah, the prairies of North America, and the steppes of Russia and Central Asia. Grassland ecosystems support thousands of different species, above and below the ground, and have a vital part to play maintaining the ecological balance of the world. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: grass
	English definition: A very large and widespread family of Monocotyledoneae, with more than 10.000 species, most of which are herbaceous, but a few are woody. The stems are jointed, the long, narrow leaves originating at the nodes. The flowers are inconspicuous, with a much reduced perianth, and are wind-pollinated or cleistogamous. The fruit in single-seeded, usually a caryopsis. Grasses are the most important of all plants for food. (Source: ALL)

	English: border
	English definition: The dividing line or frontier between political or geographic regions. (Source: CED)

grens van de algemene noodtoestand
	English: public emergency limit

	English: marginal land
	English definition: Low quality land the value of whose production barely covers its cultivation costs. (Source: PAENS)

	English: boundary layer
	English definition: The layer of fluid adjacent to a physical boundary in which the fluid motion is significantly affected by the boundary and has a mean velocity less than the free stream value. (Source: LBC)

grensoverschrijdende vervuiling
	English: transboundary pollution
	English definition: Polluted air and water, or any other contaminated waste, that is generated in one country and transmitted to others. (Source: BRACK)

	English: boundary crossing
	English definition: Crossing of a state border. (Source: RRDA)

grensvlak tussen het oceaanwater en de lucht
	English: ocean-air interface
	English definition: The sea and the atmosphere are fluids in contact with one another, but in different energy states - the liquid and the gaseous. The free surface boundary between them inhibits, but by no means totally prevents, exchange of mass and energy between the two. Almost all interchanges across this boundary occur most effectively when turbulent conditions prevail. A roughened sea surface, large differences in properties between the water and the air, or an unstable air column that facilitates the transport of air volumes from sea surface to high in the atmosphere. Both heat and water (vapor) tend to migrate across the boundary in the direction from sea to air. Heat is exchanged by three processes: radiation, conduction, and evaporation. The largest net exchange is through evaporation, the process of transferring water from sea to air by vaporization of the water. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: surface tension
	English definition: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface; quantitatively, the force that appears to act across a line of unit length on the surface. Also known as interfacial force; interfacial tension; surface intensity. (Source: MGH)

	English: limit value
	English definition: A workplace exposure criterion or standard that determines if a facility or building has a concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without harmful or adverse effects. (Source: HEG)

	English: threshold value
	English definition: The maximum concentration of a particular substance to which a worker should be exposed in a given period of time. (Source: BRACK)

	English: gravel
	English definition: A mixture of rock fragments and pebbles that is coarser than sand. (Source: CED)

	English: gravel pit
	English definition: A place where gravel is dug out of the ground. (Source: CAMB)

	English: gravel extraction
	English definition: Obtaining a mixture of coarse sand and small water- worn or pounded stones, (used for paths and roads and as an aggregate) from the earth. (Source: GILP96a)

	English: green manure
	English definition: Herbaceous plant material plowed into the soil while still green. (Source: MGH)

groene (door)gang
	English: green corridor
	English definition: Avenues along which wide-ranging animals can travel, plants can propagate, genetic interchange can occur, populations can move in response to environmental changes and natural disasters, and threatened species can be replenished from other areas. (Source: WILDLAa)

groene groente
	English: green vegetable
	English definition: A vegetable having the edible parts rich in chlorophyll and forming an important source of vitamins and micronutrients. (Source: WEBSTE)

groene revolutie
	English: green revolution
	English definition: The name given to the widespread development of high-yield strains of wheat, corn and rice during the 1960s and early 1970s. It was more formally known as the Indicative World Plan for Agricultural Development. The revolution came after the Food and Agricultural Organization held the World Food Congress in 1963. A 'Freedom from Hunger' campaign was set up with the goal of increasing food supplies and solving the world's hunger problems. (Source: WRIGHT)

groene zoom
	English: peripheral park area
	English definition: A zone of the park where scientific research is allowed. Beyond this there is a buffer zone which protects the whole reserve from agricultural, industrial and urban development. (Source: WRIGHTa)

	English: greenbelt
	English definition: 1) An area of land, not necessarily continuous, near to and sometimes surrounding a large built-up area. The area is kept open by permanent and severe restriction on building. 2) An irrigated, landscaped, and regularly maintained fuelbreak, usually put to some additional use, such as a golf course, park, or playground. 3) A planning designation that mandates the setting aside of otherwise developable lands for the purpose of creating natural or semi-natural open spaces. Greenbelts are usually linear parkways, tracts, or belts of land running through or around urban conurbations.4) An area or zone of open, semi-rural, low-density land surrounding existing major urban areas, but not necessarily continuous. The zone is to be kept open by permanent and severe restrictions on new development. (Source: ALL /  DUNSTE /  GOOD)

	English: vegetable
	English definition: Any of various herbaceous plants having parts that are used as food. (Source: CED)

	English: vegetable cultivation
	English definition: Cultivation of herbaceous plants that are used as food. (Source: CEDa)

	English: green space
	English definition: A plot of vegetated land separating or surrounding areas of intensive residential or industrial use and devoted to recreation or park uses. (Source: LANDY)

	English: group behaviour
	English definition: An observable pattern of activity displayed by persons in and as an aggregate. (Source: RHW)

groeve; steengroeve
	English: quarry
	English definition: An open or surface working or excavation for the extraction of building stone, ore, coal, gravel, or minerals. (Source: MGH)

	English: land tax
	English definition: Property tax. A tax laid upon the legal or beneficial owner of real property, and apportioned upon the assessed value of his land. (Source: WESTS)

	English: soil loading
	English definition: In soil mechanics and civil engineering the term is used to denote the increased weight brought to bear on the ground surface. (Source: WHIT)

	English: territory
	English definition: An area that an animal or group of animals defends, mainly against members of the same species. (Source: ALL)

	English: land use
	English definition: The term land use deals with the spatial aspects of all human activities on the land and with the way in which the land surface is adapted, or could be adapted, to serve human needs. (Source: GOOD)

	English: land use plan
	English definition: The key element of a comprehensive plan; describes the recommended location and intensity of development for public and private land uses, such as residential, commercial, industrial, recreational and agricultural. (Source: LANDY)

	English: land use planning
	English definition: The interdisciplinary process of evaluating, organising, and controlling the present and the future development and use of lands and their resources in terms of their suitability on sustained yield basis. Includes an overall ecological evaluation in terms of specific kinds of uses as well as evaluations of social, economic, and physical contexts to the land concerned. (Source: UNUN)

	English: land use regime
	English definition: Relation existing between the landowner and the tenant farmer who cultivates the land. (Source: ECHO1)

	English: soil use regime
	English definition: Type of management and utilization of the soil. (Source: GOODa)

	English: soil type
	English definition: A phase or subdivision of a soil series based primarily on texture of the surface soil to a depth at least equal to plow depth (about 15 cm). (Source: BJGEO)

	English: raw material
	English definition: A crude, unprocessed or partially processed material used as feedstock for a processing operation. (Source: MGH)

	English: resources

grondstoffen, hulpbronnen
	English: resources (utilisation of resources)

	English: raw material consumption
	English definition: The developed countries depend on a stable supply of raw materials for their industries. Total resource requirements are increasing rapidly over the entire world. In developed countries, although population is increasing slowly, per capita use is increasing rapidly, while the opposite is happening in developing countries. Traditionally raw materials have been classified as non-renewable resources, but a distinction may be important between 'loosable' resources, such as oil and coal, and 'non-loosable' resources, such as metals, which can be used several times over by recycling processes. (Source: WPR)

	English: soil improvement
	English definition: Process of protecting the soil from excessive erosion and making soil more fertile and productive. (Source: LANDY)

	English: soil stabilisation
	English definition: Chemical or mechanical treatment designed to increase or maintain the stability of a soil mass or otherwise to improve its engineering properties, as by increasing its shear strength, reducing its compressibility, or decreasing its tendency to absorb water. Stabilization methods include physical compaction and treatment with cement, lime, and bitumen. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: land value
	English definition: The monetary or material worth in commerce or trade of an area of ground considered as property. (Source: RHW)

	English: groundwater
	English definition: Water that occupies pores and crevices in rock and soil, below the surface and above a layer of impermeable material. It is free to move gravitationally, either downwards towards the impermeable layer or by following a gradient. (Source: ALL)

grondwater; diep grondwater
	English: soil water
	English definition: Water stored in soils. (Source: LANDY)

	English: groundwater protection
	English definition: Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm to the environmental integrity of fresh water found beneath the earth's surface, usually in aquifers, which supply wells and springs. (Source: RHW / TOE)

	English: groundwater quality
	English definition: Groundwater accounts for over 95% of the earth's useable fresh-water resources; over half the world's population depends on groundwater for drinking-water supplies. This invisible resource is vulnerable to pollution and over-exploitation. Effective conservation of groundwater supplies requires the integration of land-use and water management. (Source: GILP96)

	English: groundwater pollution
	English definition: Contamination of any water found under the earth's surface by any leaching pollutants, such as inorganic compounds (chlorides, nitrates, heavy metals, etc.), synthetic organic chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers, etc.) and pathogens (bacteria, parasites, etc.).

	English: groundwater extraction
	English definition: The process, deliberate or inadvertent, of extracting ground water from a source at a rate so in excess of the replenishment that the ground water level declines persistently, threatening exhaustion of the supply or at least a decline of pumping levels to uneconomic depths. (Source: BJGEO)

groot wild
	English: big game
	English definition: Large wild animals that weigh typically more than 30 lb when fully grown, hunted for food, sport or profit. (Source: CORBIT /  AMHER)

	English: wholesale trade
	English definition: The business of selling goods to retailers in larger quantities than they are sold to final consumers but in smaller quantities than they are purchased from manufacturers. (Source: CED)

grote risico
	English: major risk
	English definition: The high probability that a given hazard or situation will yield a significant amount of lives lost, persons injured, damage to property , disruption of economic activity or harm to the environment; or any product of the probability of occurrence and the expected magnitude of damage beyond a maximum acceptable level. (Source: TOE / HMD)

grote verbrandingsinstallatie
	English: large combustion plant
	English definition: Any sizable building which relies on machinery that converts energy released from the rapid burning of a fuel-air mixture into mechanical energy. (Source: PMA)

	English: hedge
	English definition: A line of closely planted bushes or shrubs, marking the boundaries of a field. The type of hedge varies between parts of the country, and its age can be dated from the number of species of tree and shrub present. Over the last thirty years hedge-row removal has had a marked visual effect on lowland agricultural landscapes. From the farmer's point of view, in areas of predominant arable or intensively managed grazing, there is little or no economic justification for retaining hedges. (Source: GOOD)

	English: habitat
	English definition: 1) The locality in which a plant or animal naturally grows or lives. It can be either the geographical area over which it extends, or the particular station in which a specimen is found.2) A physical portion of the environment that is inhabited by an organism or population of organisms. A habitat is characterized by a relative uniformity of the physical environment and fairly close interaction of all the biological species involved. In terms of region, a habitat may comprise a desert, a tropical forest, a prairie field, the Arctic Tundra or the Arctic Ocean. (Source: WRIGHT /  GILP)

	English: lizard
	English definition: Any reptile of the suborder Lacertilia, especially those of the family Lacertidae, typically having an elongated body, four limbs, and a small tail: includes the gechos, iguanas, chameleons, monitors, and slow worms. (Source: CED)

	English: hail
	English definition: Precipitation in the form of balls or irregular lumps of ice, always produced by convective clouds, nearly always cumulonimbus. (Source: MGH)

	English: coppice
	English definition: A growth of small trees that are repeatedly cut down at short intervals; the new shoots are produced by the old stumps. (Source: MGH)

	English: semimanufactured product
	English definition: Product that has undergone a partial processing and is used as raw material in a successive productive step. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: semiconductor
	English definition: A solid crystalline material whose electrical conductivity is intermediate between that of a metal and an insulator and is usually strongly temperature-dependent. (Source: MGH)

	English: semi-metal
	English definition: An element having some properties characteristic of metals and others of non-metals. Many metalloids give rise to an amphoteric oxide (e.g. arsenic or antimony) and many are semiconductors. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: haloform
	English definition: A haloalkane, containing three halogen atoms, e.g. iodoform, CHI3; a haloform reaction is a reaction to produce haloforms from a ketone. For example, if propanone is treated with bleaching powder, the chlorinated ketone so formed reacts to form chloroform. (Source: UVAROV)

halogeenbevattende verontreinigende stof
	English: halogenated pollutant
	English definition: An organic compound bonded with one of the five halogen elements (astatine, bromine, chlorine, fluorine, and iodine). Several of these compounds contribute to reductions in the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere. (Source: OER / ERG)

	English: halogenated biphenyl
	English definition: Halogen derivatives of biphenyl. (Source: MGH)

	English: halogenated phenol
	English definition: Halogen derivatives of phenol. (Source: MGHa)

	English: halogenated hydrocarbon
	English definition: One of a group of halogen derivatives of organic hydrogen and carbon containing compounds; the group includes monohalogen compounds (alkyl or aryl halides) and polyhalogen compounds that contain the same or different halogen atoms. (Source: MGH)

	English: halogenated terphenyl

	English: halogenated compound
	English definition: A substance containing halogen atoms. (Source: MGHa)

	English: half-life
	English definition: The time required for one-half the atoms of a given amount of radioactive material to undergo radioactive decay. (Source: KOREN)

	English: trade (services)
	English definition: The act or process of buying, selling or exchanging goods and services at either wholesale or retail, within a country or between countries. (Source: RHW)

handel (economisch)
	English: trade (economic)
	English definition: The act or the business of buying and selling for money. Mercantile or commercial business in general or the buying and selling, or exchanging, of commodities, either by wholesale or retail within a country or between countries. (Source: WESTS)

handel en verbruik
	English: trade and consumption
	English definition: The act or process of buying, selling, or exchanging commodities and the use of goods and services. (Source: ISEP)

handel in planten
	English: plant trade
	English definition: Trade of plants is subjected to regulations established by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). (Source: DUNSTEa)

handel, diensten
	English: trade, services

handel, diensten
	English: trade, services

	English: trade activity

	English: trade barrier
	English definition: An artificial restraint on the free exchange of goods and services between nations. The most common types of trade barriers are tariffs, quotas, and exchange control. Such obstacles to trade are usually imposed by a country that wishes to protect domestic products in their home market against foreign competition, better its terms of trade, reduce domestic unemployment, or improve its balance-of-payments position. The raising of trade barriers by one country often provokes other nations position. Generally, the effect of a trade barrier is to reduce the volume of trade while increasing the domestic price of the protected good. Thus, it results in a relatively inefficient allocation of world resources and reduces the level of total world income and production. (Source: GREENW)

	English: trade policy
	English definition: A course of action adopted and pursued by government, business or some other organization, which promotes or determines the direction for the act or process of buying, selling or exchanging goods and services within a country or between countries. (Source: RHW)

	English: trade restriction
	English definition: Commercial discrimination that apply to the exports of certain countries but not to similar goods from other countries. (Source: USIA)

	English: commercial law
	English definition: The whole body of substantive jurisprudence applicable to the rights, intercourse and relations of persons engaged in commerce, trade or mercantile pursuits. (Source: BLACK)

	English: trade relations

	English: commercial transaction
	English definition: The conduct or carrying on of trade, business or a financial matter to a conclusion or settlement. (Source: RHW)

	English: handicraft
	English definition: A particular skill performed with the hands. (Source: CED)

	English: preserve

	English: enforcement
	English definition: The execution, carrying out or putting into effect an order, regulation, law or official decree. (Source: BLD)

handhaving van de vrede
	English: peacekeeping
	English definition: The activities to prevent, contain, moderate and/or terminate the hostilities between or within States, through the medium of an impartial third party intervention, organised and directed internationally. This intervention isconducted using military forces, police and civilians with the consent of the main belligerents, to complement the diplomatic conflict resolution process and, to restore and maintain peace. (Source: VCDS)

handhaving van de waterstanden
	English: water table protection
	English definition: Water table is inherently susceptible to contamination from landuse activities. Remediation is very expensive and often impractical. Prevention of contamination is therefore critical in effective groundwater management. (Source: TECHBA)

handhaving van het milieurecht
	English: environmental law enforcement
	English definition: Any variety of activities associated with promoting compliance and obedience to those binding rules of a state that have been promulgated to safeguard ecological integrity, preserve natural resources and protect human health. (Source: BLD / TOE)

	English: chart (act)
	English definition: A formal written record of transactions, proceedings, etc., as of a society, committee, or legislative body. (Source: CED)

handvest van de  stadsecologie
	English: urban ecology charter
	English definition: A graphic representation of a city area or other densely populated region, portraying the location of groups or select types of people in their environment through various geographic techniques. (Source: SOC / RHW)

	English: hardness
	English definition: Resistance of a solid to indentation, scratching, abrasion or cutting. (Source: MGH)

harmonisatie van wetten
	English: harmonisation of law
	English definition: The process by which two or more states, sometimes under the auspices of an interstate or international organization, change their legislation relevant to some area of common concern to conform their statutes and to facilitate compliance and enforcement across borders. (Source: GT2)

	English: resin
	English definition: Any of a class of solid or semisolid organic products of natural or synthetic origin with no definite melting point, generally of high molecular weight; most resins are polymers. (Source: MGH)

harshoudende plant
	English: resinous plant
	English definition: Plants yielding or producing resin. (Source: CED)

hart en bloedvaten
	English: cardiovascular system
	English definition: Those structures, including the heart and blood vessels, which provide channels for the flow of blood. (Source: MGH)

hart- en vaatziekten
	English: cardiovascular disease

	English: harbour
	English definition: Area of water next to the coast, often surrounded by thick walls, where ships and boats can be sheltered. (Source: CAMB)

	English: partially halogenated chlorofluorohydrocarbon
	English definition: Hydrocarbons whose hydrogen atoms have been partially substituted with chlorine and fluorine. They are used in refrigeration, air conditioning, packaging, insulation, or as solvents and aerosol propellants. Because they are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere they drift into the upper atmosphere where their chlorine components destroy ozone. (Source: LANDY)

	English: shrub
	English definition: A woody perennial plant, smaller than a tree, with several major branches arising from near the base of the main stem. (Source: CED)

	English: levy
	English definition: A ratable portion of the produce of the property and labor of the individual citizens, taken by the nation, in the exercise of its sovereign rights, for the support of government, for the administration of the laws, and as the means for continuing in operation the various legitimate functions of the state. (Source: WESTS)

heffing op geluidsemissie
	English: noise emission levy
	English definition: A mandatory sum of money levied by government upon producers of disturbing, harmful or unwanted sounds, frequently in the transportation or construction industries, to encourage reduction of sound levels. (Source: Landy)

	English: tax differentiation

	English: heathland
	English definition: An area with poor acid soil, typically dominated by ling (Calluna) or heaths (Erica). (Source: ALL)

	English: moor
	English definition: A tract of unenclosed waste ground, usually covered with heather, coarse grass, bracken, and moss. (Source: CED)

	English: luminosity
	English definition: The functional relationship between stellar magnitude and the number and distribution of stars of each magnitude interval. Also known as relative luminosity factor. (Source: UVAROV /  MGH)

	English: slope
	English definition: The inclined surface of any part of the Earth's surface, as a hillslope; also, a broad part of a continent descending toward an ocean, as the Pacific slope. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: angling
	English definition: The art or sport of catching fish with a rod and line and a baited hook or other lure, such as a fly. (Source: CED)

	English: reforestation
	English definition: The planting of trees in forest areas which have been cleared. Reforestation has become increasingly important for preventing or reversing environmental degradation and for helping to maximize economic returns on commercially forested lands. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: revegetation
	English definition: Planting of new trees and, particularly, of native plants in disturbed sites where the vegetation cover has been destroyed, to stabilize the land surface from wind and water erosion and to reclame the land for other uses. Revegetation practices are employed in mined lands, roadsides, parks, wetlands, utility corridors, riparian areas, etc. (Source: REVEGa /  CORBIT)

	English: herbicide
	English definition: A chemical that controls or destroys undesirable plants. (Source: LANDY)

	English: recyclability
	English definition: Characteristic of materials that still have useful physical or chemical properties after serving their original purpose and that can, therefore, be reused or remanufactured into additional products. (Source: LEE)

hercirculatie van gas
	English: vapour recovery system
	English definition: Gas feedback device: while refuelling gasoline vapors are sucked off and led back again into the storage tank. (Source: WASCH)

	English: recycling
	English definition: A resource recovery method involving the collection and treatment of a waste product for use as raw material in the manufacture of the same or a similar product. (Source: LANDY)

hergebruik van afval
	English: waste reclamation
	English definition: The process of collecting and separating wastes in preparation for reuse. (Source: GSW)

hergebruik van afval
	English: waste recovery
	English definition: The process of obtaining materials or energy resources from waste. (Source: EED)

hergebruik van materialen
	English: reuse of materials
	English definition: Any re-utilization of products or components, in original form, such as when used glass bottles are sterilized and refilled for resale. (Source: TOE)

hergebruik van resten
	English: residue recycling
	English definition: Recycling of material or energy which is left over or wasted in industrial processes and other human activities. Examples include waste heat and gaseous pollutants from electricity generation, slag from metal-ore refining, and garbage. A residual becomes an output or input when a technological advance creates economic opportunities for the waste. (Source: GILP96)

hergebruik van water
	English: water reuse
	English definition: Use of process wastewater or treatment facility effluent in a different manufacturing process. (Source: LEE)

hergebruikbare verpakking
	English: reusable container
	English definition: Any container which has been conceived and designed to accomplish within its life cycle a minimum number of trips or rotations in order to be refilled or reused for the same purpose for which it was conceived. (Source: PORT)

hergebruikt materiaal
	English: recycled material
	English definition: Waste materials that are transformed into new products in such a manner that the original products may lose their identity. (Source: LANDY)

	English: recycling ratio

	English: rehousing
	English definition: To provide with new or different housing. (Source: RRDA)

herintroductie van een plantensoort
	English: plant species reintroduction
	English definition: Reintroducing wild plant species to their natural habitat. The reintroduction of species in a region requires a preliminary study to establish the reasons of their disappearance and the modifications that might have occurred in the biotopes. (Source: SCIFRI /  RAMADE)

	English: reintroduction
	English definition: Reintroduction of exterminated species in an area; it is bound to fail if the chosen animal became extinct in the area too long ago and if the area itself has undergone too many changes. Reintroduction needs years of careful planning - the approval of local population, technical conditions of the release, feeding system, protection and breeding control - and even then some unexpected problems may arise. (Source: WPR)

herinvoering van diersoorten
	English: animal species reintroduction
	English definition: Attempts made to prevent the extinction of threatened species and populations by reintroducing them in their natural habitat. The reintroduction of species in a region requires a preliminary study to establish the reasons of their disappearance and the modifications that might have occurred in the biotopes. (Source: RBGKEWa /  RAMADE)

herinvoering van soorten
	English: species reintroduction
	English definition: Reintroducing wild animal and plant species to their natural habitat. The reintroduction of species in a region requires a preliminary study to establish the reasons of their disappearance and the modifications that might have occurred in the biotopes. (Source: SCIFRI /  RAMADE)

hernieuwbare energiebron
	English: renewable energy source
	English definition: Energy sources that do not rely on fuels of which there are only finite stocks. The most widely used renewable source is hydroelectric power; other renewable sources are biomass energy, solar energy, tidal energy, wave energy, and wind energy; biomass energy does not avoid the danger of the greenhouse effect. (Source: UVAROV)

hernieuwbare grondstof
	English: renewable raw material
	English definition: Resources that have a natural rate of availability and yield a continual flow of services which may be consumed in any time period without endangering future consumption possibilities as long as current use does not exceed net renewal during the period under consideration. (Source: WHIT)

hernieuwbare natuurlijke hulpbronnen
	English: renewable resource
	English definition: Resources capable of being continuously renewed or replaced through such processes as organic reproduction and cultivation such as those practiced in agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry and fisheries. (Source: LANDY)

	English: renovation
	English definition: The process of restoring something to good condition, through corrective maintenance or repairs. (Source: RHW)

	English: recovery
	English definition: The act or process of restoring something to an original or formal condition, of claiming back a possession, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: regeneration
	English definition: The renewing or reuse of materials such as activated carbon, single ion exchange resins, and filter beds by appropriate means to remove organics, metals, solids, etc. (Source: LEE)

	English: rehabilitation
	English definition: A conservation measure involving the correction of past abuses that have impaired the productivity of the resources base. (Source: MGH)

	English: restoration
	English definition: The process of renewing or returning something to its original, normal or unimpaired condition, particularly works of art, cultural artifacts, furniture or buildings. (Source: RHW)

herstel van de waterkwaliteit
	English: restoration of water
	English definition: Any treatment process in which contaminated water is cleansed or corrected, particularly by use of a pump-and-treat approach. (Source: OSW / GHT)

herstel van in het wild levende planten en dieren
	English: fauna restoration
	English definition: The process of returning wildlife ecosystems and habitats to their original conditions. (Source: DUNSTE)

herstel van oude installaties
	English: retrofitting of old plants
	English definition: Making changes to old industrial plants installing new equipment's and facilities for the disposal of gas emissions in the atmosphere, of waste water and waste material in soil and water. (Source: RRDA)

	English: redress
	English definition: An administrative or legal remedy that attempts to restore a person to his or her original or expected position prior to loss or injury, including breach of contract. (Source: BLD)

herstelling van een installatie
	English: installation restoration
	English definition: The process of repairing or reconstructing an edifice in order to return it to its original condition. (Source: ZINZANa)

	English: repair business
	English definition: Any commercial activity, position or site that involves work in restoring or fixing some material thing or structure, such as by replacing parts or putting together something torn, broken or detached. (Source: RHW)

	English: restoration measure
	English definition: Procedure or course of action taken to reestablish or bring back to state of environmental or ecological health. (Source: RHW)

	English: recovery plan
	English definition: A formulated or systematic method for the restoration of natural resources or the reuse of materials and objects. (Source: OED)

	English: deer
	English definition: The common name for 41 species of even-toed ungulates that compose the family Cervidae in the order Artiodactyla; males have antlers. (Source: MGH)

	English: reprocessing
	English definition: Restoration of contaminated nuclear fuel to a usable condition. (Source: MGH)

het  vervuiler betaalt-principe
	English: polluter-pays principle
	English definition: The principle that those causing pollution should meet the costs to which it gives rise. (Source: BRACK)

het (ver)smelten
	English: melting
	English definition: A change of the state of a substance from the solid phase to the liquid phase. Also known as fusion. (Source: MGH)

het aanbrengen van nieuwe onderdelen [in oudere modellen]
	English: retrofitting
	English definition: 1) Addition of a pollution control device on an existing facility without making major changes to the generating plant.2) Providing a jet, an automobile, a computer, or a factory, for example, with parts, devices or equipment not in existence or available at the time of original manufacture. (Source: TOE /  AMHER)

het balanceren [proces]
	English: balancing (process)
	English definition: The act of determining the difference between total receipts and expenditure in any account, or settling by paying what remains due on an account. (Source: ODE / RHW)

het behandelen van drinkwater
	English: drinking water treatment
	English definition: The Directive on the Quality of Surface Water Intended for Drinking Water defines three categories of water treatment (A1, A2, A3) from simple physical treatment and disinfection to intensive physical and chemical treatment. The treatment to be used depends on the quality of the water abstracted. The Directive uses imperative values for parameters known to have an adverse effect on health and also guide values for those which are less adverse. There is also a directive which complements the 'surface water abstraction' Directive by indicating the methods of measurement and the frequency of sampling and analysis required. (Source: PORT)

het bewaren van bewijsmateriaal
	English: preservation of evidence
	English definition: To maintain and keep safe from harm, destruction or decay any species of proof legally presented at the trial of an issue, including witnesses, records, documents, exhibits and concrete objects. (Source: BLD)

het bewustzijn van de burger
	English: citizen awareness
	English definition: State of citizens of being aware of their civic obligations. (Source: ZINZAN)

het bouwen
	English: construction work
	English definition: The construction, rehabilitation, alteration, conversion, extension, demolition or repair of buildings, highways, or other changes or improvement to real property, including facilities providing utility services. The term also includes the supervision, inspection, and other on-site functions incidental to the actual construction. (Source: LEE)

het bouwrijp maken van een terrein
	English: building site preparation

het chemisch meten van vervuiling
	English: chemical measurement of pollution
	English definition: The quantitative determination of the presence, extent or type of pollutant substances in the environment by studying the actions or reactions of known chemicals to those pollutants. (Source: APD / RHW)

het controleren van gegevens
	English: monitoring data

het dateren
	English: dating
	English definition: Any of several techniques such as radioactive dating, dendrochronology, or varve dating, for establishing the age of rocks, palaeontological or archaeological specimens, etc. (Source: CED)

het effect op de gezondheid
	English: effect on health

het effect op de mens
	English: effect on man

het effect op het milieu
	English: effect on the environment
	English definition: Resultant of natural or manmade perturbations of the physical, chemical or biological components making up the environment. (Source: LANDY)

het ijken van meettoestellen
	English: calibration of measuring equipment
	English definition: The determination or rectification of, according to an accepted standard, the graduation of any instrument giving quantitative measurements. (Source: APD / RHW)

het in gevaar brengen van het grondwater
	English: groundwater endangering
	English definition: Threat to the quality and quantity of groundwater by activities related to the use of land. As some activities (e.g. landfill) present a particular risk of pollution, the closer an activity is to a well or borehole, the greater the risk of the pumped water being polluted. The type of soil, the geology, the rainfall and the amount of water pumped out of the ground must all be taken into consideration. (Source: PORTa)

het in kaart brengen van korstmossen
	English: mapping of lichens
	English definition: Maps of lichens distribution indicating air quality. Fruticose lichens (with branched structures well above the surface) are more susceptible to SO2 damage than foliose lichens (whose leaflike thallus lies nearly flat on surface) and both in turn are more susceptible than crustose lichens (which embed their tissue in the cracks of bark, soil, or rocks). The use of morphological lichen types as indicators of air pollution concentrations is well developed. (Source: WESTM)

het in klemmen vangen
	English: trapping
	English definition: To catch an animal in a mechanical device or enclosed place or pit. (Source: CED)

het indexeren van informatie
	English: indexing of documentation
	English definition: A service which creates a special contents list, containing titles, authors, abstracts, subject headings and other information, to describe a large number of publications and to be used in searchable, machine-readable (or printed) look-up tables. (Source: RHW)

het inschatten van het effect van iets
	English: impact assessment
	English definition: Evaluation of the effect of a project upon the environment. (Source: PHC)

het invoeren van diersoorten
	English: introduction of animal species
	English definition: Animals which have been translocated by human agency into lands or waters where they have not lived previously, at least during historic times. Such translocation of species always involves an element of risk if not of serious danger. Newly arrived species, depending on their interspecific relationships and characteristics, may act as or carry parasites or diseases, prey upon native organisms, display toxic reactions, or be highly competitive with or otherwise adversely affect native species and communities. (Source: WPR)

het invoeren van plantensoorten
	English: introduction of plant species
	English definition: Plants which have been translocated by human agency into lands or waters where they have not lived previously, at least during historic times. Such translocation of species always involves an element of risk if not of serious danger. Newly arrived species may be highly competitive with or otherwise adversely affect native species and communities. Some may become a nuisance through sheer overabundance. They may become liable to rapid genetic changes in their new environment. Many harmful introductions have been made by persons unqualified to anticipate the often complex ecological interaction which may ensue. On the other hand many plants introduced into modified or degraded environments may be more useful than native species in controlling erosion or in performing other positive functions. (Source: WPR)

het kankerverwekkend zijn
	English: carcinogenicity
	English definition: The ability or tendency of a substance or physical agent to cause or produce cancer. (Source: CONFER)

het kappen van kreupelhout
	English: bush clearing
	English definition: The removal of brush using mechanical means, either by cutting manually or by using machinery for crushing, rolling, flailing, or chipping it, or by chemical means or a combination of these. (Source: DUNSTE)

het klonen
	English: cloning
	English definition: The production of genetically identical individuals from a single parent. Cloning plants usually involves plant cell culture. Cloning animals is more difficult and relays on some manipulation of their normal reproductive cycle. A clone is a group of organisms of identical genetic constitution, unless mutation occurs, produced from a single individual by asexual reproduction, parthenogenesis or apomixis. (Source: BIOTAZ)

het kristalliseren
	English: crystallisation
	English definition: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (Source: MGH)

het leeg laten lopen van een(water)bekken
	English: dam draining
	English definition: The drawing of water from a reservoir by means of draining pipes located at the bottom of the basin and controlled by a system of sluices which ensure, if necessary, the emptying of the basin in a given period of time in respect of downstream conditions. (Source: MANCOS)

het minimaliseren van de effecten van iets
	English: impact minimisation
	English definition: Actions, procedures or installations undertaken to reduce the extent or degree of negative effects on human health and the ecosystem introduced by human design or interaction with the environment. (Source: OED)

het ongedaan maken van de effecten van iets
	English: impact reversal
	English definition: The counteracting or undoing of negative effects or influences on the environment. (Source: OED)

het ontzwaveling van brandstof
	English: desulphurisation of fuel
	English definition: Removal of sulfur from fossil fuels (or removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion fuel gases) to reduce pollution. (Source: LEE)

het oplossen van milieuproblemen
	English: environmental problem solving
	English definition: The activity of finding solutions for troublesome or perplexing situations involving ecological or natural resources. (Source: OED)

het opnieuw vrijkomen van verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant remobilisation

het opruimen van oorlogsmaterieel
	English: disposal of warfare materials
	English definition: Disposal of the material remnants of war, which can seriously impede development and cause injuries and the loss of lives and property. The disposal of warfare waste is problematic because it can be highly dangerous, toxic, long-living and requires the utilization of specific and sophisticated technologies, particularly in the case of mines and unexploded bombs which have been left on the war territories. (Source: WPR)

het opstellen van economische prognoses
	English: economic forecasting
	English definition: The production of estimates of future financial and commercial trends, based on econometric models or surveys. (Source: ODE)

het per ongeluk vrijkomen van organismen
	English: accidental release of organisms
	English definition: Genetically engineered organisms that are released in the environment by mistake; once released they may exhibit some previously unknown pathogenicity, might take over from some naturally occurring bacteria (possibly having other positive functions which thus are lost) or pass on some unwanted trait to such indigenous bacteria. There is also concern that an uncontrolled genetic mutation could produce a form with hazardous consequences for the environment. (Source: WPRa)

het raffineren van kolen
	English: coal refining
	English definition: The processing of coal to remove impurities. (Source: PHCa)

het regelen van hergebruik
	English: life-cycle management
	English definition: Management of all the stages involved in the life of a product such as raw materials acquisition, manufacturing, distribution and retail, use and re-use and maintenance, recycling and waste management, in order to create less environmentally harmful products. (Source: PORT)

het slachten van dieren
	English: slaughtering of animals
	English definition: Killing of animals for food. (Source: PHC)

het stellen van doelen
	English: target setting
	English definition: Establishing or determining environmental goals or objectives. (Source: RHW)

het toekennen van een milieukeur(merk)
	English: ecolabelling
	English definition: The European Community's initiative to encourage the promotion of environmentally friendly products. The scheme came into operation in late 1992 and was designed to identify products which are less harmful to the environment than equivalent brands. It was hoped that by buying labelled goods, consumers would be able to put pressure on manufacturers and retailers both to make and to stock 'greener' products. This includes the effects they have on the environment at all stages. The labels are awarded on environmental criteria set by the EC. (Source: WRIGHT)

het uitlenen van documenten
	English: document lending
	English definition: The service provided by a library in which the library's clients are temporarily allowed to use books and other printed materials outside the library. (Source: RHW)

het uitsterven
	English: extinction (ecological)
	English definition: 1) The complete disappearance of a species of plant or animal from the planet.2) Disappearing of animals and plants from the biota. (Source: WRIGHT /  GREMES)

het verloren gaan van biotopen
	English: loss of biotope
	English definition: Destruction of biotopes produced by environmental degradation which in turn is caused by air- or water-borne pollution. (Source: WPR)

het vervuiler-betaalt-principe
	English: community-pays principle
	English definition: A tenet of environmental policy, according to which the costs of ecological challenges, environmental quality improvements and the removal of environmental hazards are allotted to community groups or local corporations and, thereby, to the general public. (Source: GAB)

het verweiden van de kudde
	English: transhumance
	English definition: The seasonal migration of livestock to suitable grazing grounds. (Source: CED)

het verzamelen van bewijzen
	English: taking of evidence
	English definition: In criminal law and torts, the act of laying hold upon an evidence, with or without removing the same.

het vissen
	English: fishing
	English definition: The attempt to catch fish or other aquatic animal with a hook or with nets, traps, etc. (Source: ZINZANa)

het vloeibaar maken
	English: fluidisation
	English definition: A roasting process in which finely divided solids are suspended in a rising current of air (or other fluid), producing a fluidized bed; used in the calcination of various materials, in the coal industry, etc. (Source: MGH)

het voeren van dieren
	English: feeding of animals
	English definition: The act and effect of supplying animals with food. (Source: ZINZAN)

het vol laten lopen van een spaarbekken
	English: silting up
	English definition: The filling or partial filling with silt of a reservoir that receives fine-grained sediment brought in by streams and surface runoff. (Source: BJGEO)

het voorkomen van de effecten van iets
	English: impact prevention
	English definition: Precautionary measures, actions or installations implemented to avert negative effects on the environment. (Source: TOE)

het voorkomen van gevaar
	English: anticipation of danger
	English definition: The act of foreseeing, expecting and taking measures against possible future exposure to harm, death or a thing that causes these. (Source: ISEP)

het vrijkomen van verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant mobilisation

het vuren
	English: firing
	English definition: The process of applying fire or heat, as in the hardening or glazing of ceramics. (Source: HARRIS)

het wegruimen van slib
	English: clearing sludge

het zweten
	English: transpiration
	English definition: The loss of water vapour from a plant, mainly through the stomata and to a small extent through the cuticle and lenticels. Transpiration results in a stream of water, carrying dissolved minerals salts, flowing upwards through the xylem. (Source: ALL)

heterocyclische verbinding
	English: heterocyclic compound
	English definition: Compound in which the ring structure is a combination of more than one kind of atom. (Source: MGH)

	English: hill
	English definition: A natural elevation of the land surface, rising rather prominently above the surrounding land, usually of limited extent and having a well-defined outline, rounded rather than peaked or rugged, with no specific definition of absolute elevation. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: nuisance
	English definition: Anything that affects or prejudices health. (Source: GILP96)

	English: ungulate
	English definition: Hoofed mammals, including the Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla. (Source: ALL)

	English: gallinacean
	English definition: The order of birds that includes grouse, ptarmigan, capercaillie, partridges, pheasants, quails, turkeys and peacocks. These are mainly grain-eating, heavy-bodied, ground-nesting birds, capable of only short, rapid flights. The cocks are usually more colourful than the hens. (Source: ALL)

hoeveelheid afval
	English: waste volume
	English definition: The total amount of refuse or unusable material produced at any source. (Source: RHW)

hoeveelheid vervuiling dat een land kan verdragen
	English: land carrying capacity
	English definition: The maximum extent to which ground or soil area may be exploited without degradation or depletion. (Source: ALL)

	English: court
	English definition: An organ of the government, belonging to the judicial department, whose function is the application of the laws to controversies brought before it and the public administration of justice. The presence of a sufficient number of the members of such a body regularly convened in an authorized place at an appointed time, engaged in the full and regular performance of its functions. A body in the government to which the administration of justice is delegated. A body organized to administer justice, and including both judge and jury. An incorporeal, political being, composed of one or more judges, who sit at fixed times and places, attended by proper officers, pursuant to lawful authority, for the administration of justice. An organized body with defined powers, meeting at certain times and places for the hearing and decision of causes and other matters brought before it, and aided in this, its proper business, by its proper officers, attorneys and counsel to present and manage the business, clerks to record and attest its acts and decisions, and ministerial officers to execute its commands, and secure due order in its proceedings. (Source: WESTS)

hoge berg
	English: high mountain

hoge zuurtegraad
	English: strong acidity
	English definition: High degree of ionization of an acid in water solution. (Source: KORENa)

	English: pressure equipment
	English definition: Equipment operating with an internal pressure greater than atmospheric. (Source: RRDA)

hoger onderwijs
	English: higher education
	English definition: Study beyond secondary school at an institution that offers programs terminating in undergraduate and graduate degrees. (Source: COE)

	English: high-speed railway
	English definition: The term 'high-speed traffic' encompasses all trains running at speeds over 200 km/h but also trains running at 200 km/h if the terrain, population density or economic reasons do not justify higher speeds. (Source: EJRCF)

	English: high-speed train
	English definition: Trains travelling at maximum speeds of 300kmh on special high-speed rail lines. (Source: RRDA)

	English: cave
	English definition: 1) An underground hollow with access from the ground surface or from the sea, often found in limestone areas and on rocky coastlines.2) A natural cavity, chamber or recess which leads beneath the surface of the earth, generally in a horizontal or obliquely inclined direction. It may be in the form of a passage or a gallery, its shape depending in part on the joint pattern or structure of the rock and partly on the type of process involved in its excavation. Thus, caves worn by subterranean rivers may be different in character from, and of considerably greater extent than, a sea-cave eroded by marine waves.3) A natural underground open space, generally with a connection to the surface and large enough for a person to enter. The most common type of cave is formed in a limestone by dissolution. (Source: CED /  WHIT /  BJGEO)

	English: coelenterate
	English definition: Animals that have a single body cavity (the coelenteron). The name was formerly given to a phylum comprising the Cnidaria and Ctenophora, but these are now regarded as phyla in their own right, and the name Coelenterata has fallen from use, although it is sometimes used as a synonym for Cnidaria. (Source: ALL)

	English: homepage
	English definition: The preset document that is displayed after starting a World Wide Web browser, or the main World Wide Web document in a series of related documents. (Source: UNM / WIC)

	English: dog
	English definition: A common four-legged animal, especially kept by people as a pet or to hunt or guard things. (Source: CAMB)

	English: canid
	English definition: Carnivorous mammal in the superfamily Canoidea, including dogs and their allies. (Source: MGH)

	English: famine
	English definition: A severe shortage of food, as through crop failure or over population. It may be due to poor harvests following drought, floods, earthquake, war, social conflict, etc. (Source: CED /  GUNN)

	English: fee
	English definition: A charge fixed by law for services of public officers or for use of a privilege under control of government. (Source: WESTS)

	English: trunk road
	English definition: A main road, especially one that is suitable for heavy vehicles. (Source: CED)

	English: high-rise building
	English definition: Any tall, multistoried structure or edifice that is equipped with elevators. (Source: RHW)

	English: major risk installation
	English definition: Installations whose functioning involves the possibility of major hazards such as chemical plants, nuclear, coal and oil power production plants, etc. (Source: WPRa)

	English: high voltage line
	English definition: An electric line with a voltage on the order of thousands of volts. (Source: MGH)

hoogstammig bos
	English: timber forest
	English definition: Forest whose trees are all in the adult stage and have reached the reproductive period. (Source: RAMADE)

	English: altitude
	English definition: 1) In general, a term used to describe a topographic eminence. 2) A specific altitude or height above a given level. 3) In surveying, the term refers to the angle between the horizontal and a point at a higher level. (Source: WHIT)

	English: high tide water
	English definition: The level of water when the tide is at its highest level. (Source: CED)

	English: hearing procedure
	English definition: Any prescribed course or mode of action governing the preliminary examination by a magistrate of basic evidence and charges to determine whether criminal proceedings, a trial or other judicial actions are justified. (Source: RHW)

	English: skyline destruction

	English: endocrinology
	English definition: The study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they synthesize and secrete. (Source: MGH)

	English: hotel industry
	English definition: The industry related with the provision of lodging and usually meals and other services for travelers and other paying guests. (Source: AMHER)

houder zonder statiegeld
	English: non-returnable container
	English definition: Any container for which no specific provisions for its return from the consumer or final use has been established. (Source: PORT)

hout als brandstof
	English: fuel wood
	English definition: Wood used for heating. (Source: RRDA)

	English: wood waste
	English definition: Waste which is left over after the processing of raw timber. (Source: ISEP)

	English: wood preservation
	English definition: The use of chemicals to prevent or retard the decay of wood, especially by fungi or insects; widely used preservatives include creosote, pitch, sodium fluoride and tar; especially used on wood having contact with the ground. (Source: HARRIS)

	English: timber industry
	English definition: Industry related with timber harvesting and processing. (Source: RRDA)

	English: wood product

	English: timber producing chain
	English definition: All interrelated steps of the lumber manufacturing process including tree felling, the removal of tops, branches and bark, the piling and sawing of logs, and the transportation and loading of finished boards or other products. (Source: TIM)

	English: charcoal
	English definition: A porous solid product containing 85-98% carbon and produced by heating carbonaceous materials such as cellulose, wood or peat at 500-600 Cdeg in the absence of air. (Source: MGH)

	English: skin
	English definition: The tissue forming the outer covering of the vertebrate body: it consists of two layers, the outermost of which may be covered with hair, scales, feathers, etc. It is mainly protective and sensory in function. (Source: CED)

	English: domestic fuel oil
	English definition: Liquid petroleum product used in domestic heaters. (Source: CED)

	English: domestic fuel
	English definition: Fuels obtained from different sources that are used for domestic heating. (Source: RRDA)

	English: domesticated animal
	English definition: 1) Wild animal which has been trained to live near a house and not be frightened of human beings; 2) species which was formerly wild, now selectively bred to fill human needs. (Source: PHC)

	English: pet
	English definition: An animal which is kept in the home as a companion and treated affectionately. (Source: CAMB)

	English: household chemical

huishoudelijk afval
	English: domestic waste
	English definition: Waste generated by residential households and comprised of any material no longer wanted or needed. (Source: EED)

huishoudelijk afvalwater
	English: domestic waste water
	English definition: Wastewater principally derived from households, business buildings, institutions, etc., which may or may not contain surface runoff, groundwater or storm water. (Source: WWC)

huishoudelijk apparaat
	English: domestic appliance
	English definition: A machine or device, especially an electrical one used domestically. (Source: CED)

huishoudelijk lawaai
	English: domestic noise
	English definition: Noise caused by domestic facilities and activities. (Source: RRDA)

huishoudelijke artikelen
	English: household goods
	English definition: Goods needed for living in a household.

huishoudelijke uitgaven
	English: household expenditure
	English definition: Any spending done by a person living alone or by a group of people living together in shared accommodation and with common domestic expenses. (Source: ODE)

huishoudelijke vervuiling
	English: domestic pollution

	English: household
	English definition: A group of persons sharing a home or living space, who aggregate and share their incomes, as evidenced by the fact that they regularly take meals together. (Source: SOCIOL)

	English: housing
	English definition: 1) Dwelling-houses collectively and the provision of these.2) Shelter, lodging.

	English: housing finance

	English: housing programme
	English definition: A planned system of projects, services or activities intended to support individuals or families in need of shelter, including transitional or permanent housing and safe havens for low-income, elderly or homeless populations. (Source: HUD)

	English: domestic waste landfill
	English definition: Site for the disposal of wastes arising from domestic activities. (Source: RRDA)

hulp(verlening) bij rampen
	English: disaster relief
	English definition: Money, food or other assistance provided for those surviving a sudden, calamitous event causing loss of life, damage or hardship. (Source: RHW)

	English: aid policy
	English definition: A course of action adopted and pursued by government or some other organization that promotes or determines the allocation of assistance, support or relief, often from one country to another. (Source: ODE)

	English: fitting (plumbing)
	English definition: Plumbing equipment in a building. (Source: RRDA)

humanitaire hulp
	English: humanitarian aid
	English definition: The support or relief given to save human lives or to alleviate suffering, including public health efforts and the provision of financial resources and food, often when governmental authorities are unable or unwilling to provide for such assistance. (Source: RHW / DPG)

	English: humus
	English definition: The more or less decomposed organic matter in the soil. Besides being the source of most of the mineral salts needed by plants, humus improves the texture of the soil and holds water, so reducing the loss of nutrients by leaching. (Source: ALL)

	English: lease
	English definition: Any agreement which gives rise to relationship of landlord and tenant (real property) or lessor and lessee (real or personal property). Contract for exclusive possession of lands or tenements for determinate period. Contract for possession and profits of lands and tenements either for life, or for certain period of time, or during the pleasure of the parties. (Source: WESTS)

	English: hydraulics
	English definition: The branch of science and technology concerned with the mechanics of fluids, especially liquids. (Source: MGH)

	English: hydrobiology
	English definition: Study of organisms living in water. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: hydroculture
	English definition: Growing plants without soil but in sand or vermiculite or other granular material, using a liquid solution of nutrients to feed them. (Source: PHC)

	English: hydrogeology
	English definition: The science dealing with the occurrence of surface and ground water, its utilization, and its functions in modifying the earth, primarily by erosion and deposition. (Source: MGH)

	English: hydrography
	English definition: Science which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of the oceans, lakes, rivers, and their adjoining coastal areas, with particular reference to their control and utilization. (Source: MGH)

hydrografisch bekken
	English: hydrographic basin
	English definition: 1) The drainage basin of a stream. 2) An area occupied by a lake and its drainage basin. (Source: BJGEO)

hydrografisch netwerk
	English: hydrographic network
	English definition: The configuration or arrangement in plan view of the natural stream courses in an area. It is related to local geologic and geomorphologic features and history. Synonym: drainage pattern. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: hydrology
	English definition: The science that treats the occurrence, circulation, distribution, and properties of the waters of the earth, and their reaction with the environment. (Source: MGH)

hydrologische ramp
	English: hydrologic disaster
	English definition: Violent, sudden and destructive change either in the quality of the earth's water or in the distribution or movement of water on land, below the surface or in the atmosphere. (Source: ISEP /  APD)

hydrologische stroming
	English: hydrologic flow
	English definition: The characteristic behaviour and the total quantity of water involved in a drainage basin, determined by measuring such quantities as rainfall, surface and subsurface storage and flow, and evapotranspiration. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: hydrolysis
	English definition: 1) Decomposition or alteration of a chemical substance by water. 2) In aqueous solutions of electrolytes, the reactions of cations with water to produce a weak base or of anions to produce a weak acid. (Source: MGH)

	English: hydrometeorology
	English definition: That part of meteorology of direct concern to hydrologic problems, particularly to flood control, hydroelectric power, irrigation, and similar fields of engineering and water resource. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: hydrometry
	English definition: The science and technology of measuring specific gravities, particularly of liquids. (Source: MGH)

	English: hydrosphere
	English definition: The waters of the Earth, as distinguished from the rocks (lithosphere), living things (biosphere), and the air (atmosphere). Includes the waters of the ocean; rivers, lakes, and other bodies of surface water in liquid form on the continents; snow, ice, and glaciers; and liquid water, ice, and water vapour in both the unsaturated and saturated zones below the land surface. Included by some, but excluded by others, is water in the atmosphere , which includes water vapour, clouds, and all forms of precipitation while still in the atmosphere. (Source: BJGEO)

hydrosfeer (zoetwater, zeewater)
	English: hydrosphere (freshwater, marine water, waters)

	English: hygiene
	English definition: The science that deals with the principles and practices of good health. (Source: MGH)

hygienisch afgedekte vuilstortplaats
	English: sanitary landfill
	English definition: An engineered method of disposing of solid waste on land in a manner that protects the environment, by spreading the waste in thin layers, compacting it to the smallest practical volume and covering it with compacted soil by the end of each working day or at more frequent intervals if necessary. (Source: CORBIT)

	English: hygienist
	English definition: A person skilled in the practice of hygiene. (Source: CED)

	English: hypertext
	English definition: The organization of information units typically containing visible links that users can select or click with a mouse pointer or some other computer device to automatically retrieve or display other documents. (Source: WIC / TWI)

	English: ideology
	English definition: A body of ideas that reflects the beliefs and interest of a nation, political system, etc. and underlies political action. (Source: CED)

iets in voorraad houden
	English: stocking
	English definition: To keep a supply accumulated for future use. (Source: AMHER)

	English: calibration
	English definition: To mark the scale of a measuring instrument so that readings can be made in appropriate units. (Source: CED)

	English: ice
	English definition: The dense substance formed by the freezing of water to the solid state; it commonly occurs in the form of hexagonal crystals. (Source: MGH)

	English: iceberg
	English definition: A large mass of detached land ice floating in the sea or stranded in shallow water. (Source: MGH)

	English: iron
	English definition: A malleable ductile silvery-white ferromagnetic metallic element occurring principally in haematite and magnetite. It is widely used for structural and engineering purposes. (Source: CED)

ijzer- en staalindustrie
	English: iron and steel industry
	English definition: Sector of the metallurgical industry dealing with the production of cast iron, steel and iron alloys. Emissions from these industries tend to settle quickly from the atmosphere and can lead to rising concentrations in the soil. The main raw material input to the production process is iron ore. Also recycled scrap is used. (Source: FLGISA /  DOBRIS)

	English: ironwork industry
	English definition: Industry for the production of iron articles. (Source: WEBSTEa)

	English: iron industry
	English definition: A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the extraction and refinement of iron ore to produce cast iron, wrought iron and steel. (Source: RHW / ENC)

	English: iron scrap
	English definition: Waste pieces or disused articles of wrought iron (wrought-iron scrap) suitable for reworking for rolling or forging.

	English: IMCO code
	English definition: Codes published by Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO) relating to international shipping, particularly regarding safety and marine pollution. (Source: BRACK)

	English: IMCO Conference
	English definition: Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organisation has been changed into International Maritime Organisation in May 1982. A United Nations Specialized Agency, established in 1958 as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organisation to provide a means for co-operation and exchange of information on technical matters related to international shipping, particularly regarding safety and marine pollution. (Source: BRACK)

	English: immission control
	English definition: Legislative and administrative procedures aimed at reducing the damage caused by emissions. Pollution control programmes are normally based on human-oriented acceptable dose limits. A very important measure concerns the organisation of an emission inventory. (Source: GOODa)

	English: immission control law

	English: immission limit
	English definition: Maximum levels of selected pollutants which would lead to unacceptable air quality. (Source: PORT)

	English: immission load
	English definition: The total amount of immissions introduced in a given environment. (Source: RRDA)

	English: immission
	English definition: The reception of material, such as pollutants, by the environment and from any source. (Source: ALL)

immissies van verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant immission
	English definition: The transfer of solid, liquid, or gaseous contaminants in the air, water, and soil. (Source: DIFIDa)

	English: immission damage
	English definition: Damage caused by pollution from a distinct source of emission. (Source: GILP96)

	English: immunity
	English definition: The ability of an organism to resist disease or toxins by natural or artificial means. (Source: KOREN)

	English: immunoassay
	English definition: Any of several methods for the quantitative determination of chemical substances such as hormones, drugs, and certain proteins that utilize the highly specific binding between an antigen and an antibody. (Source: KOREN)

	English: immune system
	English definition: A body system that helps an organism to resist disease, through the activities of specialised blood cells or antibodies produced by them in response to natural exposure or inoculation. (Source: KOREN /  CED)

	English: immunology
	English definition: A branch of biological science concerned with the native or acquired resistance of higher animal forms and humans to infection with microorganisms. (Source: MGH)

immunologische ziekte
	English: immunological disease
	English definition: The disruption of the complex system of interacting cells, cell products and cell-forming tissues that protects the body from pathogens, destroys infected and malignant cells and removes cellular debris. (Source: SMD / RHW)

	English: impact source
	English definition: Elements of an action which cause damage to the surrounding environment. (Source: RRDA)

	English: impregnating agent
	English definition: A material used to fill holes in wood, plaster, or other surfaces before applying a coating such as paint or varnish. (Source: MGH)

	English: impulsive noise
	English definition: Noise characterized by transient short-duration disturbances distributed essentially uniformly over the useful passband of a transmission system. (Source: MGH)

	English: sudden load
	English definition: Sudden immission in considerable amount of one or more pollutants in the atmosphere, in a water body or in the soil. (Source: RRDA)

in het wild groeiende plant
	English: wild plant
	English definition: Plants growing in a natural state (not cultivated). (Source: CED)

in het wild levende planten en dieren
	English: wildlife
	English definition: Animals and plants that grow independently of people, usually in natural conditions. (Source: CAMB)

in vitro proef
	English: in vitro assay
	English definition: Assay taking place in an artificial environment. (Source: KOREN)

in vivo proef
	English: in vivo assay
	English definition: Experiments that are carried out in the living organism. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: seizure
	English definition: The official or legally authorized act of taking away possessions or property, often for a violation of law or to enforce a judgment imposed by a court of law. (Source: BLD)

	English: indicator
	English definition: Something that provides an indication especially of trends. (Source: CED)

indicator van milieuverontreiniging
	English: pollution indicator
	English definition: Organisms, mostly plants, which are most sensitive to slight changes in environmental factors. When identified their reaction can serve as an early warning of the endangerment of the health of a community. (Source: GILP96)

indirecte inductor
	English: indirect discharger
	English definition: A non-domestic source introducing pollutants into a publicly owned waste-treatment system. Indirect dischargers can be commercial or industrial facilities whose wastes enter local sewers. (Source: EPAGLO)

Indische Oceaan
	English: Indian Ocean
	English definition: A body of water between the continents of Africa, Antarctica, Asia and Australia including the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea (with the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Persian Gulf) in the west, and containing several islands and island chains, such as the Andaman, Nicobar and Seychelles. (Source: INP)

individuele afvalwaterverwerking
	English: individual wastewater treatment
	English definition: The process of using a natural system or mechanical device to collect, treat and discharge or reclaim wastewater from an individual dwelling without the use of community-wide sewers or a centralised treatment facility. (Source: DWT)

	English: infiltration
	English definition: Movement of water through the soil surface into the ground. (Source: MGH)

	English: industrialisation
	English definition: The process whereby manufacturing industry comes to occupy the predominant position in a national or regional economy. (Source: GOOD)

	English: industry
	English definition: An industry is a group of establishments engaged in the same or similar kinds of economic activities. Industries produce commodities that are sold with the expectation of recovering the total cost of production. A single industry can produce many different commodities. (Source: PGE)

industrie, ambacht, technologie, uitrusting
	English: industry, crafts; technology; equipments

	English: trade waste
	English definition: All types of waste generated by offices, restaurants, shops, warehouses and other such non-manufacturing sources, and non-processing waste generated at manufacturing facilities such as office and packaging waste. (Source: EED)

	English: industrial association

industrieel afval
	English: industrial waste
	English definition: Waste materials discarded from industrial operations, or derived from manufacturing processes; may be solid, sludge (wet solids) or liquid wastes and may or may not be considered hazardous. (Source: HMD /  ISEP)

industrieel afvalwater
	English: industrial effluent
	English definition: Materials generally discarded from industrial operations or derived from manufacturing processes. (Source: LANDY)

industrieel afvalwater
	English: industrial waste water
	English definition: Waste water that results from industrial processes and manufacturing. It may either be disposed of separately or become part of the sanitary or combined sewage.

industrieel afvalwater
	English: wastewater from trade
	English definition: Liquid or waterborne wastes polluted or fouled by commercial operations. (Source: ISEP /  DEE)

industrieel afvoergas
	English: industrial waste gas
	English definition: Waste gases resulting from manufacturing and other industrial processes which may be treated and released, treated and reused or released without treatment. (Source: ISEP)

industrieel bedrijfsgebouw
	English: industrial building
	English definition: A building directly used in manufacturing or technically productive enterprises. Industrial buildings are not generally or typically accessible to other than workers. Industrial buildings include buildings used directly in the production of power, the manufacture of products, the mining of raw materials, and the storage of textiles, petroleum products, wood and paper products, chemicals, plastics, and metals. (Source: JJK)

industrieel beleid
	English: industrial policy
	English definition: Course of action adopted by national government to support and promote industrial activities. (Source: GOODa)

industrieel eigendomsrecht
	English: industrial property right
	English definition: A justifiable claim granted by government or some other authority that offers protection or excludes others from making, using or selling an invention, a unique design of an article of manufacture or some other creation or discovery. (Source: BLD)

industrieel gebied
	English: industrial zoning
	English definition: A system of land use planning that forms zones or boundaries to be used only by manufacturing or business enterprises. (Source: ISEP)

industrieel lawaai
	English: industrial noise
	English definition: Noise produced by industrial plants activities.

industrieel materiaal
	English: industrial material

industrieel of commercieel
	English: industrial or commercial

industrieel product
	English: industrial product

industrieel slib
	English: industrial sludge
	English definition: Sludge produced as a result of industrial production processes or manufacturing.

	English: industrial area
	English definition: Areas allocated for industry within a town-planning scheme or environmental plan. The range of industries accommodated in a plan may include: light industry, service industry, general industry, hazardous, noxious or offensive industry, waterfront industry, extractive industry. Standards are usually defined for industrial areas relating to access and roads, drainage, car parking, aesthetics, landscaping, buffer zones, noise levels, and air and water pollution. (Source: GILP96)

	English: industrial plant (organism)
	English definition: Plants employed in industry, e.g. cotton, flax, hemp, peanuts, etc. (Source: RRDA)

industriele activiteit
	English: manufacturing activity
	English definition: Activities connected with the processing of raw material into a finished product, especially by means of a large-scale industrial operation. (Source: AMHER)

industriele activiteit
	English: industrial activity
	English definition: Operations, functions and processes involved in industrial production. (Source: RRDA)

industriele economie
	English: industrial economics
	English definition: The production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services resulting from all manufacturing business. (Source: RHW)

industriele fabricage
	English: industrial manufacturing
	English definition: To make or process (a raw material) into a finished product, especially by means of a large-scale industrial operation. (Source: AMHER)

industriele geneeskunde
	English: industrial medicine
	English definition: The branch of medicine which deals with the relationship of humans to their occupations, for the purpose of the prevention of disease and injury and the promotion of optimal health, productivity, and social adjustment. (Source: MGH)

industriele gewassen
	English: industrial crop
	English definition: Any crop that provides materials for industrial processes and products such as soybeans, cotton (lint and seed), flax, and tobacco. (Source: MGH)

industriele installatie
	English: industrial installation
	English definition: A device, system or piece of equipment installed for a particular industry. (Source: CED)

industriele locatie
	English: industrial site
	English definition: The location for the individual manufacturing firm. (Source: GOOD)

industriele milieuzorg
	English: industrial environmental policy
	English definition: The guiding procedure, philosophy or course of action for the protection of natural resources from pollution generated by manufacturing or business enterprises. (Source: RHW)

industriele omgeving (in het algemeen)
	English: industrial environment (in general)
	English definition: Environment where the manifold activities connected with the production of goods and services take place. (Source: RRDA)

industriele ontwikkeling
	English: industrial development

industriele planning
	English: industrial planning
	English definition: The process of making arrangements or preparations to facilitate the manufacturing, producing and processing of goods or merchandise. (Source: RHW / ODE)

industriele processen
	English: industrial process

industriele productie
	English: industrial production
	English definition: Any process of converting or transforming raw materials and other resources into goods or services which have value. (Source: ODE)

industriele productiestatistieken
	English: industrial production statistics

industriele rook
	English: industrial fume
	English definition: Any smokelike or vaporous exhalation from matters or substances, especially of an odorous or harmful nature, which result from trading, commercial or manufacturing processes. (Source: RHW / ALL)

industriele samenleving
	English: industrial society
	English definition: A large-scale community with diverse manufacturing sectors and an infrastructure and economy based on the science, technology and instrumental rationality of the modern West. (Source: FUT / RHW)

industriele stortplaats
	English: industrial dumping
	English definition: The disposal of any waste generated by a manufacturing or processing process by the agency or body which produced it. (Source: RHW / ERG)

industriele structuur
	English: industrial structure

industriele uitrusting
	English: industrial equipment
	English definition: Equipment related to industrial activities. (Source: RRDA)

industriele veiligheid
	English: industrial safety
	English definition: Measures or techniques implemented to reduce the risk of injury, loss and danger to persons, property or the environment in any facility or place involving the manufacturing, producing and processing of goods or merchandise. (Source: ODE)

industriele vervuiling
	English: industrial pollution
	English definition: Pollution as a result of industrial processes and manufacturing. (Source: RRDA)

industriele wetgeving
	English: industrial legislation
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate working conditions or the acquisition, processing and disposal of materials by the aggregate of factories, companies and enterprises in one or more manufacturing or technically productive fields. (Source: RHW)

industriele woestenij
	English: industrial wasteland
	English definition: Area of land which is no longer usable for cultivation or for any other purpose after having been the site of an industrial plant. (Source: PHCa)

	English: industrial emission
	English definition: Gas-borne pollutants discharged into the atmosphere from smokestacks of industrial plants. (Source: LEE)

	English: economic zoning
	English definition: A land-use planning design or control where specific types of businesses or private sector investment are encouraged within designated boundaries. (Source: ALL / EEN)

inert afval
	English: inert waste
	English definition: Wastes that do not undergo any significant physical, chemical, or biological transformations when deposited in a landfill.

inert makend
	English: inertisation
	English definition: The process of waste inertisation includes solidification and stabilisation; stabilisation is the process used for reduction of hazard potential of the waste by converting the contaminants into their least soluble, least immobile, or least toxic form. Solidification physically binds or encapsulates the waste in a monolithic solid of high structural integrity. Thus solidification may be used for powders, liquids or gases. (Source: ENVAR)

infectie met parasitaire zuigwormen
	English: schistosomiasis
	English definition: A disease in which humans are parasitized by any of three species of blood flukes: Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. japonicum; adult worms inhabit the blood vessels. (Source: MGH)

	English: informatics
	English definition: Science and technique of data elaboration and of automatic treatment of information. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: data processing law

	English: information
	English definition: All facts, ideas or imaginative works of the mind which have been communicated, published or distributed formally or informally in any format, or the knowledge that is  communicated or received. (Source: CCL / RHW)

	English: information

informatie met geografische componenten
	English: geo-referenced information
	English definition: Data delimiting a given object, either physical or conceptual, in terms of its spatial relationship to the land, usually consisting of points, lines, areas or volumes defined in terms of some coordinate system. (Source: GIS)

informatie over wetgeving
	English: legislative information
	English definition: Knowledge or a service providing knowledge concerning actual and proposed laws, including approval status, the history and content of deliberative proceedings and the specific language of those laws. (Source: RHW)

informatie, opvoeding, kultuur, milieubewustzijn
	English: information, education, culture, environmental awareness

	English: information source
	English definition: Generally, any resource initiating and substantiating the reception of knowledge or specifically, the origin of a data transmission. (Source: RHW)

	English: information centre
	English definition: Any facility devoted to the collection, maintenance and distribution of materials or data compiled to convey knowledge on some subject, often with trained staff persons available to answer questions. (Source: RHW)

	English: information service
	English definition: An organized system of providing assistance or aid to individuals who are seeking information, such as by using databases and other information sources to communicate or supply knowledge or factual data. (Source: RHW / OMD)

	English: information clearing-house
	English definition: A central institution or agency for the collection, maintenance, and distribution of materials or data compiled to convey knowledge on some subject. (Source: RHW)

	English: information infrastructure
	English definition: The basic, underlying framework and features of a communications system supporting the exchange of knowledge, including hardware, software and transmission media. (Source: WIC / RHW)

	English: information network
	English definition: A system of interrelated persons and/or devices linked to permit the exchange of data or knowledge. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

	English: information transfer
	English definition: The communication or conveyance of data or materials for the purpose of enhancing knowledge from one person, place or position to another. (Source: RHW)

	English: information kit
	English definition: A set or collection of materials compiled to convey knowledge on some subject and usually placed in some type of container. (Source: RHW)

	English: information system
	English definition: Any coordinated assemblage of persons, devices and institutions used for communicating or exchanging knowledge or data, such as by simple verbal communication, or by completely computerized methods of storing, searching and retrieving information. (Source: MHD)

	English: information technology
	English definition: The systems, equipment, components and software required to ensure the retrieval, processing and storage of information in all centres of human activity (home, office, factory, etc.), the application of which generally requires the use of electronics or similar technology. (Source: ECHO2)

	English: information technology industry
	English definition: A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the design, manufacture and marketing of electronic machines designed to accept information or data that is easily manipulated for some result based on a program or some set of instructions, and the technology or materials used with these machines, such as storage devices, terminals and peripheral equipment. (Source: WIC / SIC)

	English: information exchange
	English definition: A reciprocal transference of data between two or more parties for the purpose of enhancing knowledge of the participants. (Source: RHW)

informatieverwerkend systeem
	English: data processing system
	English definition: An assembly of computer hardware, firmware and software configured for the purpose of performing various operations on digital information elements with a minimum of human intervention. (Source: JON)

	English: information processing
	English definition: A systematic series of actions performed by a person or computer on data elements including classifying, sorting, calculating, summarizing, transmitting, retrieving and receiving. (Source: JON)

informeel overleg
	English: informal negotiation

	English: infrasound
	English definition: Vibrations of the air at frequencies too low to be perceived as sound by the human ear, below about 15 hertz. (Source: MGH)

	English: infrared radiation
	English definition: Electron magnetic radiation whose wavelengths lie in the range from 0.75 or 0.8 micrometer to 1000 micrometers. (Source: MGH)

	English: infrastructure
	English definition: The basic network or foundation of capital facilities or community investments which are necessary to support economic and community activities. (Source: LANDY)

ingeademde lucht
	English: respiratory air
	English definition: Air volumes inspired and expired through the lungs. (Source: DELFIN)

	English: cove
	English definition: 1) A deep recess hollow, or nook in a cliff or steep mountainside, or a small, straight valley extending into a mountain or down a mountainside.2) A valley or portion of lowland that penetrates into a plateau or mountain front. (Source: BJGEO /  WHIT)

inheems bos
	English: indigenous forest
	English definition: Forests which are native to a given area. (Source: LANDY)

inheemse kennis
	English: indigenous knowledge
	English definition: Local knowledge that is unique to a given culture or society, which is the basis for local-level decision making in agriculture, health care, education and other matters of concern in rural communities. (Source: WIK)

inheemse technologie
	English: indigenous technology
	English definition: Technologies employed by the native inhabitants of a country and which constitute an important part of its cultural heritage and should therefore be protected against exploitation by industrialized countries; the problem of indigenous knowledge has been discussed during the Rio Conference but it does not receive much protection under the Biodiversity Convention. Article 8 mandates that parties 'respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional life styles... and promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of holders of such knowledge, innovations and practices and encourage the equitable sharing of benefits arising from them'. (Source: RRDA /  WRES)

	English: index
	English definition: A list of record surrogates arranged in order of some attribute expressible in machine-orderable form. (Source: MGH)

	English: encapsulation
	English definition: The enclosure of any polluting product with a material that prevents its release in the environment. (Source: RRDA)

	English: soil settling
	English definition: Compaction involves the close-packing of the individual grains mainly by the elimination of pore-space and expulsion of entrapped water; this is normally brought about by the weight of the overlying sediments. (Source: ECHO2)

	English: income
	English definition: The gain derived from capital, from labour or effort, or both combined, including profit or gain through sale or conversion of capital. (Source: WESTS)

inkomsten uit afval(herwerking)
	English: waste income
	English definition: The total amount of refuse or unusable material that enters a process or system. (Source: RHW)

	English: income tax
	English definition: A tax on the annual profits arising from property, business pursuits, professions, trades or offices. (Source: BLACK)

	English: ink
	English definition: A dispersion of a pigment or a solution of a dye in a carrier vehicle, yielding a fluid, paste, or powder to be applied to and dried on a substrate; writing, marking, drawing, and printing inks are applied by several methods to paper, metal, plastic, wood, glass, fabric, or other substrate. (Source: MGH)

	English: de-inking
	English definition: Series of processes by which various types of printing inks are removed from paper fibre pulp during the pre-processing and recycling of recovered paper products. Particularly necessary where high quality and whiteness of the finished product are required. (Source: GRAHAW)

	English: pickling plant
	English definition: Plant where scale is removed from iron and steel usually by means of immersion in a hot hydrochloric or sulphuric acid bath. Wastes include spent pickling liquor, sludges and rinse water. (Source: PORTa)

inleidende procedure
	English: preliminary proceedings
	English definition: Any introductory action in the judicial process designed to determine the need for further court involvement or to expedite a motion that requires immediate attention. (Source: BLD)

	English: obligation to inform

	English: appraisal
	English definition: An expert or official valuation. (Source: WEBSTE)

inschatting van (natuurlijke) hulpbronnen
	English: resource appraisal
	English definition: Assessment of the availability of resources in a given area. (Source: GILP96a)

inschatting van de invloed op het milieu
	English: environmental impact assessment
	English definition: Analysis and judgement of the effects upon the environment, both temporary and permanent, of a significant development or project. It must also consider the social consequences and alternative actions. (Source: BRACK)

inschatting van een verontreinigende stof
	English: pollutant assessment

inschatting van het risico
	English: risk assessment
	English definition: The qualitative and quantitative evaluation performed in an effort to define the risk posed to human health and/or the environment by an action or by the presence or use of a specific substance or pollutant. (Source: LEEa)

	English: insect
	English definition: A class of the Arthropoda typically having a segmented body with an external, chitinous covering, a pair of compound eyes, a pair of antennae, three pairs of mouthparts, and two pairs of wings. (Source: MGH)

	English: insectivore
	English definition: Any placental mammal of the order Insectivora, being typically small, with simple teeth, and feeding on invertebrates. The group includes shrews, moles, and hedgehogs. (Source: CED)

	English: insecticide
	English definition: Any chemical agent used to destroy invertebrate pests. (Source: LBC)

	English: inspection
	English definition: An official examination and evaluation of the extent to which specified goals, objectives, standards, policies or procedures of an agency, organization, department or unit have been met properly. (Source: DAM)

inspectie van de boeken
	English: inspection of records

	English: active participation
	English definition: The involvement, either by an individual or a group of individuals, in their own governance or other activities, with the purpose of exerting influence. (Source: RHW)

	English: community participation
	English definition: Involvement in public or private actions, as members or as a member of a particular ethnic, political or social group, with the purpose of exerting influence. (Source: RHW)

installatie die goedgekeurd vereist
	English: installation requiring approval
	English definition: The official authorization needed to assemble and place into position any apparatus, facility, military post or machinery. (Source: RHW)

installatie- of apparatenbouw
	English: construction of installations

instelling voor milieubeheer
	English: environmental administration institution
	English definition: A central government organization that has authority or oversight over government activity relating to the preservation and safeguarding of ecological or natural resources. (Source: BLD / TOE)

	English: institutionalisation
	English definition: The establishment and normalization of a law, custom, usage, practice, system or regulative principle in the activity or purpose of a group or organization. (Source: OED)

institutionele activiteit
	English: institutional activity
	English definition: The specific tasks, undertakings or functions that governments, businesses and other organizations perform. (Source: RHW)

institutionele structuur
	English: institutional structure
	English definition: An organization's complex system of mutually connected and dependent elements or parts, which make up a definite manner of arrangement. (Source: OED)

	English: inflow
	English definition: 1) Water other than wastewater that enters a sewer system (including sewer service connections) from sources such as, but not limited to, roof leaders, cellars drains, yard drains, area drains, drains from springs and swampy areas, manhole covers, cross connections between storm sewers and sanitary sewers, catch basins, cooling towers, storm waters, surface runoff, street wash waters, or drainage. Inflow does not include, and is distinguished from, infiltration. 2) Action of flowing in; an inflow of effluent into a river. (Source: JJK /  PHC)

	English: instrumentation
	English definition: Designing, manufacturing, and utilizing physical instruments or instrument systems for detection, observation, measurement, automatic control, automatic computation, communication, or data processing. (Source: MGH)

	English: instrument manufacture

integraal natuurreservaat
	English: integral natural reserve
	English definition: Areas allocated to preserve and protect certain animals and plants, or both. They differ from national parks, which are largely a place for public recreation, because they are provided exclusively to protect species for their own sake. Endangered species are increasingly being kept in nature reserves to prevent them from extinction. Nature reserves also serve as a place for more plentiful species to rest, breed or winter. (Source: WRIGHT)

intensieve landbouw
	English: intensive farming
	English definition: Farming in which as much use is made of the land as possible by growing crops close together or by growing several crops in a year or by using large amounts of fertilizers. (Source: PHC)

intensieve veehouderij
	English: factory farming
	English definition: The technique of capital intensive animal-raising in an artificial environment, used for chicken, egg, turkey, beef, veal and pork production. Animals are restrained in a controlled indoor environment and their food is brought to them. The building take on the appearance of industrial units. (Source: GOOD)

intensieve veehouderij
	English: intensive animal husbandry
	English definition: Specialized system of breeding animals where the livestock are kept indoors and fed on concentrated foodstuffs, with frequent use of drugs to control diseases which are a constant threat under these conditions. (Source: PHC)

interbibliothecair leenverkeer
	English: inter-library loan
	English definition: The service provided by one library in which a second library's clients are temporarily allowed to use books and other printed materials belonging to the first library; and consequently the system providing rules and infrastructure for this service to a group of libraries. (Source: RHW)

interdisciplinair onderzoek
	English: interdisciplinary research
	English definition: The utilisation, combination and coordination of two or more appropriate disciplines, technologies and humanities in an integrated approach toward environmental problems. (Source: UNUN)

	English: intergovernmental

internationaal belangrijk ecosysteem
	English: internationally important ecosystem
	English definition: Ecosystems whose importance is recognised at international level and which are, in some cases, protected by international conventions. (Source: RRDA)

internationaal conflict
	English: international conflict
	English definition: A controversy, disagreement, quarrel or warfare between or among two or more nations or countries, often requiring involvement or monitoring by other members of the global community. (Source: OED / ISEP)

internationaal economisch recht
	English: international economic law
	English definition: The recognized rules guiding the commercial relations of at least two sovereign states or private parties involved in cross-border transactions, including regulations for trade, finance and intellectual property. (Source: IEL)

internationaal evenwicht
	English: international balance
	English definition: A system in which nations or blocs of nations strive to maintain an equilibrium of power to prevent dominance by any single nation or to reduce conflict or the possibility of war. (Source: IPE)

Internationaal Gerechtshof
	English: International Court of Justice
	English definition: Judicial arm of the United Nations. It has jurisdiction to give advisory opinions on matters of law and treaty construction when requested by the General Assembly, Security Council or any other international agency authorised by the General Assembly to petition for such opinion. It has jurisdiction, also, to settle legal disputes between nations when voluntarily submitted to it. (Source: BLACK)

Internationaal Monetair Fonds
	English: International Monetary Fund
	English definition: An international organization established in 1944, affiliated with the United Nations that acts as an international bank facilitating the exchange of national currencies and providing loans to member nations. It also evaluates the performance of the economies of the world's countries. (Source: KINGST)

internationaal privaatrecht
	English: private international law
	English definition: The part of the national law of a country that establishes rules for dealing with cases involving a foreign element. (Source: DICLAW)

internationaal publiekrecht
	English: public international law
	English definition: The general rules and principles pertaining to the conduct of nations and of international organizations and with the relations among them. (Source: BLD)

internationaal recht
	English: international law
	English definition: The system of law regulating the interrelationship of sovereign states and their rights and duties with regard to one another. (Source: DICLAW)

internationaal rivierbekken
	English: international river basin
	English definition: Land area drained by a river and its tributaries whose waters are situated in and utilized by two or more countries. (Source: TOE / EWP)

internationale betrekkingen
	English: international relations
	English definition: The political or diplomatic interaction or dealings between independent nations. (Source: RHW)

internationale concurrentie
	English: international competitiveness
	English definition: The ability of firms to strive with rivals in the production and sale of commodities in worldwide markets. (Source: ODE / OED)

internationale conventie
	English: international convention
	English definition: Treaties and other agreements of a contractual character between different countries or organizations of states creating legal rights and obligations between the parties. (Source: BLACK)

internationale handel
	English: international trade
	English definition: The flow of commodities and goods between nations. (Source: GOOD)

internationale harmonisatie
	English: international harmonisation
	English definition: Harmonisation of the interrelationship of sovereign states by the application of general principles recognized by civilized nations. (Source: DICLAWa)

internationale hulp
	English: international assistance
	English definition: Economic, military, technical or financial aid or support given to nations or countries in need, often from other governments or international or intergovernmental organizations. (Source: INP)

internationale milieuverhoudingen
	English: international environmental relations
	English definition: The political or diplomatic interaction or dealings between independent nations that pertain to ecological concerns. (Source: RHW)

internationale organisatie
	English: international organisation
	English definition: An association of independent states, whose representatives gather for the promotion of common interests including defense and trade. (Source: GT2)

internationale overeenkomst
	English: international agreement
	English definition: Cooperation in international efforts to support global environmental goals. Solutions to environmental problems such as trans-boundary airborne and waterborne pollution, ozone depletion and climate change require action by all responsible countries. (Source: WRES)

internationale politiek
	English: international politics
	English definition: The use of methods, strategy, intrigue, decision making and power by governments and their representatives to achieve goals in policy making or governmental affairs in a worldwide or international arena. (Source: RHW)

internationale samenwerking
	English: international co-operation
	English definition: The collaboration between governments, businesses or individuals in which it is agreed to work together on similar objectives or strategies, particularly in research or in setting industrial standards. (Source: ODE)

internationale standaardisatie
	English: international standardisation
	English definition: The process of establishing or conforming something to a norm or measure that is recognized beyond the boundaries of a single country or nation. (Source: RHW)

internationale veiligheid
	English: international safety
	English definition: Freedom from danger or the quality of averting risk of harm to persons, property or the environment shared across one or more national boundaries; consequently, the combined efforts of more than one nation to achieve or preserve that state. (Source: OED / RHW)

internationale verdeling
	English: international distribution
	English definition: The worldwide allocating of resources or dispersing of goods. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

internationale verdeling van werk
	English: international division of labour

internationale vergelijking
	English: international transaction
	English definition: Any agreement or act involving two or more countries in which  business dealings, negotiations or other affairs are settled or concluded. (Source: BLD)

internationale waterweg
	English: international watercourse
	English definition: Portions of a geographical area which constitutes a hydrogeological unit as the catchment area for a single river which are under the jurisdiction of two or more countries. (Source: WPRa)

interne aanrekening van externe kosten
	English: internalisation of external costs
	English definition: The process of getting those who produce goods or services with adverse effects on the environment or on society to incorporate a knowledge of possible negative repercussions into future economic decisions. (Source: ODE)

interne aanrekening van milieukosten
	English: internalisation of environmental costs

	English: Internet
	English definition: A global consortium of local computer networks that uses the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) protocol to connect machines to each other, providing access to the World Wide Web, Gopher, electronic mail, remote login and file transfer. (Source: WON)

	English: internet service provider
	English definition: A business or organization that supplies connections to a part of the Internet, often through telephone lines. (Source: TWI)

	English: internet search service
	English definition: The provision of special aid by library staff trained to query bibliographic or other information contained on the Internet, a large distributed electronic system, usually to meet the research needs of the library's clients. (Source: RHW /  LFS)

	English: interpolation
	English definition: A process used to estimate an intermediate value of one (dependent) variable which is a function of a second (independent) variable when values of the dependent variable corresponding to several discrete values of the independent variable are known. (Source: MGH)

	English: interpretation method
	English definition: Method employed in the assessment of the meaning and significance of data, results, facts, etc. (Source: RRDA)

	English: intervention fund
	English definition: Money or financial resources set aside to interpose or interfere in any business affair in order to affect an outcome. (Source: OED)

	English: inventory
	English definition: A detailed list of articles, goods, property, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: stocktaking
	English definition: The counting over of materials or goods on hand, as in a stockroom or store.

inventarisatie van bosschade
	English: inventory of forest damage
	English definition: Survey of a forest area to determine forest depletion. The aim of the inventory is to give an overview of the forest conditions. Especially should the inventory aim to detect any changes in the forest conditions, but it should also provide the distribution of the forest damages and find out any relation with site and stand conditions. (Source: DUNSTEa)

	English: inversion
	English definition: A reversal in the usual direction of a process, as in the change of density of water at 4deg C. (Source: PITT)

	English: investment
	English definition: Any item of value purchased for profitable return, as income, interest or capital appreciation. (Source: IVW / RHW)

investering voor de beheersing van milieuverontreiniging
	English: pollution control investment
	English definition: Securities held for the production of income in the form of interest and dividends with the aim of controlling or reducing pollution or substances in the environment deemed harmful to human health and natural resources. (Source: ISEP /  EFP)

invloed op het milieu
	English: environmental impact
	English definition: Any alteration of environmental conditions or creation of a new set of environmental conditions, adverse or beneficial, caused or induced by the action or set of actions under consideration. (Source: LANDY)

invloed van aquacultuur op het milieu
	English: environmental impact of aquaculture
	English definition: Fish farming pollutes the water with nutrients, methane and hydrogen sulphide which threaten both farmed fish and other marine life. Dangerous pesticides have been used to treat infestations of sea lice. (Source: WPR)

invloed van bosbouw op het milieu
	English: environmental impact of forestry
	English definition: The world's forestry resources are shrinking at an alarming rate. The need for foreign exchange encourages many developing countries to cut timber faster than forests can be regenerated. This overcutting not only depletes the resource that underpins the world timber trade, it causes loss of forest-based livelihoods, increases soil erosion and downstream flooding, and accelerates the loss of species and genetic resources. (Source: WPR)

invloed van energie op het milieu
	English: environmental impact of energy
	English definition: Energy and environmental problems are closely related, since it is nearly impossible to produce, transport, or consume energy without significant environmental impact. The environmental problems directly related to energy production and consumption include air pollution, water pollution, thermal pollution, and solid waste disposal. The emission of air pollutants from fossil fuel combustion is the major cause of urban air pollution. Diverse water pollution problems are associated with energy usage. One major problem is oil spills. In all petroleum-handling operations, there is a finite probability of spilling oil either on the earth or in a body of water. Coal mining can also pollute water. Changes in groundwater flow produced by mining operations often bring otherwise unpolluted waters into contact with certain mineral materials which are leached from the soil and produce an acid mine drainage. Solid waste is also a by-product of some forms of energy usage. Coal mining requires the removal of large quantities of earth as well as coal. In general, environmental problems increase with energy use and this combined with the limited energy resource base is the crux of the energy crisis. An energy impact assessment should compare these costs with the benefits to be derived from energy use. (Source: RAU)

invloed van huishoudens op het milieu
	English: environmental impact of households
	English definition: Household impacts on the environment include domestic heating emissions (hot air, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water vapour and oxide of nitrogen, sulphur and other trace gases); domestic sewage consisting of human bodily discharges, water from kitchens, bathrooms and laundries; the dumping of bulky wastes such as old washing machines, refrigerators, cars and other objects that will not fit into the standard dustbin and which are often dumped about the countryside, etc. (Source: WPR /  GILP96)

invloed van industrie op het milieu
	English: environmental impact of industry
	English definition: The effects on the environment connected with industrial activities are mainly related to the production of industrial wastes that can be divided into various types: solid waste, such as dust particles or slag from coal; liquid wastes from various processes, including radioactive coolants from power stations; and gas wastes, largely produced by the chemical industry. (Source: RRDA)

invloed van landbouw op het milieu
	English: environmental impact of agriculture
	English definition: Agricultural activities have significant impacts on water quality, including increases in stream sedimentation from erosion, and increases in nutrients, pesticides, and salt concentrations in runoff. In certain regions, the misuse of pesticides has led to the development of pesticide-resistant strains of pests, destroyed natural predators, killed local wildlife, and contaminated human water supplies. Improper application of fertilizers has changed the types of vegetation and fish types inhabiting nearby waterways and rivers. (Source: RAU /  WPR)

invloed van recreatie op het milieu
	English: environmental impact of recreation
	English definition: Recreation and tourism are often accompanied by extensive damage to the environment. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to the effects of an increased tourist trade and the resultant building of hotel accommodations, sewage disposal works, roads, car parks and landing jetties on banks and coastlines; and the increased angling, swimming, water skiing, shooting or use of motor-boats in the water body. These all produce direct deleterious effects when conducted on a massive scale, including shore damage, chemical changes in the water, and sediments and biological changes in the plant and animal communities. (Source: WPR)

invloed van toerisme op het milieu
	English: environmental impact of tourism
	English definition: Extensive damage to the environment caused by recreation and tourism, including despoiling of coastlines by construction of tourist facilities; pollution of the sea; loss of historic buildings to make way for tourist facilities; loss of agricultural land for airport development, etc. (Source: WPR)

invloed van vervoer op het milieu
	English: environmental impact of transport
	English definition: Impact of transportation-related activities on the environment, in particular, those impacts dealing with air pollution, noise, displacement of people and businesses, disruption of wildlife habitats, and overall growth-inducing effects. (Source: RAU)

invloed van visserij op het milieu
	English: environmental impact of fishing
	English definition: Fishing may have various negative effects on the environment: effluent and waste from fish farms may damage wild fish, seals, and shellfish. Fish farmers use tiny quantities of highly toxic chemicals to kill lice: one overdose could be devastating. So-called by-catches, or the incidental taking of non-commercial species in drift nets, trawling operations and long line fishing is responsible for the death of large marine animals and one factor in the threatened extinction of some species. Some fishing techniques, like the drift nets, yield not only tons of fish but kill millions of birds, whales and seals and catch millions of fish not intended. Small net holes often capture juvenile fish who never have a chance to reproduce. Some forms of equipment destroy natural habitats, for example bottom trawling may destroy natural reefs. Other destructive techniques are illegal dynamite and cyanide fishing. (Source: WPR)

	English: import
	English definition: The act of bringing goods and merchandise into a country from a foreign country. (Source: WESTS)

	English: importer
	English definition: Person or society receiving and buying goods and services from abroad. (Source: CED)

	English: import licence
	English definition: Permission from a government to bring within its borders and sell a product manufactured in a foreign country. (Source: BLD)

	English: ion
	English definition: An electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss or gain of one or more electrons. (Source: CED)

	English: ion exchanger
	English definition: A permanent insoluble material (usually a synthetic resin) which contains ions that will exchange reversibly with other ions in a surrounding solution. Both cation and anion exchangers are used in water conditioning. The volume of an ion exchanger is measured in cubic liters of exchanger after the exchanger bed has been backwashed and drained, and has settled into place. (Source: WQA)

	English: ion exchange
	English definition: The process in which ions are exchanged between a solution and an insoluble solid, usually a resin. (Source: CED)

ioniserende straling
	English: ionising radiation
	English definition: Radiation that is capable of energizing atoms sufficiently to remove electrons from them. In this state atoms become more reactive, so that ionizing radiation increases chemical activity and in this way produces biological effects, including effects that involve alterations induced in DNA. X-rays and gamma-rays are the only electromagnetic waves that cause ionization in biological material. (Source: ALL)

	English: ionosphere
	English definition: A region of the earth's atmosphere, extending from about 60 to 1000 kilometers above the earth's surface, in which there is a high concentration of free electrons formed as a result of ionizing radiation entering the atmosphere from space. (Source: CED)

	English: insulation (process)
	English definition: The process of preventing or reducing the transmission of electricity, heat, or sound to or from a body, device, or region by surrounding it with a nonconducting material. (Source: CED)

	English: sound insulation material
	English definition: Material used to reduce the transmission of sound to or from a body, device, room, etc. (Source: CED)

isolerend materiaal
	English: insulating material
	English definition: Material that prevents or reduces the transmission of electricity, heat, or sound to or from a body, device or region. (Source: CED)

	English: isomer
	English definition: 1) Two or more compounds having the same molecular formula, but a different arrangement of atoms within the molecule.2) One of two or more chemical substances having the same elementary percentage composition and molecular weight but differing in structure, and therefore in properties; there are many ways in which such structural differences occur. (Source: CED /  MGH)

	English: ISO standard
	English definition: Documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics, to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose. (Source: ISOCH)

	English: isotope
	English definition: One or two or more atoms with the same atomic number that contain different numbers of neutrons. (Source: CED)

	English: ivory
	English definition: The fine-grained creamy-white dentine forming the tusks of elephants, and the teeth or tusks of certain other large animals such as the walrus; it has long been esteemed for a wide variety of ornamental articles. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: season
	English definition: One of the four equal periods into which the year is divided by the equinoxes and solstices, resulting from the apparent movement of the sun north and south of the equator during the course of the earth's orbit around it. These periods (spring, summer, autumn and winter) have their characteristic weather conditions in different regions, and occur at opposite times of the year in the N and S hemispheres. (Source: CED)

	English: hunting
	English definition: The pursuit and killing or capture of wild animals, regarded as a sport. (Source: CED)

	English: hunting reserve
	English definition: Area of land where the pursuit and killing or capture of game and wild animals is permitted. (Source: CED)

	English: marina
	English definition: A small port that is used for pleasure rather than trade, often with hotels, restaurants and bars. (Source: CAMB)

	English: country lodge
	English definition: A small house or a hut located in the countryside. (Source: HARRIS)

	English: hunting licence
	English definition: Official permission granted to individuals or commercial enterprises allowing and regulating by time, location, species, size or amount the wild animals or game that can be killed and taken from lands within a particular jurisdiction. (Source: RHW)

	English: youth work
	English definition: Job opportunities and employment for adolescents, either for financial reward or educational enrichment. (Source: RHW)

	English: iodine
	English definition: A nonmetallic halogen element; the poisonous, corrosive dark plates or granules are readily sublimed; insoluble in water, soluble in common solvents; used as germicide and antiseptic, in dyes, tinctures, and pharmaceuticals, in engraving lithography, and as a catalyst and analytical reagent. (Source: MGH)

	English: young

	English: youth
	English definition: The state of being young; the period between childhood and adult age. (Source: ZINZAN)

juridisch systeem van de Europese Gemeenschap
	English: Community legal system
	English definition: The directly applicable legislation of the European Community regulating the relations of member states. (Source: CURZONa)

juridische stand
	English: legal profession
	English definition: A body of persons whose occupation is concerned with advising clients in matters of law, representing them in court or assisting them through the judicial process, including, in the first instance, lawyers and, by extension, judges, legal assistants and court employees. (Source: OCT / RHW)

	English: jurisprudence
	English definition: The science or philosophy of law. (Source: CED)

	English: map
	English definition: A representation, normally on a flat medium, that displays the physical and political features of a surface area of the earth, showing them in their respective forms, sizes and relationships according to some convention of representation. (Source: RHW)

	English: cable
	English definition: Strands of insulated electrical conductors laid together, usually around a central core, and wrapped in a heavy insulation. (Source: MGH)

	English: stove
	English definition: A chamber within which a fuel-air mixture is burned to provide heat, the heat itself being radiated outward from the chamber; used for space heating, process-fluid heating, and steel blast furnaces. (Source: MGH)

	English: framework legislation
	English definition: A body of rules prescribed by a government, often composed in a series of inter-related parts, to establish or lay the foundation for a new project, agency or organizational structure. (Source: RHW)

	English: cockroach
	English definition: The most primitive of the living winged insects. It is thought they have been unchanged for more than 300 million years, and are among the oldest fossil insects. Cockroaches are usually found in tropical climates, but a few species, out of the total 3.500 known species, have become pests. They are common household pests in many countries, imported by ship and carried home in grocery bags. Cockroaches eat plant and animal products, including food, paper, clothing and soiled hospital waste, fouling everything they touch with their droppings and unpleasant odour, to which many people are allergic. They are a major health hazard and carry harmful bacteria, protozoan parasites and faunal pathogens, including those that cause typhoid, leprosy and salmonella. Conventional insecticides make little or no impact on the cockroaches population. (Source: WRIGHT /  WPR)

kali- en steenzoutmijnbouw
	English: rock salt mining
	English definition: Rock salt mining is an underground mining process in which the salt is physically dug out of the ground in an operation involving drilling, blasting and crushing the rock. The major percentage of this output is used for winter road maintenance. (Source: SALINF)

	English: lime
	English definition: Any of various mineral and industrial forms of calcium oxide differing chiefly in water content and percentage of constituent such as silica, alumina and iron. (Source: AMHER)

	English: calcium content
	English definition: Amount of calcium contained in a solution. (Source: MGHa)

	English: limestone
	English definition: A sedimentary rock consisting chiefly of calcium carbonate, primarily in the form of the mineral calcite and with or without magnesium carbonate. Limestones are formed by either organic or inorganic processes, and may be detrital, chemical, oolitic, earthy, crystalline, or recrystallized; many are highly fossiliferous and clearly represent ancient shell banks or coral reefs. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: camp
	English definition: 1) A place where tents, cabins, or other temporary structures are erected for the use of military troops, for training soldiers, etc.2) Tents, cabins, etc., used as temporary lodgings by a group of travellers, holiday-makers, Scouts, Gypsies, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: camping site
	English definition: A piece of land where people on holiday can stay in tents, usually with toilets and places for washing. (Source: CAMB)

	English: camping
	English definition: Guarded area equipped with sanitary facilities where holiday-makers may pitch a tent and camp by paying a daily rate. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: canal
	English definition: An artificial open waterway used for transportation, waterpower, or irrigation. (Source: MGH)

	English: canal lock
	English definition: A chamber with gates on both ends connecting two sections of a canal or other waterway, to raise or lower the water level in each section. (Source: MGH)

	English: channelling
	English definition: Any system of distribution canals or conduits for water, gas, electricity, or steam. (Source: MGH)

	English: cancer
	English definition: Any malignant cellular tumour including carcinoma and sarcoma. It encompasses a group of neoplastic diseases in which there is a transformation of normal body cells into malignant ones, probably involving some change in the genetic material of the cells, possibly as a result of faulty repair of damage to the cell caused by carcinogenic agents or ionizing radiation. (Source: KOREN)

kankerverwekkende stof
	English: carcinogen
	English definition: A substance that causes cancer in humans and animals. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: underprivileged people
	English definition: A segment of the population that does not have access to the rights or benefits granted to the rest of society, often because of low economic or social status. (Source: RHW)

	English: office
	English definition: Any room, set of rooms or building used for the administration of government service, business transactions or other work related activities. (Source: RHW)

	English: desk study

	English: tax on capital
	English definition: A government imposed levy on the wealth or assets gained by an individual, firm, or corporation for the purpose of raising revenue to pay for services or improvements for the general public benefit. (Source: EFP / RHW)

kappen [bosbouw]
	English: cutting (forestry)
	English definition: The act or process of felling or uprooting standing trees, in order to produce timber products. (Source: TIM)

kappen van een bos
	English: woodland clearance
	English definition: The permanent clear-felling of an area of forest or woodland. On steep slopes this can lead to severe soil erosion, especially where heavy seasonal rains or the melting of snow at higher levels cause sudden heavy flows of water. In the humid tropics it may also lead to a release of carbon dioxide from the soil. (Source: ALL2)

	English: carcass disposal
	English definition: The disposal of slaughtered animals, other dead animal bodies and animal body parts after removal of the offal products. (Source: ISEP)

	English: karst
	English definition: 1) A German rendering of a Serbo-Croat term referring to the terrain created by limestone solution and characterized by a virtual absence of surface drainage, a series of surface hollows, depressions and fissures, collapse structures, and an extensive subterranean drainage network.2) A type of topography that is formed on limestone, gypsum, and other rocks by dissolution, and that is characterized by sinkholes, caves, and underground drainage. Etymology: German, from the Yugoslavian territory Krs; type locality, a limestone plateau in the Dinaric Alps of northwestern Yugoslavia and northeastern Italy. (Source: WHIT /  BJGEO)

	English: mapping
	English definition: The process of making a map of an area; especially the field work necessary for the production of a map. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: cartography
	English definition: The making of maps and charts for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions over various areas of the earth. (Source: MGH)

Kaspische Zee
	English: Caspian Sea

	English: chestnut
	English definition: Any north temperate fagaceous tree of the genus Castanea, such as Castanea sativa, which produce flowers in long catkins and nuts in a prickly bur. (Source: CED)

	English: felid
	English definition: Predatory mammal, including cats, lions, leopards, tigers, jaguars, and cheetahs, typically having a round head and retractile claws. (Source: CED)

katalysator (stof)
	English: catalyst
	English definition: A substance whose presence alters the rate at which a chemical reaction proceeds, but whose own composition remains unchanged by the reaction. Catalysts are usually employed to accelerate reactions(positive catalyst), but retarding (negative) catalysts are also used. (Source: ALL)

katalysator (toestel)
	English: catalytic converter
	English definition: Catalytic converters are designed to clean up the exhaust fumes from petrol-driven vehicles, which are otherwise the major threat to air quality standards in congested urban streets and on motorways. Converters remove carbon monoxide, the unburned hydrocarbons and the oxides of nitrogen. These compounds are damaging to human health and the environment in a variety of ways. The converter is attached to the vehicle' s exhaust near the engine. Exhaust gases pass through the cellular ceramic substrate, a honeycomb-like filter. While compact, the intricate honeycomb structure provides a surface area of 23.000 square metres. This is coated with a thin layer of platinum, palladium and rhodium metals, which act as catalysts that simulate a reaction to changes in the chemical composition of the gases. Platinum and palladium convert hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide and water vapour. Rhodium changes nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons into nitrogen and water, which are harmless. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: catalysis
	English definition: A phenomenon in which a relatively small amount of substance augments the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being consumed. (Source: MGH)

	English: cation
	English definition: A positively charged atom or group of atoms, or a radical which moves to the negative pole (cathode) during electrolysis. (Source: MGH)

	English: cotton
	English definition: The most economical natural fiber, obtained from plants of the genus Gossypium, used in making fabrics, cordage, and padding and for producing artificial fibers and cellulose. (Source: MGH)

kennis hart-en vaatziekten
	English: cardiology
	English definition: The study of the heart. (Source: MGH)

	English: church
	English definition: A building for religious activities. (Source: CAMB)

	English: nuclear fuel
	English definition: Nuclear fuels are obtained from inorganic minerals extracted by mining. Although they are at least partially consumed when used in nuclear reactors for the production of heat, they differ from fossil fuels in the way they release energy. Burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and gas, is a chemical reaction. Nuclear fuels, such as uranium, are destroyed by a process of spontaneous disintegration, called fission, and prompted by natural radioactivity. If the process is left to occur naturally in uranium-bearing rock, the rate of change is imperceptibly small. In a man-made nuclear reactor the energy-releasing processes of disintegration, which in the natural state happen slowly over thousands of millions of years, are compressed into minutes. The release of energy is harnessed to generate steam which drives electricity generators. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: nuclear power plant
	English definition: A power plant in which nuclear energy is converted into heat for use in producing steam for turbines, which in turn drive generators that produce electric power. (Source: MGH)

	English: nuclear energy
	English definition: Energy released by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. (Source: MGH)

	English: nuclear energy use
	English definition: Nuclear energy is employed in the industrial sector, in the production of other energy types, in the medical and scientific research field, in transportation, in the production of nuclear weapons, etc. (Source: RRDA)

	English: nuclear fusion
	English definition: Combination of two light nuclei to form a heavier nucleus with release of some binding energy. (Source: MGH)

	English: nuclear physics
	English definition: The study of the characteristics, behaviour and internal structures of the atomic nucleus. (Source: MGH)

	English: nuclear accident
	English definition: An event occurring in a nuclear power plant or anywhere that radioactive materials are used, stored, or transported and involving the release of potentially dangerous levels of radioactive materials into the environment. (Source: FEMAa)

kernontploffing (ongeval)
	English: nuclear explosion (accident)
	English definition: An unintentional release of energy from a rapid reaction of atomic nuclei yielding high temperatures and radiation potentially harmful to human health and the environment. (Source: RHW / ISEP)

	English: nuclear test
	English definition: Test performed to evaluate nuclear weapons. (Source: PHC)

	English: nuclear reaction
	English definition: A reaction involving a change in an atomic nucleus, such as fission, fusion, neutron capture, or radioactive decay, as distinct from a chemical reaction, which is limited to changes in the electron structure surrounding the nucleus. (Source: MGH)

	English: nuclear reactor
	English definition: Device which creates heat and energy by starting and controlling atomic fission. (Source: PHC)

	English: nuclear fission
	English definition: The division of an atomic nucleus into parts of comparable mass; usually restricted to heavier nuclei such as isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and thorium. (Source: MGH)

	English: nuclear weapon
	English definition: Any bomb, warhead, or projectile using active nuclear material to cause a chain reaction upon detonation. (Source: MGH)

	English: kerosene
	English definition: A thin oil distilled from petroleum or shale oil, used as a fuel for heating and cooking, in lamps, and as a denaturant for alcohol. (Source: AMHER)

	English: chain management
	English definition: The administration, organization and planning for the flow of materials or merchandise through various stages of production and distribution, involving a network of vendors, suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers and other trading partners. (Source: MSE)

	English: inspection service
	English definition: An organization designated to look into, supervise and report upon, the staff members and workings of some institution or department, or the conforming to laws and regulations by a segment of society or other group. (Source: OED)

keuze van technologie
	English: selection of technology

	English: beetle
	English definition: Any insect of the order Coleoptera, having biting mouthparts and forewings modified to form shell-like protective elytra. (Source: CED)

	English: germination
	English definition: The beginning or the process of development of a spore or seed. (Source: MGH)

	English: germ plasm
	English definition: The hereditary material transmitted to the offspring via the gametes. (Source: LBC)

	English: frog
	English definition: Any insectivorous anuran amphibian of the family Ranidae, such as Rana temporaria of Europe, having a short squat tailless body with a moist smooth skin and very long hind legs specialized for hopping. (Source: CED)

	English: child
	English definition: A person below the age of puberty. (Source: ISEP)

	English: infant mortality
	English definition: The rate of deaths occurring in the first year of life for a given population. (Source: MED)

	English: petition right
	English definition: A legal guarantee or just claim enabling a citizen or employee to compose and submit a formal written request to an authority asking for some benefit or favor or for intervention and redress of some wrong. (Source: BLD / RHW)

	English: racking
	English definition: The mechanical dewatering of a wet solid by pouring off the liquid without disturbing the underlying sediment or precipitate. (Source: LEE)

klaring van een vloeistof
	English: decantation
	English definition: Sizing or classifying particulate matter by suspension in a fluid (liquid or gas), the larger particulates tending to separate by sinking. (Source: ECHO2)

	English: clothing
	English definition: Clothes considered as a group. (Source: AMHER)

	English: clothing industry

	English: adhesive
	English definition: Substance used for sticking objects together, such as glue, cement, or paste. (Source: CED)

	English: clay
	English definition: A loose, earthy, extremely fine-grained, natural sediment or soft rock composed primarily of clay-size or colloidal particles and characterized by high plasticity and by a considerable content of clay mineral and subordinate amounts of finely divided quartz, decomposed feldspar, carbonates, ferruginous matter, and other impurities; it forms a plastic, moldable mass when finely ground and mixed with water, retains its shape on drying, and becomes firm, rocklike and permanently hard on heating or firing. (Source: BJGEO)

Kleine Eilanden
	English: Small Islands (political geography)

kleine electriciteitscentrale
	English: small power station
	English definition: Power station of small size for the generation of energy at local level. (Source: RRDA)

kleine en middelgrote industrieen
	English: small and medium sized industry

kleinschalige oven
	English: small-scale furnace
	English definition: Small enclosed structures containing a heat source, typically used for the purpose of intense heating. Most are lined with refractory material, the heat source is typically provided by electrical elements or the burning of gas, coke or coal. (Source: GRAHAW)

kleinschalige stroomopwekker
	English: small-scale inducer
	English definition: A domestic source introducing small quantities of pollutants into a publicly owned waste-treatment system. (Source: EPAGLOa)

	English: colour
	English definition: An attribute of things that results from the light they reflect, transmit, or emit in so far as this light causes a visual sensation that depends on its wavelengths. (Source: CED)

	English: colour composition
	English definition: A remote-sensing term referring to the process of assigning different colours to different spectral bands. The colour picture formed by this process is called a 'colour composite' (a colour image produced through optical combination of multiband images by projection through filters) and is produced by assigning a colour to an image of the Earth's surface recorded in a particular waveband. For a Landsat colour composite, the green waveband is coloured blue, the red waveband is coloured green and the infrared waveband is coloured red. This produces an image closely approximating a false colour photograph. Colour composite images are easier to interpret than separate images recording different wavebands. US national experimental crop inventories are based upon visual interpretation of Landsat colour composites. (Source: RRDA /  WHIT)

	English: dye
	English definition: A coloring material. (Source: LEE)

	English: cliff
	English definition: A steep coastal declivity which may or may not be precipitous, the slope angle being dependent partly on the jointing, bedding and hardness of the materials from which the cliff has been formed, and partly on the erosional processes at work. Where wave attack is dominant the cliff-foot will be rapidly eroded and cliff retreat will take place, especially in unconsolidated materials such as clays, sands, etc., frequently leaving behind an abrasion platform at the foot of the cliff. (Source: WHIT)

	English: climate
	English definition: The average weather condition in a region of the world. Many aspects of the Earth's geography affect the climate. Equatorial, or low, latitudes are hotter than the polar latitudes because of the angle at which the rays of sunlight arrive at the Earth's surface. The difference in temperature at the equator and at the poles has an influence on the global circulation of huge masses of air. Cool air at the poles sinks and spreads along the surface of the Earth towards the equator. Cool air forces its way under the lower density warmer air in the lower regions, pushing the lighter air up and toward the poles, where it will cool and descend. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: climate

	English: climate protection
	English definition: Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm from pollution to natural weather conditions or patterns, including the prevailing temperature, atmospheric composition and precipitation. (Source: DOE /  RHW)

	English: climatic experiment
	English definition: Experiments conducted to estimate future climatic conditions employing modelling of the physical processes underlying climatic change and variability; also, assessments are required of uncertain future man-made inputs such as increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and other green-house gases. (Source: YOUNG)

	English: climatic factor
	English definition: Physical conditions that determine the climate in a given area, e.g. latitude, altitude, ocean streams, etc. (Source: UNUN)

	English: climatic alteration
	English definition: The slow variation of climatic characteristics over time at a given place. This may be indicated by the geological record in the long term, by changes in the landforms in the intermediate term, and by vegetation changes in the short term. (Source: WHIT)

	English: climate type
	English definition: Weather conditions typical of areas roughly corresponding to lines of latitude. (Source: CEDa)

	English: climatic change
	English definition: The long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and all other aspects of the Earth's climate. External processes, such as solar-irradiance variations, variations of the Earth's orbital parameters (eccentricity, precession, and inclination), lithosphere motions, and volcanic activity, are factors in climatic variation. Internal variations of the climate system, e.g., changes in the abundance of greenhouse gases, also may produce fluctuations of sufficient magnitude and variability to explain observed climate change through the feedback processes interrelating the components of the climate system. (Source: GSFC)

	English: climatic zone
	English definition: A belt of the earth's surface within which the climate is generally homogeneous in some respect; an elemental region of a simple climatic classification. (Source: MGH)

	English: climatology
	English definition: That branch of meteorology concerned with the mean physical state of the atmosphere together with its statistical variations in both space and time as reflected in the weather behaviour over a period of many years. (Source: MGH)

klimplant [muur]
	English: climbing plant (wall)
	English definition: A plant that lacks rigidity and grows upwards by twining, scrambling, or clinging with tendrils and suckers. (Source: CED)

	English: canyon
	English definition: A long deep, relatively narrow steep-sided valley confined between lofty and precipitous walls in a plateau or mountainous area, often with a stream at the bottom; similar to, but largest than, a gorge. It is characteristic of an arid or semiarid area (such as western U.S.) where stream downcutting greatly exceeds weathering. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: rodent
	English definition: Any of the relatively small placental mammals that constitute the order Rodentia, having constantly growing incisor teeth specialized for gnawing. (Source: MGH)

	English: silencer
	English definition: Any device designed to reduce noise, especially the device in the exhaust system of a motor vehicle. (Source: CED)

	English: cobalt
	English definition: A metallic element used chiefly in alloys. (Source: MGH)

	English: cooling
	English definition: Setting aside a highly radioactive material until the radioactivity has diminished to a desired level. (Source: MGH)

	English: refrigeration industry

koeling; kunstmatige koeling
	English: refrigeration
	English definition: The cooling of substances, usually food, below the environmental temperature for preservative purposes. Refrigeration is responsible for the largest and fastest-growing use of CFCs in the developing world. The industrial countries, and some developing countries, have taken exceptional steps to control and, eventually, ban the production of CFCs and other ozone-depleting materials by the year 2000. However, many developing nations have not signed the Montreal Protocol because they are afraid that the cost of changing over to alternative, ozone-friendly technology will be too high. (Source: MGHa /  WRIGHT)

	English: refrigerator
	English definition: An appliance, a cabinet, or a room for storing food or other substances at a low temperature. (Source: AMHER)

	English: refrigerant
	English definition: A substance that by undergoing a change in phase (liquid to gas, gas to liquid) releases or absorbs a large latent heat in relation to its volume, and thus effects a considerable cooling effect. (Source: MGH)

	English: cooling oil
	English definition: Oil used as a cooling agent, either with forced circulation or with natural circulation. (Source: ECHO2a)

	English: cooling tower
	English definition: A device that aids in heat removal from water used as a coolant in electric power generating plants. (Source: LANDY)

	English: cooling water
	English definition: Water used to make something less hot, such as the irradiated elements from a nuclear reactor or the engine of a machine. (Source: PHC)

koepelbeleid (verhandelbare emissierechten)
	English: bubble policy (emissions trading)
	English definition: EPA policy that allows a plant complex with several facilities to decrease pollution from some facilities while increasing it from others, so long as total results are equal to or better than previous limits. Facilities where this is done are treated as if they exist in a bubble in which total emissions are averaged out. (Source: EPAGLO)

	English: coal technology
	English definition: The processing of coal to make gaseous and liquid fuels. (Source: ENVAR)

	English: colonisation
	English definition: The successful invasion of a new habitat by a species. (Source: LBC)

	English: boiling point
	English definition: The temperature at which the transition from the liquid to the gaseous phase occurs in a pure substance at fixed pressure. (Source: MGH)

	English: carbon dioxide
	English definition: A colourless gas with a faint tingling smell and taste. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is the source of carbon for plants. As carbon dioxide is heavier than air and does not support combustion, it is used in fire extinguishers. It is a normal constituent of the atmosphere, relatively innocuous in itself but playing an important role in the greenhouse effect. It is produced during the combustion of fossil fuels when the carbon content of the fuels reacts with the oxygen during combustion. It is also produced when living organisms respire. It is essential for plant nutrition and in the ocean phytoplankton is capable of absorbing and releasing large quantities of the gas. (Source: UVAROV /  GILP96)

	English: carbohydrate
	English definition: Any of the group of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, including sugars, starches and celluloses. (Source: MGH)

	English: carbon monoxide
	English definition: Colorless, odourless, tasteless, non-corrosive, highly poisonous gas of about the same density as that of air. Very flammable, burning in air with bright blue flame. Although each molecule of CO has one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, it has a shape similar to that of an oxygen molecule (two atoms of oxygen), which is important with regard to it's lethality. (Source: PHYMAC)

	English: carbon
	English definition: A nonmetallic element existing in the three crystalline forms: graphite, diamond and buckminsterfullerene: occurring in carbon dioxide, coal, oil and all organic compounds. (Source: CED)

	English: carbon cycle
	English definition: The cycle of carbon in the biosphere, in which plants convert carbon dioxide to organic compounds that are consumed by plants and animals, and the carbon is returned to the biosphere in inorganic form by processes of respiration and decay. (Source: MGH)

	English: hydrocarbon
	English definition: A very large group of chemical compounds composed only of carbon and hydrogen. (Source: MGH)

	English: hydrocarbon storage tank
	English definition: A container or a reservoir for the storage of hydrocarbons. (Source: MGH)

	English: carbon dioxide tax
	English definition: Compulsory charges levied on fuels to reduce the output of carbon dioxide (CO2), which is a colourless and odourless gas substance that is incombustible. (Source: ODE /  RHW)

	English: purchase
	English definition: The acquisition or the act of buying something by payment of money or its equivalent. (Source: RHW)

	English: merchant shipping
	English definition: Transportation of persons and goods by means of ships travelling along fixed navigation routes. (Source: ZINZANa)

	English: copper
	English definition: A chemical element; one of the most important nonferrous metals; a ductile and malleable metal found in various ores and used in industry, engineering, and the arts in both pure and alloyed form. (Source: MGH)

	English: cephalopod
	English definition: Exclusively marine animals constituting the most advanced class of the Mollusca, including squid, octopuses, and Nautilus. (Source: MGH)

	English: coral reef
	English definition: Coral reefs have been built up from the skeletons of reef-building coral a small primitive marine animal, and other marine animals and algae over thousands of years. They occur in clear, shallow and sunlit seas. Coral reefs are one of the most productive and diverse ecosystems and are estimated to yield about 12% of the world's fish catch. They are very vulnerable to any change in their environment, especially pollution, because it makes the water opaque. They must have light in order that photosyntesis by the algae can take place. Like trees, corals reflect the environmental conditions in which they grow, indicating marine pollution, sea-surface temperature and other aquatic conditions. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: coral reef lagoon
	English definition: A coastal stretch of shallow saltwater virtually cut off from the open sea by a coral reef. (Source: WHIT)

	English: coral
	English definition: The skeleton of certain solitary and colonial anthozoan coelenterates; composed chiefly of calcium carbonate. (Source: MGH)

	English: lichen
	English definition: Composite organisms formed by the symbiosis between species of fungi and an algae. They are either crusty patches or bushy growths on tree trunks, stone walls, roofs or garden paths. Because they have no actual roots they get their sustenance from the atmosphere and rainwater. Lichens play an important role in the detection and monitoring of pollution, especially sulphur dioxide, as they are highly sensitive to pollution and different species disappear if pollution reaches specific levels. (Source: WRIGHT)

kosmische straling
	English: cosmic radiation
	English definition: Radiations consisting of atomic nuclei, especially protons, of very high energy that reach the earth from outer space. Some cosmic radiations are very energetic and are able to penetrate a mile or more into the Earth. (Source: CED /  WRIGHT)

	English: cost
	English definition: In economics, the value of the factors of production used by a firm in producing or distributing goods and services or engaging in both activities. (Source: GREENW)

kosten van de binnenlandse economie
	English: national economic costs
	English definition: The amount of money incurred as a result of the financial management of a nation's financial resources. (Source: EFP / RHW)

kosten van milieuverontreiniging
	English: pollution cost
	English definition: The amount of money incurred as a result of human-made or human-induced alteration of the physical, biological, chemical, and radiological integrity of air, water, and other media. (Source: EFP / TOE)

	English: cost-benefit
	English definition: Relation between costs of a certain activity and its benefits to a certain community.

kosten-baten analyse
	English: cost-benefit analysis
	English definition: The attempt to assess, compare and frequently justify the total price or loss represented by a certain activity or expenditure with the advantage or service it provides. (Source: ODE)

	English: cost increase
	English definition: The augmentation or rise in the amount of money incurred or asked for in the exchange of goods and services. (Source: ISEP /  EFP)

	English: cost reduction
	English definition: The lessening or lowering in the amount of money incurred or asked for in the exchange of goods and services. (Source: ISEP /  EFP)

	English: cold

krachtcentrale op basis van afval
	English: waste-fed power station
	English definition: Power station that functions with refuse-derived fuel. (Source: PARCORa)

	English: credit
	English definition: The financial facility or system by which goods and services are provided in return for deferred, instead of immediate, payment. (Source: ODE)

	English: credit policy
	English definition: An official course of action adopted by a business, financial institution or state to regulate, restrict or increase deferred payment arrangements for goods, services or money. (Source: ODE)

	English: credit assistance
	English definition: The help and support from banks and other financial institutions in providing money or goods without requiring present payment. (Source: ISEP /  OED)

	English: crustacean
	English definition: A class of arthropod animals having jointed feet and mandibles, two pairs of antennae, and segmented, chitin-encased bodies. (Source: MGH)

	English: creek
	English definition: A narrow inlet or bay, especially of the sea. (Source: CED)

	English: chalk
	English definition: A soft, pure, earthy, fine-textured, usually white to light gray or buff limestone of marine origin, consisting almost wholly (90-99%) of calcite, formed mainly by shallow-water accumulation of calcareous tests of floating microorganisms (chiefly foraminifers) and of comminuted remains of calcareous algae (such as cocoliths and rhabdoliths), set in a structureless matrix of very finely crystalline calcite. The rock is porous, somewhat friable, and only slightly coherent. It may include the remains of bottom-dwelling forms (e.g. ammonites, echinoderms, and pelecypods), and nodules of chert and pyrite. The best known and most widespread chalks are of Cretaceous age, such as those exposed in cliffs on both sides of the English Channel. (Source: BJGEO)

kringloop [verschijnsel]
	English: cycle (phenomenon)
	English definition: A completed series of events that follows or is followed by another series of similar events occurring in the same sequence. (Source: CED)

	English: reclamation industry
	English definition: Industry for the transformation of solid waste into useful products. (Source: GRN)

	English: recycled paper
	English definition: Paper that has been separated from the solid waste stream for utilization as a raw material in the manufacture of a new product. Not all paper in the waste stream is recyclable. It may be heavily contaminated or otherwise unusable. (Source: LEE)

	English: recyclable plastic
	English definition: Plastic waste that can be transformed into new products. (Source: RRDA)

	English: crystallography
	English definition: The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (Source: MGH)

kritisch niveau
	English: critical level
	English definition: General term referring to the concentration limit beyond which a substance can cause dangerous effects to living organisms. (Source: RRDA)

kritische belasting
	English: critical load
	English definition: The maximum load that a given system can tolerate before failing. (Source: GRAHAWa)

	English: crocodile
	English definition: Any large tropical reptile of the family Crocodylidae: order Crocodylia. They have a broad head, tapering snout, massive jaws, and a thick outer covering of bony plates. (Source: CED)

	English: hybridisation
	English definition: The act or process of producing hybrids that is an animal or plant resulting from a cross between genetically unlike individuals. Hybrids between different species are usually sterile. (Source: MGH)

	English: art
	English definition: The creation of works of beauty or other special significance. (Source: CED)

	English: artificial satellite
	English definition: Any man-made object placed in a near-periodic orbit in which it moves mainly under the gravitational influence of one celestial body, such as the earth, sun, another planet, or a planet's moon. (Source: MGH)

kunstmatige voortplanting
	English: artificial reproductive technique

	English: synthetic material
	English definition: Material made artificially by chemical reaction. (Source: CEDa)

kunststofverwerkende industrie
	English: synthetic materials industry

	English: synthetic textile fibre
	English definition: An artificially produced filament or threadlike strand used by manufacturers to produce clothes or other goods that require weaving, knitting or felting, including polyester, nylon, rayon and other similar material. (Source: INP / RHW)

	English: synthetic fibres industry

	English: cork
	English definition: The thick light porous outer bark of the cork oak, used widely as an insulator and for stoppers for bottles, casks, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: coast
	English definition: A line or zone where the land meets the sea or some other large expanse of water. (Source: CED)

	English: seashore
	English definition: The zone of unconsolidated material that extends landward from the low water-line to where there is marked change in material or physiographic form or to the line of permanent vegetation. (Source: MGH)

	English: coastal management
	English definition: Measures by way of planning, prior approval of works, prohibition of some activities, physical structures, and restoration efforts to protect the coastline against the ravages of nature and haphazard and unplanned developments. (Source: GILP96)

	English: coast protection
	English definition: A form of environmental management designed to allay the progressive degradation of the land by coastal erosion processes. Sea defence works can be undertaken to protect the land from erosion and encroachment by the sea and against flooding. These involve engineering solutions such as groynes, sea walls, bulkheads, revetments and breakwaters. (Source: GOOD)

	English: coastal ecosystem
	English definition: Marine environments bounded by the coastal land margin (seashore) and the continental shelf 100-200 m below sea level. Ecologically, the coastal and nearshore zones grade from shallow water depths, influenced by the adjacent landmass and input from coastal rivers and estuaries, to the continental shelf break, where oceanic processes predominate. Among the unique marine ecosystems associated with coastal and nearshore waterbodies are seaweed-dominated communities, coral reefs and upwellings. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: coastal erosion
	English definition: The gradual wearing away of material from a coast by the action of sea water. (Source: GREMESa)

	English: coastal area
	English definition: The areas of land and sea bordering the shoreline and extending seaward through the breaker zone. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: coastal environment
	English definition: The areas where the land masses meet the seas. Coastal environments include tidal wetlands, estuaries, bays, shallow near-shore waters, mangrove swamps, and in-shore reef systems. The critical habitats of these zones are: feeding, breeding, nursery, and resting areas. Coastal areas throughout the world are under enormous environmental stress, which is caused by a wide range of factors, including pollution and the destruction and deterioration of marine habitats. (Source: GILP96 /  WRIGHT)

	English: coastal development
	English definition: Concentration of human settlements, infrastructures and economical activities along the coasts, being these areas very favourable for trade, communication and marine resources exploitation; the impact of the accelerated population growth and of the industrial and touristic development in these areas has caused the disruption of the ecological integrity of the coastal zones. (Source: DIFIDa /  RRDA)

	English: coastal pollution
	English definition: The presence, release or introduction of polluting substances in or onto the seashore or the land near it. (Source: TOE / DOE / RHW)

	English: coastal fishing
	English definition: Fishing in an area of the sea next to the shoreline. (Source: PHC)

	English: coastguard
	English definition: A maritime force which aids shipping, saves lives at sea, prevents smuggling, etc. It also responds to emergencies involving oil spills and other discharges at sea and takes the lead in enforcing the law, including assessing penalties for environmental violations. (Source: CED /  PATHUL)

	English: coastal water
	English definition: Coastal waters are typically characterized by a shallow continental shelf, gently sloping seaward to a continental slope, which drops relatively abruptly to the deep ocean. The proximity of coastal water to land also influences the water circulation. In the vicinity of freshwater inflows, the nearshore circulation is altered by the presence of density-driven motions. Coastal waters are under enormous environmental stress, caused by a wide range of factors including pollution and the destruction and deterioration of marine habitats. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: quality control
	English definition: The inspection, analysis, and other relevant actions taken to provide control over what is being done, manufactured, or fabricated, so that a desirable level of quality is achieved and maintained. (Source: HARRIS)

	English: quality certification
	English definition: The formal assertion in writing that a commodity, service or other product has attained a recognized and relatively high grade or level of excellence. (Source: BLD / RHW)

	English: quality objective
	English definition: Any goal or target established for a product, service or endeavor that aspires to attain a relatively high grade or level of excellence. (Source: RHW)

	English: quality standard

kwaliteitsnorm voor woningen
	English: housing quality standard
	English definition: A norm or measure applicable in legal cases and considered to reflect a relatively high grade or level of excellence in the construction, maintenance, operation, occupancy, use or appearance of dwelling units. (Source: BLD)

	English: quality assurance

kwekerij; plantenkwekerij
	English: nursery (plant breeding)
	English definition: Place where plants are grown until they are large enough to be planted in their final positions. (Source: PHC)

	English: water seepage
	English definition: The slow movement of water through small openings and spaces in the surface of unsaturated soil into or out of a body of surface or subsurface water. (Source: MGH)

	English: seepage water
	English definition: Water that moves slowly through small openings of a porous material such as soil or the amount of water that has been involved in seepage. (Source: BJGEO)

kwetsbare soort
	English: vulnerable species  (IUCN)
	English definition: Species which is likely to become endangered unless protective measures are taken. (Source: PHC)

	English: mercury
	English definition: A heavy silvery-white toxic liquid metallic element occurring principally in cinnabar: used in thermometers, barometers, mercury-vapour lamps, and dental amalgams. (Source: CED)

	English: mercury contamination
	English definition: The presence and release into the air, water and soil of mercury, a naturally occurring heavy metal element, by both natural occurrences such as vaporization and human activities such as burning coal, mining and smelting. (Source: FFD / EEN)

laag debiet
	English: low flow
	English definition: Phase of lowest level of a water course. (Source: ZINZAN)

laagvlakte; vlakte
	English: plain
	English definition: An extensive, broad tract of level or rolling, almost treeless land with a shrubby vegetation, usually at a low elevation. (Source: MGH)

	English: low-level flight
	English definition: Flying at low altitude. (Source: RRDA)

	English: laboratory
	English definition: A room or building with scientific equipment for doing scientific tests or for teaching science, or a place where chemicals or medicines are produced. (Source: CAMB)

	English: laboratory waste
	English definition: Discarded materials produced by analytical and research activities in a laboratory. (Source: ERG)

	English: laboratory experiment
	English definition: Tests or investigations carried out in a laboratory. (Source: CEDa)

	English: laboratory research
	English definition: Research carried out in a laboratory for testing chemical substances, growing tissues in cultures, or performing microbiological, biochemical, hematological, microscopical, immunological, parasitological tests, etc. (Source: PHC)

	English: laboratory technique

	English: laboratory test
	English definition: Tests, examinations or evaluations performed in a laboratory. (Source: KOREN)

ladingsgewijs proces
	English: batch process
	English definition: A process that is not in continuous or mass production; operations are carried out with discrete quantities of material or a limited number of items. (Source: MGH)

lagere technologie
	English: low-level technology
	English definition: Any relatively unsophisticated technical equipment or method with an amplitude or functionality below what is available in a similar or comparable system. (Source: RHW / APD)

	English: lagoon
	English definition: A body of water cut off from the open sea by coral reefs or sand bars. (Source: CED)

	English: lacquer
	English definition: A material which contains a substantial quantity of a cellulose derivative, most commonly nitrocellulose but sometimes a cellulose ester, such as cellulose acetate or cellulose butyrate, or a cellulose ether such as ethyl cellulose; used to give a glossy finish, especially on brass and other bright metals. (Source: MGH)

	English: varnish
	English definition: A transparent surface coating which is applied as a liquid and then changes to a hard solid; all varnishes are solutions of resinous materials in a solvent. (Source: MGH)

	English: lamp
	English definition: A device that produces light, such as an electric lamp. (Source: MGH)

	English: land
	English definition: A specified geographical tract of the Earth's surface including all its attributes, comprising its geology, superficial deposits, topography, hydrology, soils, flora and fauna, together with the results of past and present human activity, to the extent that these attributes exert a significant influence on the present and future land utilization. (Source: WHIT)

land (landschap,aardrijkskunde)
	English: land (landscape, geography)

	English: land cover
	English definition: Land cover is the physical state of the land surface. It is the combination of vegetation, soil, rock, water and human-made structures, which make up the earth's landscape. The land cover is the interface between the earth's crust and the atmosphere, influencing the exchange of energy and matter in the climatic system and biogeochemical cycles. (Source: BRS)

landbeheer en -inrichting
	English: land management and planning
	English definition: Operations for preparing and controlling the implementation of plans for organizing human activities on land. (Source: GOOD)

	English: land-management intervention area
	English definition: Any expanse of land which requires a person or agency with authority to interpose or interfere in how it is used or administrated. (Source: RHW)

	English: land conservation
	English definition: The care, preservation and re-use of solid areas of the earth's surface, especially soil regions valued as a natural resource or utilized as an agricultural resource. (Source: TOE)

	English: agriculture
	English definition: The production of plants and animals useful to man, involving soil cultivation and the breeding and management of crops and livestock. (Source: MGH)

	English: agriculture

landbouw en milieu
	English: agricultural ecology

landbouw en veehouderij
	English: agriculture and cattle industry
	English definition: Large scale growing of crops and livestock grazing for profit. (Source: RRDA)

	English: farm animal
	English definition: Animals reared in farms for working and producing food such as meat, eggs and milk. (Source: CAMB)

landbouw, bosbouw, veeteelt, visserij
	English: agriculture, forestry; animal husbandry; fishery

	English: agricultural effluent
	English definition: Any solid, liquid or gas that enters the environment as a by-product of agricultural activities.

	English: agricultural waste
	English definition: Unusable materials, liquid or solid, that result from agricultural practices, such as fertilizers, pesticides, crop residue (such as orchard prunings) and cattle manure. (Source: HMD / MHD)

	English: farm
	English definition: Any tract of land or building used for agricultural purposes, such as for raising crops and livestock. (Source: RHW)

	English: agricultural management
	English definition: The administration or handling of soil, crops and livestock. (Source: OED)

	English: agricultural policy
	English definition: A course of action adopted by government or some other organization that determines how to deal with matters involving the cultivation of land; raising crops; feeding, breeding and raising livestock or poultry; and other farming issues. (Source: RHW)

	English: agricultural economics
	English definition: An applied social science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of agricultural or farming goods and services. (Source: AGP)

	English: agricultural exploitation

	English: agricultural building
	English definition: The buildings and adjacent service areas of a farm. (Source: WEBSTE)

	English: agricultural land
	English definition: Land used primarily for the production of plant or animal crops, including arable agriculture, dairying, pasturage, apiaries, horticulture, floriculture, viticulture, animal husbandry and the necessary lands and structures needed for packing, processing, treating, or storing the produce. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: agricultural real estate
	English definition: Property of agricultural land and anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings, fences, etc. (Source: WESTS)

	English: agricultural hydraulics
	English definition: Science and technology involved in the management of water resources, in the control of erosion and in the removal of unwanted water. (Source: ECHO2)

	English: agronomy
	English definition: The principles and procedures of soil management and of field crop and special-purpose plant improvement, management, and production. (Source: MGH)

landbouwkundig kaderplan
	English: agriculture framework plan
	English definition: A formulated or systematic method for the management of soil, crops and livestock. (Source: OED)

landbouwkundige onderwaardering
	English: agricultural undervaluation
	English definition: The underrating or diminishing in value of agricultural or farming goods and services. (Source: RHW)

	English: agricultural landscape

	English: agricultural machinery
	English definition: Machines utilized for tillage, planting, cultivation and harvesting of crops. Despite its benefits in increasing yields, mechanisation has clearly had some adverse environmental effects: deep ploughing exposes more soil to wind and water erosion; crop residues can be removed as opposed to ploughing back into the soil; removal of residues can lead to a serious loss of organic content in the soil, which may increase the risk of soil erosion. (Source: MGH /  DOBRIS)

	English: agricultural method
	English definition: Practices and techniques employed in agriculture to improve yields and productivity. Over the last few decades they have undergone big changes: tilling, sowing and harvesting have become increasingly mechanised, and the methods of applying fertilisers and pesticides have become more sophisticated. Many changes within the agricultural system can be summed up by 'intensification'. The result and aim of intensification has been to achieve increases in production, yields and labour productivity in agriculture. (Source: DOBRIS)

	English: agricultural holding
	English definition: As defined by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, an agricultural holding is simply a basic unit for agricultural production. (Source: GOOD)

	English: agricultural pest
	English definition: Insects and mites that damage crops, weeds that compete with field crops for nutrients and water, plants that choke irrigation channels or drainage systems, rodents that eat young plants and grain, and birds that eat seedlings or stored foodstuffs. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: agricultural storage
	English definition: Any deposit or holdings of farm products, fertilizers, grains, feed and other related supplies in facilities or containers, often to prevent contamination or for times when production cannot meet demand. (Source: AGP)

	English: agricultural planning
	English definition: The development of plans and measures to achieve greater and more efficient output from agriculture; a sound agricultural policy should be able to reconcile three basic needs: the production of food and agricultural products, the protection of the environment and the maintenance of the socio-economic structure of rural areas. (Source: DOBRISa)

	English: farm price
	English definition: The amount of money or monetary rate at which agricultural goods and services can be bought or sold. (Source: RHW)

	English: agricultural product
	English definition: The output of the cultivation of the soil. (Source: RRDA)

	English: agricultural production

	English: means of agricultural production

	English: agricultural disaster
	English definition: Violent, sudden and destructive change in the environment either affecting or caused by land cultivation or the raising of crops or livestock. (Source: ISEP /  APD)

	English: agricultural structure
	English definition: The buildings, machinery, facilities, related to agricultural production. (Source: RRDA)

	English: agrosystem
	English definition: Ecosystem dominated by the continuous agricultural intervention of man. (Source: ECHO1)

	English: agricultural engineering
	English definition: A discipline concerned with developing and improving the means for providing food and fiber for mankind's needs. (Source: MGH)

	English: farming technique
	English definition: The business, art, or skill of agriculture. (Source: CED)

	English: agritourism
	English definition: Holidays organized in a farm: meals are prepared with natural products and guests are entertained with handicraft, sporting and agricultural activities. (Source: DIFID)

	English: agricultural equipment
	English definition: Machines utilized for tillage, planting, cultivation, and harvesting of crops. (Source: MGH)

	English: agricultural pollution
	English definition: The liquid or solid wastes from farming, including: runoff from pesticides, fertilizers, and feedlots; erosion and dust from plowing; animal manure and carcasses, crop residues, and debris. (Source: LANDY)

	English: agronomic value
	English definition: The monetary or material worth at which buyers and sellers agree to do business for agricultural goods and services. (Source: AGP / RHW)

	English: water for agricultural use
	English definition: Water used in agriculture for irrigation and livestock. Livestock watering is only 1 percent of the total water withdrawal for agricultural use. Of all functional water uses, irrigation is the largest agricultural use of water. (Source: CORBIT)

	English: agricultural legislation
	English definition: Agricultural law is a blend of traditional fields of law including the law of contracts, bailments, torts, criminal, environmental, property, nuisance, wills and estates, and tax law. As such, it is a gathering of statutory and common law. (Source: FREEAD)

	English: land ecology
	English definition: Study of the relationship between terrestrial organisms and their environment. (Source: PHC)

	English: land occupation
	English definition: The use, settlement or possession of solid areas of the earth's surface. (Source: RHW)

	English: land restoration
	English definition: The treatment of any unusable land usually by filling with refuse or levelling until the land can be brought into productive use. (Source: ALL)

landherstel in bergstreken
	English: land restoration in mountain areas
	English definition: Measures adopted to control erosion and degradation phenomena in the mountain regions caused by the loss of forest cover due to acid rain, uncontrolled forest cutting, winter skiing resorts construction, etc. (Source: DIZAMBa)

	English: land development
	English definition: Planning of infrastructures, services and industrial settlements in order to promote the socio-economic growth of certain land area. (Source: DIFIDa)

	English: land planning
	English definition: The activity of designing, organizing or preparing for the future use of solid areas of the earth's surface, especially regions valued for natural resources, utilized as agricultural resources or considered for human settlement. (Source: RHW)

	English: land setup
	English definition: The formulation of regional objectives, plans and programmes and the harmonization of the regional effects of sectorial planning. (Source: ECHO2)

	English: terrestrial environment
	English definition: The continental as distinct from the marine and atmospheric environments. It is the environment in which terrestrial organisms live. (Source: WHIT)

	English: landscape
	English definition: The traits, patterns, and structure of a specific geographic area, including its biological composition, its physical environment, and its anthropogenic or social patterns. An area where interacting ecosystems are grouped and repeated in similar form. (Source: EPAGLO)

landschap na mijnbouw
	English: landscape after mining
	English definition: The process of mining disfigures the surface of the land, and in the absence of reclamation leads to permanent scars. The process spoils the vital topsoil, disrupts drainage patterns, destroys the productive capacity of agricultural and forest land and impairs their aesthetic and social value. (Source: WPRa)

	English: landscape architecture
	English definition: The creation, development, and decorative planting of gardens, grounds, parks, and other outdoor spaces. Landscape gardening is used to enhance nature helping to create a natural setting for individual residences and buildings, and even towns, particularly where special approaches and central settings are required. (Source: GILP96)

	English: landscape management
	English definition: Measures aiming at preserving landscape or controlling its transformations caused by anthropic activities or natural events. (Source: DIFID)

	English: landscape conservation
	English definition: The safeguarding, for public enjoyment, of landscape and of opportunities for outdoor recreation, tourism and similar activities; the concept includes the preservation and enhancement not only of what has been inherited but the provision of new amenities and facilities. (Source: GILP96)

	English: landscape conservation policy

	English: landscape protection
	English definition: Elaboration and implementation of strategies and measures for the conservation, preservation, suitable use, and renewal of natural resources and nature or man-made components of landscape, in particular wildlife and natural systems of various standing. (Source: MOSGOV)

	English: landscape ecology
	English definition: The study of landscapes taking account of the ecology of their biological populations. The subjects thus embraces geomorphology and ecology and is applied to the design and architecture of landscapes. (Source: ALL2)

	English: landscape component
	English definition: In visual assessment work, landscapes can be divided into four major elements. a) Form is the perceived mass or shape of an object that appears unified, and which provides a consciousness of its distinction and relation of a whole to the component parts. b) Line is the real or imagined path, border, boundary, or intersection of two planes, such as a silhouette, that the eye follows when perceiving abrupt differences in form, colour or texture. c) Colour is a visual perception that enables the eye to differenciate otherwise identical objects based on the wavelengths of reflected light. d) Texture is the visual feel of a landscape. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: landscape utilisation
	English definition: Using landscape or parts of it for tourism, sports, or agriculture. (Source: RRDA)

	English: scene identification
	English definition: A numeric string which uniquely identifies an image component of a geographical information system database. (Source: MTE)

	English: recovery of landscape
	English definition: Reclamation measures taken to restore the environmental quality level of a landscape to its predisturbed condition. (Source: AQDa)

landschapsherstel van voormalige mijnbouwgebieden
	English: mining site restoration
	English definition: Mining is an intensive type of land use with potential for environmental impact over a limited area. When closure occurs, it should address both environmental and safety aspects. Mine reclamation is an ongoing program designed to restore to an acceptable state the physical, chemical and biological quality or potential of air, land and water regimes disturbed by mining. The objective of mine reclamation is to prevent or minimize adverse long-term environmental impacts, and create a self-sustaining ecosystem as near as practicable to what existed before the mining activity. (Source: NRCAN)

	English: landscape planning
	English definition: The aspect of the land use planning process that deals with physical, biological, aesthetic, cultural, and historical values and with the relationships and planning between these values, land uses, and the environment. (Source: UNUN)

	English: landscape alteration
	English definition: Landscapes might change through time as a result of human activities or natural processes such as fires or natural disasters. Changes in landscape structure can be documented by using data from aerial photographs or satellite images, and new technologies, such as remote sensing and geographic information systems. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: landscape consumption
	English definition: Using parts of landscape in a way that heavily modifies its features. (Source: RRDA)

	English: national boundary
	English definition: The line demarcating recognized limits of established political units. (Source: GOOD)

landsverdediging(defensie) en milieu
	English: military aspects

	English: headland (geography)
	English definition: A cape or promontory jutting seawards from a coastline, usually with a significant sea cliff. (Source: WHIT)

	English: land pollution
	English definition: The presence of one or more contaminants upon or within an area of land, or its constituents. (Source: Landy)

	English: land forming

	English: land mammal

	English: long-distance traffic
	English definition: Traffic moving over extended areas, great distances and usually not subject to frequent stops.

	English: long-distance transport
	English definition: The conveyance of materials or commodities over land, water or through air in which a great distance is covered. (Source: RHW)

	English: long-term effect
	English definition: Effects which will last long after the cause has ceased. (Source: RRDA)

langetermijneffect van vervuilende stoffen
	English: long-term effect of pollutants

	English: long-term experiment
	English definition: 1) Experiment lasting for a relatively long period of time.2) Experiment whose results become effective after a long period of time. (Source: SHOOXa)

	English: long-term trend
	English definition: The prevailing tendency or general direction expected for some observed value over a lengthy and extended period of time, often determined by studying and analyzing statistical data. (Source: RHW / APD)

	English: laser
	English definition: Acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation; a device that produces a powerful, highly directional, monochromatic, coherent beam of light. Laser consist of a transparent cylinder with a reflecting surface at one end and a partially reflecting surface at the other. Light waves are reflected back and forth, some of them emerging at the partially reflecting end. The light source may be a ruby, whose chromium atoms are excited by a flash lamp so that they emit pulses of highly coherent light, or a mixture of inert gases that produce a continuos beam, or a cube of treated gallium arsenide which emits infrared radiation when an electric current passes through it. (Source: ALL)

	English: welding
	English definition: Joining two metals by applying heat to melt and fuse them, with or without filler metal. (Source: MGH)

	English: noise reduction
	English definition: The reduction in the sound pressure level of a noise, or the attenuation of unwanted sound by any means. (Source: CONFER)

lawaaihinder door bouwactiviteiten
	English: construction noise
	English definition: Noise resulting from construction activities such as site preparation, site clearance, demolition of existing buildings, piling, concreting, erection of structures, etc.

	English: avalanche
	English definition: A fall or slide of a large mass, as of snow or rock, down a mountainside. (Source: AMHER)

	English: leather
	English definition: The dressed or tanned hide of an animal, usually with the hair removed. (Source: AMHER)

	English: leather industry
	English definition: Industry for the production of leather goods such as garments, bags, etc. (Source: CEDa)

	English: quality of life
	English definition: Quality of life is largely a matter of individual preference and perception and overlaps the concept of social well-being. Generally the emphasis is on the amount and distribution of impure public goods, such as health care and well-fare services, protection against crime, regulation of pollution, preservation of fine landscapes and hystoric townscapes. (Source: GOOD)

	English: environment (natural environment, anthropic environment)

	English: living standard
	English definition: A measurement of the development level in a country or community, gauged by factors such as personal income, education, life expectancy, food consumption, health care, technology and the use of natural resources. (Source: TEX)

	English: living environment
	English definition: External conditions or surroundings in which people live or work. (Source: CED)

leefomgeving van in het wild levende planten en dieren
	English: wildlife habitat
	English definition: Suitable upland or wetland areas promoting survival of wildlife. (Source: LANDY)

	English: living space
	English definition: Any room, structure or area used as a residence and associated with subsistence activities, including sleeping, relaxing or eating. (Source: RHW)

	English: age
	English definition: The period of time that a person, animal or plant has lived or is expected to live. (Source: CED)

	English: lifestyle
	English definition: The particular attitudes, habits or behaviour associated with an individual or group. (Source: CED)

leegruimen van land
	English: land clearing
	English definition: Removal of trees, undergrowth, etc. in preparation for ploughing, building, etc. (Source: PHC)

leer [wet]
	English: doctrine (law)
	English definition: A rule, principle, theory, or tenet of the law, as the doctrine of merger, the doctrine of relation, etc. (Source: WESTS)

leer van het bloed
	English: haematology
	English definition: The branch of medical science concerned with diseases of the blood. (Source: CED)

	English: curriculum
	English definition: The aggregate of courses of study provided in a particular school, college, university, adult education program, technical institution or some other educational program. (Source: RHW)

	English: alloy
	English definition: Any of a large number of substances having metallic properties and consisting of two or more elements; with few exceptions, the components are usually metallic elements. (Source: MGH)

legger van het kadaster
	English: land register
	English definition: A register or survey of land, containing information on the surface of properties, tenants' names, commencing with the earliest owners through successive ownership and partitions, and such like. (Source: CED /  WESTS /  HARRIS)

leiding; pijpleiding
	English: pipeline
	English definition: A line of pipe connected to valves and other control devices, for conducting fluids, gases, or finely divided solids. (Source: MGH)

	English: leakage
	English definition: The accidental, uncontrolled discharge or seepage of liquids, gases and other substances to unintended and unwanted locations, frequently causing risks of damage or harm to persons, property or the environment. (Source: WWC)

lengtegraad (geografisch)
	English: longitude
	English definition: Distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian at 0deg measured by the angle between the plane of the prime meridian and that of the meridian through the point in question, or by the corresponding time difference. (Source: CED)

	English: injury
	English definition: A stress upon an organism that disrupts the structure or function and results in a pathological process. (Source: KOREN)

	English: literature
	English definition: Written material such as poetry, novels, essays, especially works of imagination characterized by excellence of style and expression and by themes of general or enduring interest. (Source: CED)

letterkundig gegevensbestand
	English: literature data bank
	English definition: A fund of information on a particular subject or group of related subjects, divided into discrete documents and usually stored in and used with a computer system. (Source: RHW)

letterkundig onderzoek
	English: literature study
	English definition: The identification, description, analysis and classification of books and other materials used or consulted in the preparation of a work. (Source: WEBSTE)

letterkundige evaluatie
	English: literature evaluation
	English definition: The action of evaluating or judging the quality or character of written materials such as poetry, essays, novels, biographies and historical writings. (Source: RHW)

	English: leukaemia
	English definition: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood forming organs; a distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. (Source: KOREN)

levende toestand
	English: living condition
	English definition: An element or characteristic of a habitation considered in light of its ability to sustain and promote the health and general well-being of occupants. (Source: RHW)

	English: life cycle
	English definition: The phases, changes, or stages through which an organism passes throughout its lifetime. (Source: UNUN)

levenscyclus van een product
	English: product life cycle
	English definition: A product life cycle includes the following phases: acquisition of raw materials, production, packaging, distribution, use, recyling, and disposal. (Source: HELIOSa)

levenscyclus van materialen
	English: material life cycle
	English definition: All the stages involved in the manufacturing, distribution and retail, use and re-use and maintenance, recycling and waste management of materials. (Source: PORT)

	English: life science
	English definition: A science based on living organisms collectively. (Source: CED)

	English: dragonfly
	English definition: Any of the insects composing six families of the suborder Anisoptera and having four large, membranous wings and compound eyes that provide keen vision. (Source: MGH)

	English: odonate

lichamelijk gehandicapte
	English: disabled person
	English definition: Person lacking one or more physical power, such as the ability to walk or to coordinate one's movements, as from the effects of a disease or accident, or through mental impairment. (Source: CED)

lichamelijke behandeling
	English: physical treatment
	English definition: Processes that separate components of a waste stream or change the physical form of the waste without altering the chemical structure of the constituent materials. Physical treatment techniques are often used to separate the materials within the waste stream so that they can be reused or detoxified by chemical or biological treatment or destroyed by high-temperature incineration. (Source: PARCOR)

lichamelijke toestand
	English: physical conditions

lichamelijke verandering
	English: physical alteration
	English definition: Any change in a body or substance that does not involve an alteration in its chemical composition. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: light
	English definition: Electromagnetic radiation that is capable of causing a visual sensation. (Source: CED)

	English: disposal of the dead

	English: glue
	English definition: A crude, impure, amber-colored form of commercial gelatin of unknown detailed composition produced by the hydrolysis of animal collagen; gelatinizes in aqueous solutions and dries to form a strong, adhesive layer. (Source: MGH)

	English: line
	English definition: Term used in GIS technologies in the vector type of internal data organization: spatial data are divided into point, line and polygon types. In most cases, point entities (nodes) are specified directly as coordinate pairs, with lines (arcs or edges) represented as chains of points. Regions are similarly defined in terms of the lines which form their boundaries. Some vector GIS store information in the form of points, line segments and point pairs; others maintain closed lists of points defining polygon regions. Vector structures are especially suited to storing definitions of spatial objects for which sharp boundaries exist or can be imposed. (Source: YOUNG)

	English: line source
	English definition: Line source means a one-dimensional source. An example of a line source is the particular emissions from a dirt road. (Source: LEE)

	English: limnology
	English definition: The study of bodies of fresh water with reference to their plant and animal life, physical properties, geographical features, etc. (Source: CED)

lineaire geluidsbron
	English: linear source of sound
	English definition: Point noise sources placed one after the other one as, for instance, in a row of cars moving on a road. (Source: VALAMB)

	English: lipid
	English definition: One of a class of compounds which contain long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, such as fatty acids, alcohols, amines, amino alcohols, and aldehydes; includes waxes, fats, and derived compounds. (Source: MGH)

lipofiele stof
	English: lipophilic substance
	English definition: Substances having an affinity for lipids. (Source: CED)

	English: lithosphere
	English definition: The solid portion of the Earth, as compared with the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. (Source: BJGEO)

lithosfeer (bodem,aardkost,geologische processen)
	English: lithosphere (soil, geological processes)

	English: littoral
	English definition: The intertidal zone of the seashore. (Source: LBC)

locatie dat behoort tot het wereldnatuurbezit
	English: world heritage site
	English definition: Sites of great cultural significance and geographic areas of outstanding universal value. They include the Pyramids of Egypt, the Grand Canyon of United States, the Taj Mahal of India, the Great Wall of China, etc. (Source: GILP96)

	English: locomotive
	English definition: A self -propelled engine driven by steam, electricity or diesel power and used for drawing trains along railway tracks. (Source: CED)

	English: rag
	English definition: Discarded textile waste, either post-consumer waste or pre-consumer waste, such as manufacturing process scraps. (Source: ISEP)

	English: pulmonary disease
	English definition: Any disease pertaining to the lungs. (Source: DELFIN)

	English: lead
	English definition: A heavy toxic bluish-white metallic element that is highly malleable; occurs principally as galena and is used in alloys, accumulators, cable sheaths, paints, and as a radiation shield. (Source: CED)

loodgehalte in het bloed
	English: lead level in blood
	English definition: A measure of the amount of lead or lead salts absorbed by the body as a possible sign of acute or chronic lead poisoning, which can affect the nervous, digestive or muscular systems. (Source: SMD / MED)

	English: pilotage
	English definition: The service provided by a pilot, one who controls the movements of a ship or aircraft by visual or electronic means. (Source: RHW)

	English: lead compound
	English definition: Lead compounds are present as gasoline additives, in paint, ceramic products, roofing, caulking, electrical applications, tubes, or containers. Lead exposure may be due to air, water, food, or soil. Lead in the air is primarily due to lead-based fuels and the combustion of solid waste, coal, oils, and emissions from alkyl lead manufacturers, wind blown dust volcanoes, the burning of lead-painted surfaces, and cigarette smoke. Lead in drinking water comes from leaching from lead pipes, connectors, and solder in both the distribution system and household plumbing. (Source: KOREN)

	English: lead contamination
	English definition: The presence and release into the air, water and soil, of lead, a toxic metal used in plumbing, gasoline and lead-acid batteries. (Source: FFD / EEN)

loodvrije benzine
	English: unleaded petrol
	English definition: Petrol with a low octane rating, which has no lead additives in it and therefore creates less lead pollution in the atmosphere. (Source: PHC)

	English: deciduous tree
	English definition: Tree losing its leaves in autumn and growing new ones in the spring. (Source: CAMB)

	English: broad-leaved tree
	English definition: Deciduous tree which has wide leaves, as opposed to the needles on conifers. (Source: PHC)

	English: deciduous forest
	English definition: The temperate forests comprised of trees that seasonally shed their leaves, located in the east of the USA, in Western Europe from the Alps to Scandinavia, and in the eastern Asia. The hardwood of these forests have been exploited since the 16th century. The trees of deciduous forests usually produce nuts and winged seeds. (Source: WRIGHT)

loofverliezend bos
	English: deciduous wood

	English: tannin
	English definition: One of a group of complex organic chemicals commonly found in leaves, unripe fruits, and the bark of trees. Their function is uncertain though the unpleasant taste may discourage grazing animals. Some tannins have commercial uses, notably in the production of leather and ink; used in tanning, as a mordant in dyeing, and in ink manufacture. (Source: DICCHE /  UVAROV)

	English: pay policy
	English definition: A course of action or procedure regarding compensation or recompensation for work done or services rendered. (Source: RHW)

	English: wage system
	English definition: System which compensates the employees with a fixed sum per piece, hour, day or another period of time, covering all compensations including salary.

lossen van hout
	English: wood hauling
	English definition: The process of removing forest produce, particularly timber, fuelwood and bamboos, from its place of growth to some permanent or major delivery point, either for further transport or further manufacture, i.e. secondary conversion, or both. (Source: ECHO2)

lozing van scheepsafval
	English: ship waste disposal
	English definition: Discharging of ship waste into the sea.

	English: discharge regime
	English definition: The rate of flow of a river at a particular moment in time, related to its volume and its velocity. (Source: WHIT)

	English: discharge legislation

	English: air
	English definition: A predominantly mechanical mixture of a variety of individual gases forming the earth's enveloping atmosphere. (Source: MGH)

	English: air

	English: air movement
	English definition: Air movements within the Earth's atmospheric circulation; also called planetary winds. Two main components are recognized: first, the latitudinal meridional component due to the Coriolis force (a deflecting motion or force discussed by G.G. de Coriolis in 1835. The rotation of the Earth causes a body moving across its surface to be deflected to the right in the N hemisphere and to the left in the S hemisphere); and secondly, the longitudinal component and the vertical movement, resulting largely from varying pressure distributions due to differential heating and cooling of the Earth's surface. (Source: WHIT)

	English: aerial photograph
	English definition: An image of the ground surface made on a light-sensitive material and taken at a high altitude from an aircraft, spacecraft or rocket. (Source: MHD)

	English: aerial photography

	English: air quality
	English definition: The degree to which air is polluted; the type and maximum concentration of man-produced pollutants that should be permitted in the atmosphere. (Source: ALL /  WRIGHT)

	English: air quality management
	English definition: Regulate and plan and work toward the accomplishment of completion of stated goals, objectives and mission pertaining to air quality. (Source: PORT)

	English: air quality control
	English definition: The measurement of ambient air-pollution concentrations in order to determine whether there is a problem in a given region. (Source: CONFERa)

luchtruimtelijke planning
	English: airspace planning
	English definition: The activity of organizing or preparing for transportation through the atmosphere above earth's surface. (Source: RHW)

	English: atmospheric circulation
	English definition: The general movement and circulation of air, which transfers energy between different levels of the atmosphere. The mechanisms of circulation are very complicated. They involve the transfer of energy between the oceans and the atmosphere, the land and the atmosphere, as well as the different levels of the atmosphere. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: air temperature
	English definition: The temperature of the atmosphere which represents the average kinetic energy of the molecular motion in a small region and is defined in terms of a standard or calibrated thermometer in thermal equilibrium with the air. (Source: MGH)

	English: aviation law
	English definition: International rules regulating air transportation. (Source: NDGIUR)

	English: air safety
	English definition: Any measure, technique or design intended to reduce the risk of harm posed by either moving vehicles or projectiles above the earth's surface or pollutants to the earth's atmosphere. (Source: AHB /  TOE)

	English: compressor
	English definition: A mechanical device a) to provide the desired pressure for chemical and physical reactions, b) to control boiling points of fluids, as in gas separation, refrigeration, and evaporation, c) to evacuate enclosed volumes, d) to transport gases or vapors, e) to store compressible fluids as gases or liquids under pressure and assist in recovering them from storage or tank cars, and f) to convert mechanical energy to fluid energy for operating instruments, air agitation, fluidization, solid transport, blowcases, air tools, and motors. (Source: LEE)

	English: air traffic
	English definition: Aircraft moving in flight or on airport runways.

	English: air traffic regulation

	English: air traffic law
	English definition: International rules and conventions relating to air transportation. (Source: DEFRA)

	English: air pollutant
	English definition: Any pollutant agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air and can, in high enough concentrations, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. (Source: LEE /  TOE)

	English: air pollution
	English definition: Presence in the atmosphere of large quantities of gases, solids and radiation produced by the burning of natural and artificial fuels, chemical and other industrial processes and nuclear explosions. (Source: GUNN)

	English: air conditioning
	English definition: A system or process for controlling the temperature and sometimes the humidity and purity of the air in a house, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: ventilation
	English definition: The process of supplying or removing air, by natural or mechanical means, to or from any space; such air may or may not have been conditioned. (Source: HARRIS)

	English: air transportation
	English definition: The use of aircraft, predominantly airplanes, to move passengers and cargo. (Source: MGH)

	English: atmospheric pollution
	English definition: The presence in the air of one or more contaminants in such a concentration and of such duration as to cause a nuisance or to be injurious to human life, animal life or vegetation. (Source: LANDY)

luchtvervuiling binnenshuis
	English: indoor air pollution
	English definition: Chemical, physical or biological contaminants in the air inside buildings and other enclosed spaces occupied by humans. This pollution can arise from tobacco smoke, pesticides, cleaning agents, gases released from building materials, rugs, household products, etc. (Source: EED /  ISEP)

lucht-water wisselwerking
	English: air-water interaction
	English definition: The physical processes at the air-water interface: momentum, heat and mass transfer across the air-water interface, mixing of surface water by wind stress and wave breaking, directional wave spectra and wave forces on offshore structures. The air-water interaction is measured by the turbulence and gas exchanges resulting from the mixing of the water column by wind. (Source: WATER /  CEIS)

lymfatisch systeem
	English: lymphatic system
	English definition: A system of vessels and nodes conveying lymph in the vertebrate body, beginning with capillaries in tissue spaces and eventually forming the thoracic ducts which empty in the subclavian veins. (Source: MGH)

	English: lysimetry
	English definition: The measurement of the water percolating through soils and the determination of the materials dissolved by the water. (Source: MGH)

	English: mowing
	English definition: The cutting down of grass, crops or grain with a scythe or a mechanical device. (Source: AMHERa /  CEDa)

	English: residue of grinding
	English definition: Dust or other residue left after reducing a material to very small particles. (Source: MHD)

maatregel ter bestrijding van milieuverontreiniging
	English: pollution control measure
	English definition: Procedure or course of action taken to curb or reduce human-made or human-alteration of the physical, biological, chemical and radiological integrity of air, water and other media. (Source: RHW / TOE)

	English: measure
	English definition: The extent, quantity, amount, or degree of something as determined by measurement or calculation. (Source: CED)

	English: engineering work

	English: machine manufacture
	English definition: The making or production of mechanical apparatuses used for commercial or industrial purposes, such as engines and turbines, elevators and conveying equipment, computers and office equipment, and hoists, cranes and industrial trucks. (Source: RHW / SIC)

	English: machinery
	English definition: A group of parts or machines arranged to perform a useful function. (Source: MGH)

	English: mechanical vibration
	English definition: A motion, usually unintentional and often undesirable, of parts of machines and structures. (Source: MGH)

	English: authorisation
	English definition: An official certification of competence or a transfer of the right and power to act, including permission from government to use state funds for a particular program or project. (Source: BLD / RHW)

	English: macroeconomics
	English definition: Modern economic analysis that is concerned with data inaggregate as opposed to individual form such as national income, consumption and investment. (Source: GREENW /  CED)

macro-economische doelstelling
	English: macroeconomic goal
	English definition: An aim or objective pertaining to the production, distribution and use of income, wealth and commodities in a country, region or other large area, typically concerned with governmental fiscal and monetary policy as it affects employment, consumption, investment and growth levels. (Source: ODE)

	English: macrophyte
	English definition: A large macroscopic plant, used especially of aquatic forms such as kelp (variety of large brown seaweed which is a source of iodine and potash). (Source: LBC /  PHC)

	English: magnetic tape
	English definition: A plastic, paper, or metal tape that is coated or impregnated with magnetizable iron oxide particles, used in magnetic recording. (Source: MGH)

	English: magnetism
	English definition: A class of physical phenomena associated with moving electricity, including the mutual mechanical forces among magnets and electric currents. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: malaria
	English definition: A group of human febrile diseases with a chronic relapsing course caused by hemosporidian blood parasites of the genus Plasmodium, transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquito. (Source: MGH)

malen; vermalen
	English: grinding
	English definition: To reduce to powder or small fragments. (Source: LEE)

	English: mandate
	English definition: A command or authorization to act in a particular way given by an administrator to a subordinate, a court to a lower court or an electorate to its representative. (Source: RHW)

	English: manpower
	English definition: 1) The power generated by a man working.2) The number of people available for work, service, etc.

man-vrouw vraagstukken
	English: gender issue
	English definition: A point, matter or dispute concerning the capabilities, societal roles or other differences and divisions between women and men, especially the relative weight of biological and physical difference versus culture and socialization as a cause of those distinctions. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

marien organisme
	English: marine organism
	English definition: Organisms which live in sea water. (Source: PHC)

marien park
	English: marine park
	English definition: A permanent reservation on the seabed for the conservation of species. (Source: ALL)

marien reservaat
	English: marine reserve
	English definition: Sea area where marine wildlife is protected. (Source: PHC)

marien zoogdier
	English: marine mammal
	English definition: Mammals which have adapted to live in the sea, such as whales, dolphins, porpoises, etc. (Source: CED)

mariene biologie
	English: marine biology
	English definition: A branch of biology that deals with those living organisms which inhabit the sea. (Source: MGH)

mariene ecologie
	English: marine ecology
	English definition: An integrative science that studies the basic structural and functional relationships within and among living populations and their physical-chemical environments in marine ecosystems. Marine ecology focuses on specific organisms as well as on particular environments or physical settings. (Source: PARCOR)

mariene ecosysteem
	English: marine ecosystem
	English definition: Any marine environment, from pond to ocean, in which plants and animals interact with the chemical and physical features of the environment. (Source: GILP96)

mariene fauna
	English: marine fauna
	English definition: Animals which live in the sea. (Source: PHC)

mariene geologie
	English: marine geology
	English definition: That aspect of the study of the ocean that deals specifically with the ocean floor and the ocean-continent border, including submarine relief features, the geochemistry and petrology of the sediments and rocks of the ocean bottom and the influence of seawater and waves on the ocean bottom and its materials. (Source: BJGEO)

mariene milieu
	English: marine environment
	English definition: Marine environments include estuaries, coastal marine and nearshore zones, and open-ocean-deep-sea regions. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: marketing
	English definition: A related group of business activities whose purpose is to satisfy the demands for goods and services of consumers, businesses and government. The marketing process includes estimating the demand, producing the product, pricing the product to satisfy profit criteria, and promoting and distributing the product. (Source: GREENW)

	English: market
	English definition: Place of commercial activity in which articles are bought and sold. Also purchase and sale. In a limited sense market is the range of bid and asked prices reported by brokers making the market in over-the-counter securities. Also the demand for any particular article. (Source: WESTS)

markt van productiefactoren
	English: factor market
	English definition: Significant elements or reasons for an outcome in the buying, selling, and trading of particular goods or services. (Source: OED)

	English: market economy
	English definition: A mixed economy that relies heavily on markets to answer the three basic questions of allocation, but with a modest amount of government involvement. While it is commonly termed capitalism, market-oriented economy is much more descriptive of how the economy is structured. (Source: AMOS2)

	English: cash crop
	English definition: Crops that are grown for sale in the town markets or for export. They include coffee, cocoa, sugar, vegetables, peanuts and non-foods, like tobacco and cotton. Huge areas of countries in the developing world have been turned over to cash crops. Those countries with no mineral or oil resources depend on cash crops for foreign money, so that they can import materials do develop roads, for construction, or to buy Western consumer goods and, indeed, food. However, critics argue that cash crops are planted on land that would otherwise be used to grow food for the local community and say this is a cause of world famine. Cash crops, such as peanuts, can ruin the land if it is not left fallow after six years of harvests. Moreover, if the best agricultural land is used for cash crops, local farmers are forced to use marginal land to grow food for local consumption, and this has a further dramatic effect on the environment. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: market research
	English definition: The systematic gathering, recording, computing, and analysing of data about problems relating to the sale and distribution of goods and services for certain time periods. (Source: GREENW)

	English: preparation for market
	English definition: The containment, protection, handling and presentation of goods for the market. (Source: RRDA)

	English: market price
	English definition: The price actually given in current market dealings; the actual price at which given stock or commodity is currently sold in the usual and ordinary course of trade and competition between sellers and buyers. (Source: WESTS)

	English: market study
	English definition: The gathering and studying of data to determine the projection of demand for an item or service. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

	English: market form
	English definition: The organizational form or structure of the trade or traffic of a particular commodity. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

	English: marble
	English definition: Metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized calcite or dolomite. (Source: MGH)

Marpol overeenkomst
	English: Marpol agreement
	English definition: International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (1973). The first important IMO agreement on controlling pollution from ships, which deals not only with pollution by oil but also chemical, garbage and sewage. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: mustelid
	English definition: A large, diverse family of low-slung, long-bodied carnivorous mammals including minks, weasels, and badgers; distinguished by having only one molar in each upper jaw, and two at the most in the lower jaw. (Source: MGH)

	English: mass media
	English definition: The means of communication that reach large numbers of people, such as television, newspapers, magazines and radio. (Source: CED)

	English: mass recreation
	English definition: A pastime, diversion, exercise or other means of enjoyment and relaxation that is shared with or performed by a large number of people. (Source: RHW)

mate waarin iets hergebruikt kan worden
	English: recycling potential

materiaal voor de wegenbouw
	English: road construction material
	English definition: The aggregation of components used for building streets, highways and other routes, such as asphalt, concrete, brick, sand and gravel. (Source: ROA)

	English: properties of materials
	English definition: The physical and chemical characteristics of the substances or parts of  which a thing or object is made. (Source: RHW)

	English: materials science
	English definition: The study of the nature, behaviour, and use of materials applied to science and technology. (Source: MGH)

	English: strength of materials

	English: materials technology
	English definition: Any technical means or equipment used for the production and optimization of material goods that consist of any of a diverse range of properties, either alone or in combination, such as glass, metal, plastics and ceramics. (Source: APD)

	English: material
	English definition: The substance of which a product is made or composed. (Source: CED)

	English: materials

materieel evenwicht
	English: balance of materials

mechanisch materiaal
	English: mechanical equipment
	English definition: Machines and tools employed in manual and mechanical labour.  (Source: AMHERa)

mededeling van risicogegevens
	English: risk communication
	English definition: The exchange of information about health or environmental risks among risk assessors andmanagers, the general public, news media, interest groups, etc. (Source: OPPTIN)

	English: restrictive trade practice
	English definition: Business operation or action that confines or limits the free exchange of goods and services within a country or between countries, which may include discrimination, exclusive dealings, collusion agreements or price fixing. (Source: RHW / ODE)

	English: joint debtor
	English definition: Persons united in a joint liability or indebtedness. Two or more persons jointly liable for the same debt. (Source: WESTS)

medische wetenschappen
	English: medical science
	English definition: The science and art of treating and healing. (Source: MGH)

	English: medium
	English definition: The substance or material that acts as a carrier for some compound or chemical, such as food, soil, air and water; or the physical form or container of data, which includes paper, film, disk, magnetic tape and other materials on which information can be recorded. (Source: FFD / RMT)

	English: lake
	English definition: An enclosed body of water, usually but not necessarily fresh water, from which the sea is excluded. (Source: WHIT)

	English: lake basin
	English definition: 1) The depression in the Earth's surface occupied or formerly occupied by a lake and containing its shore features. 2) The area from which a lake receives drainage. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: lake pollution
	English definition: The direct or indirect human alteration of the biological, physical, chemical or radiological integrity of lake water, or a lake ecosystem. (Source: Landy)

	English: measuring instrument

	English: measuring method

	English: monitoring network
	English definition: Interconnected group of monitoring stations for the surveillance of pollution. (Source: RRDA)

	English: measuring programme

	English: monitoring station
	English definition: Station where the presence, effect, or level of any polluting substance in air or water, noise and blasting, radiation, transport movements, land subsidence, or change in the character of vegetation are measured quantitatively or qualitatively. (Source: GILP96)

	English: monitoring system
	English definition: A coordinated body of sensory and communications devices that observes, detects or records the outputs or operations of any natural or artificial system in order to construct a history or future of events. (Source: APD / RHW)

	English: monitoring technique
	English definition: Techniques employed in the process of checking, observing and measuring events, processes or physical, chemical, biological and environmental phenomena. (Source: ZINZANa /  DUNSTEa)

	English: milk
	English definition: The whitish fluid secreted by the mammary gland for the nourishment of the young; composed of carbohydrates, proteins, fats. mineral salts, vitamins, and antibodies. (Source: MGH)

	English: dairy farm
	English definition: A commercial establishment for processing or selling milk and milk products. (Source: AMHER)

	English: miscibility
	English definition: The tendency or capacity of two or more liquids to form a uniform blend, that is, to dissolve in each other; degrees are total miscibility, partial miscibility, and immiscibility. (Source: MGH)

mengen; vermengen
	English: mixing
	English definition: The intermingling of different materials to produce a homogeneous mixture. (Source: MGH)

	English: semi-liquid manure

	English: opinion
	English definition: Judgement or belief not founded on certainty or proof. (Source: CED)

	English: man (society)
	English definition: A member of the human race. (Source: MGH)

menselijk habitat
	English: human habitat
	English definition: Any of the conditions in which people live. Also all human settlements in villages, towns or major cities, which require environmental management to provide water, public spaces, remove public wastes, etc. (Source: WRIGHT)

menselijk lichaam
	English: human body
	English definition: The entire physical structure of an human being. (Source: CED)

menselijke activiteiten&producten, milieu-effecten
	English: human activities and products, effects on the environment

menselijke biologie
	English: human biology
	English definition: The study of human life and character. (Source: ZINZAN)

menselijke blootstelling aan vervuilende stoffen
	English: human exposure to pollutants

menselijke gezondheid
	English: human health
	English definition: The avoidance of disease and injury and the promotion of normalcy through efficient use of the environment, a properly functioning society, and an inner sense of well-being. (Source: KOREN)

menselijke gezondheid
	English: human health

menselijke leefomgeving
	English: anthroposphere (built environment, human settlements, land setup)

menselijke verrichtingsleer
	English: human physiology
	English definition: A branch of biological sciences that studies the functions of organs and tissues in human beings. (Source: OMD / WOR)

menselijke ziekte
	English: human disease
	English definition: An interruption, cessation or disorder of human bodily functions, systems or organs resulting from genetic or developmental errors, infection, nutritional deficiency, toxicity, illness or unfavorable environmental factors. (Source: SMD / ISEP)

menselijke ziektenleer
	English: human pathology
	English definition: Branch of medicine concerned with the cause, origin, and nature of disease, including the changes occurring as a result of disease. (Source: CED)

	English: MAB Programme
	English definition: An UNESCO project started in the 1970s. It was launched to further long-term conservation of the Earth's ecosystems, based on sound scientific foundations. MAB results have increased scientific understanding of ecosystems and their inter-relationships. The detailed research opened up new avenues for tropical ecosystems in particular. New species were discovered, and many forest plant species were seen to have potential medicinal benefits. By the 1980' about 25% of Western medicines contained at least one ingredient supplied by the tropical rainforests. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: human rights
	English definition: The rights of individuals to liberty, justice, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: human science
	English definition: Group of sciences including sociology, anthropology, psychology, pedagogy, etc. as opposed to the humanistic group. (Source: ZINZAN)

MER (lokaal)
	English: EIA (local)
	English definition: The identification, evaluation and appraisal of the ecological consequences of a proposed project or development in a city, town or region, and the measures needed to minimize adverse effects. (Source: ALL)

	English: marker
	English definition: 1) Small amount of an easily detected substance that can be used to follow and quantify the flow of materials or movement of organisms not otherwise visible or detectable by ordinary means.2) An isotope of an element, a small amount of which may be incorporated into a sample of material in order to follow the course of that element through a chemical, biological, or physical process, and thus also follow the larger sample. The tracer may be radioactive, in which case observations are made by measuring the radioactivity. (Source: ECHO1)

	English: tracer
	English definition: A minute quantity of radioactive isotope used in medicine or biology to study the chemical changes within living tissues. (Source: KOREN)

	English: EIA directive
	English definition: Council Directive of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment (85/337/EEC). The Directive applies to projects which are likely to have significant effects on the environment by virtue of their nature, size or location. (Source: PENEL)

	English: EIA law
	English definition: Law concerning the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment, based on the EC Directive n. 85/337. (Source: PENELa)

messtof met kalium
	English: potassium fertiliser
	English definition: A chemical fertilizer containing potassium. Potassium (K) is required by all plant and animal life. Plants require potassium for photosynthesis, osmotic regulation and the activation of enzyme systems. (Source: AGRIC)

	English: manure
	English definition: Animal excreta collected from stables and barnyards with or without litter; used to enrich the soil. (Source: MGH)

	English: manure production

	English: fertiliser
	English definition: Substance added to soil for the purpose of promoting plant life, usually containing nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, e.g. manure, guano, rock phosphates. (Source: BENNET)

	English: fertiliser law

met het onderzoek belaste commissaris
	English: investigating commissioner
	English definition: A government official authorized or appointed to investigate regulated activities to assure compliance with federal, state or municipal laws. (Source: OCT)

met kweldergras begroeide kwelder
	English: salt meadow
	English definition: A meadow subject to overflow by salt water. (Source: BJGEO)

metaal smelten
	English: metal smelting
	English definition: A metallurgical process in which ore mixtures are heated above melting point to extract or yield a crude metal. (Source: APD)

metaal walsen
	English: metal plating
	English definition: Forming a thin, adherent layer of metal on an object. (Source: MGH)

	English: metal waste
	English definition: Metal material discarded during manufacturing or processing operations which cannot be directly fed back into the operation; Worn or discarded metal materials removed from service at the end of its useful life. (Source: GMR)

	English: metal finishing
	English definition: A process in which a chemical or some other substance is applied to metals as a way to clean, protect, alter or modify appearance or physical properties, especially surface properties. (Source: MHD)

	English: metal working

	English: metallic mineral
	English definition: Minerals containing metals, such as bauxite, pyrite, etc. (Source: RRDA)

	English: metal oxide
	English definition: Any binary compound in which oxygen is combined with one or more metal atoms. (Source: MHD)

	English: metal product

	English: metal products industry
	English definition: Industry related with the primary metal processing and fabricated metal products manufacturing. The most important end uses of the products of the metals industries are automobiles, machinery, appliances, electrical equipment, structures, furniture, and containers. (Source: PZ)

metaalverwerkende industrie
	English: metallurgical industry
	English definition: Industry concerned with the extraction, refining, alloying and fabrication of metals. (Source: CED)

	English: metainformation
	English definition: Data assembled to describe or define another body of data, a document or any information element. (Source: WIC)

	English: metal
	English definition: An opaque crystalline material usually of high strength with good electrical and thermal conductivities, ductility and reflectivity. (Source: MGH)

meteorologie voor de landbouw
	English: agrometeorology
	English definition: The study of the interaction between meteorological and hydrological factors, on the one hand, and agriculture in the widest sense, including horticulture, animal husbandry and forestry, on the other. (Source: EURMET)

meteorologisch processen
	English: atmospheric process
	English definition: Atmospheric processes are distinguished in physical and chemical processes and both types may be operating simultaneously in complicated and interdependent ways. The physical processes of transport by atmospheric winds and the formation of clouds and precipitation strongly influence the patterns and rates of acidic deposition, while chemical reactions govern the forms of the compounds deposited. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: methanisation
	English definition: The process of deriving methane from any source, including livestock manure, landfills, coal mines, etc. (Source: OED)

	English: method
	English definition: A way of proceeding or doing something, especially a systematic or regular one. (Source: CED)

	English: methodology
	English definition: The system of methods and principles used in a particular discipline. (Source: CED)

	English: measuring
	English definition: The ability of the analytical method or protocol to quantify as well as identify the presence of the substance in question. (Source: LEE)

	English: monitoring
	English definition: To check regularly in order to perceive change in some quality or quantity. (Source: BRACK)

meting milieuverontreiniging
	English: pollution measurement
	English definition: The assessment of the concentration of pollutants for a given time in a given point. (Source: FLGISA)

meting van de stroming
	English: stream measurement
	English definition: The quantitative determination of the rate and amount of flow or discharge from a natural body of running water, such as a small river or brook. (Source: DOE / WWD / WRT)

meting van verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant monitoring
	English definition: Periodic or continuous determination of the amount of pollutants present in the environment. (Source: LANDY)

	English: monitoring criterion

	English: underground train
	English definition: A train for transportation of people, mostly beneath the surface of the ground, in order to lessen the traffic. (Source: CED)

	English: underground railway
	English definition: An electric passenger railway operated in underground tunnels. (Source: CED)

	English: metrology
	English definition: The science of measurement. (Source: MGH)

	English: masonry
	English definition: A construction of stone or similar materials such as concrete or brick. (Source: MGH)

	English: furniture industry

	English: furniture
	English definition: The movable articles in a room or an establishment that make it fit for living or working. (Source: MGH)

microbiele bronnen
	English: microbial resource
	English definition: Any available source of supply derived from microbes, which would be used for beneficial purposes, such as for the production of food substances and drugs. (Source: APD)

	English: microbiology
	English definition: The science and study of microorganisms, including protozoans, algae, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and rickettsiae. (Source: MGH)

microbiologische analyse
	English: microbiological analysis
	English definition: Analysis for the identification of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. (Source: RRDA)

	English: microcomputer
	English definition: A microprocessor combined with input/output interface devices, some type of external memory, and the other elements required to form a working computer system; it is smaller, lower in cost, and usually slower than a minicomputer. (Source: MGH)

	English: microecosystem
	English definition: A small-scale, simplified, experimental ecosystem, laboratory- or field- based, which may be: a) derived directly from nature (e.g. when samples of pond water are maintained subsequently by the input of artificial light and gas-exchange); or b) built up from axenic cultures (a culture of an organism that consists of one type of organism only, i.e. that is free from any contaminating organism) until the required conditions of organisms and environment are achieved. Also known as microcosm. (Source: ALL2)

	English: microelectronics
	English definition: The technology of constructing circuits and devices in extremely small packages by various techniques. Also known as microminiaturization; microsystem electronics. (Source: MGH)

	English: microfiltration
	English definition: The separation or removal from a liquid of particulates and microorganisms in the size range of 0.1 to 0.2 microns in diameter. (Source: WQA)

	English: microwave
	English definition: An electromagnetic wave which has a wavelength between about 0.3 and 30 centimeters, corresponding to frequencies of 1-100 gigahertz; however there are no sharp boundaries between microwaves and infrared and radio waves. (Source: MGH)

	English: microclimate
	English definition: The local, rather uniform climate of a specific place or habitat, compared with the climate of the entire area of which it is a part. (Source: MGH)

	English: microclimatology
	English definition: The study of a microclimate, including the study of profiles of temperature, moisture and wind in the lowest stratum of air, the effects of the vegetation and of shelterbelts, and the modifying effects of towns and buildings. (Source: MGH)

	English: micro-organism
	English definition: A microscopic organism, including bacteria, protozoans, yeast, viruses, and algae. (Source: MGH)

micro-organisme in water
	English: aquatic micro-organism
	English definition: Microorganisms having a water habitat. (Source: MGH)

	English: microscopy
	English definition: The interpretative application of microscope magnification to the study of materials that cannot be properly seen by the unaided eye. (Source: MGH)

	English: micropollutant
	English definition: Pollutant which exists in very small traces in water. (Source: PHC)

Middellands zeegebied
	English: Mediterranean Area
	English definition: The collective islands and countries of the inland sea between Europe, Africa and Asia that is linked to the Atlantic Ocean at its western end by the Strait of Gibraltar and includes the Tyrrhenian, Adriatic, Aegean and Ionian seas. (Source: RHW)

Middellandse Zee
	English: Mediterranean Sea
	English definition: The largest inland sea between Europe, Africa and Asia, linked to the Atlantic Ocean at its western end by the Strait of Gibraltar, including the Tyrrhenian, Adriatic, Aegean and Ionian seas, and major islands such as Sicily, Sardina, Corsica, Crete, Malta and Cyprus. (Source: RHW)

	English: Mediterranean forest
	English definition: Type of forest found in the Mediterranean area comprising mainly xerophilous evergreen trees. (Source: ALL)

	English: Mediterranean wood
	English definition: A plant formation found in the Mediterranean area comprising mainly lowgrowing, xerophilous evergreen trees and shrubs. It results mainly from the deterioration of the original vegetation by grazing and burning. (Source: ALL)

	English: Mediterranean climate
	English definition: A type of climate characterized by hot, dry, sunny summers and a winter rainy season; basically, this is the opposite of a monsoon climate. Also known as etesian climate. (Source: MGH)

	English: coppice with standards
	English definition: A traditional system of woodland management whereby timber trees are grown above a coppiced woodland. It is used in particular as a method of exploiting oakwoods, in which all the trees except a rather open network of tall, well-formed oaks - the standards at about fifty per hectare - are felled, leaving plenty of space for hazels and other underwood to grow and be coppiced at intervals of ten to fifteen years. (Source: GOOD)

midelbaar onderwijs
	English: secondary education
	English definition: The years of instruction following elementary school and until the end of high school. (Source: COE)

	English: migration (in general)
	English definition: The act of going from one region, country or place to another. (Source: CED)

migratie van verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant migration
	English definition: Uncontrolled movement, caused by percolation or other processes, of liquid or gaseous polluting materials from an original source area into other parts of an ecosystem. (Source: MHD)

	English: mine
	English definition: An opening or excavation in the earth for extracting minerals. (Source: MGH)

	English: mining industry
	English definition: A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the extraction of minerals occurring naturally, often involving quarrying, well operations, milling, exploration and development. (Source: SIC)

	English: mining
	English definition: The act, process or industry of extracting coal, ores, etc. from the earth. (Source: CED)

mijnbouw - geologie
	English: mining geology
	English definition: The study of geologic aspects of mineral deposits, with particular regard to problems associated with mining. (Source: BJGEO)

mijnbouw - technologie
	English: mining engineering
	English definition: Engineering concerned with the discovery, development and exploitation of coal, ores, and minerals, as well as the cleaning, sizing and dressing of the product. (Source: MGH)

mijnbouw,gas- en oliewinning op zee
	English: offshore mining
	English definition: Oil extraction from platforms situated a short distance from the coast. (Source: RRDA)

	English: mining waste
	English definition: Any residue which results from the extraction of raw materials from the earth. (Source: EED / ERG)

	English: mining product

	English: mining regulation
	English definition: A rule or order prescribed by government or management to promote the safety, legality or ecological responsibility of any aspect of the process or industry of ore extraction. (Source: BLD)

	English: mining law
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the potentially harmful activity of enterprises concerned with the extraction and processing of precious or valuable metals. (Source: BLD)

	English: mining district
	English definition: A district where mineral exploitation is performed. (Source: MGH)

	English: mite
	English definition: An order of small Arachnida with rounded bodies. Mites are very abundant in the soil, feeding on plant material and invertebrate animals. Some parasitic mites (e.g. red spider) damage crops and can be serious pests. Others cause diseases in animals. Ticks are blood-suckers, some being vectors of diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever in humans and fowls, and louping ill in cattle and sheep. (Source: ALL)

	English: ecology
	English definition: The study of the interrelationships between living organisms and their environment. (Source: LBC)

	English: environment
	English definition: A concept which includes all aspects of the surroundings of humanity, affecting individuals and social groupings. The European Union has defined the environment as 'the combination of elements whose complex interrelationships make up the settings, the surroundings and the conditions of life of the individual and of society, as they are or as they are felt'. The environment thus includes the built environment, the natural environment and all natural resources, including air, land and water. It also includes the surroundings of the workplace. (Source: GILP96)

	English: environmental liability
	English definition: The penalty to be paid by an organization for the damage caused by pollution and restoration necessary as a result of that damage, whether by accidental spillages from tankers, industrial waste discharges into waterways or land, or deliberate or accidental release of radioactive materials. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: environmental history
	English definition: A systematic and chronological account of past events and conditions relating to the ecosystem, its natural resources or, more generally, the external factors surrounding and affecting human life. (Source: TOE)

	English: ecological consultant

	English: environmental protection officer

	English: environmental analysis

	English: environmental anxiety

milieuaspecten van menselijke nederzettingen
	English: environmental aspect of human settlements
	English definition: Human settlements have an adverse impact on many ecosystems and on themselves by the addition of toxic or harmful substances to the outer lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. The major types of environmental pollutants are sewage, trace metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic organic compounds, and gaseous emissions. Most, if not all, of the additions of potentially harmful substances to the environment are result of the population growth and the technological advances of industrial societies. (Source: PARCORa)

	English: environmental perception
	English definition: An intuitive recognition or understanding of the ecosystem and its natural resources, often based on human experiences or cultural attitudes or beliefs. (Source: RHW / HMO)

	English: concept of environment
	English definition: The development at any level of a general notion of the surrounding ecosystem, its foundational relationship to human life and the need to preserve its integrity. (Source: TOE /  RHW)

	English: environmental control
	English definition: Protection of the environment through policies concerning the control of wastes, the improvement of the human-made environment, the protection of heritage values, the institution of national parks and reserves, the protection of fauna and flora, the conservation of forests and landscapes, etc. (Source: GILP96a)

	English: environmental management
	English definition: Measures and controls which are directed at environmental conservation, the rational and sustainable allocation and utilization of natural resources, the optimization of interrelations between society and the environment, and the improvement of human welfare for present and future generations. (Source: UNUN)

	English: indicator of environmental management

	English: environmental conservation
	English definition: Efforts and activities to maintain and sustain those attributes in natural and urban environments which are essential both to human physical and mental health and to enjoyment of life. (Source: UNUN)

	English: environmental policy

	English: environmental policy

milieubeleid (overheid)
	English: environmental policy
	English definition: Official statements of principles, intentions, values, and objective which are based on legislation and the governing authority of a state and which serve as a guide for the operations of governmental and private activities in environmental affairs. (Source: UNUN)

milieubeleid van de gemeente
	English: municipal environmental policy
	English definition: The guiding procedure, philosophy or course of action regarding the protection of natural resources in local settings, cities or towns. (Source: RHW)

	English: environmental policy instrument
	English definition: Technological, economical and legislative measures employed to prevent or control pollution or damage of the environment. (Source: DIZAMB)

	English: environmental occupation
	English definition: Gainful employment or job-related activity pertaining to ecological concerns, including the preservation of natural resources and the integrity of the ecosystem. (Source: TOE)

	English: environmental protection
	English definition: Measures and controls to prevent damage and degradation of the environment, including the sustainability of its living resources. (Source: UNUN)

milieubescherming binnen het bedrijf
	English: environmental protection in the enterprise
	English definition: Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken by non-governmental, business or industrial entities to prevent or reduce harm to the ecosystem and human health. (Source: TOE /  RHW)

	English: environmental protection advice
	English definition: Consultations or recommendations given as a guide of action regarding the preservation of ecological integrity and the defense or shelter of natural  resources. (Source: RHW)

	English: environmental protection agency
	English definition: EPA is the US Government's watchdog agency responsible for controlling the pollution of air and water, pesticides, radiation hazards and noise pollution. The agency is also involved in research to examine the effects of pollution. (Source: WRIGHT)

milieubeschermingsbeleid; beschermingsbeleid
	English: conservation policy
	English definition: The guiding procedure, philosophy or course of action for preserving and renewing human and natural resources. (Source: RHW /  TOE)

	English: environmental protection order

	English: environmental protection organisation
	English definition: A government agency, committee or group that is responsible for preserving and safeguarding ecological or natural resources. (Source: TOE)

	English: environmental protection cost
	English definition: The amount of money incurred in the preservation, defense, or shelter of natural resources. (Source: EFP / OED)

	English: environmental protection technology
	English definition: Technologies that meet environmental objectives by incorporating pollution prevention concepts in their design. Environmental control strategies introduced in the early design stages of a process, rather than an end-of-pipe control option introduced in the later stages, improve the technical and economic performance of a process. (Source: ENVAR)

	English: environmental protection association
	English definition: Associations whose object resides in the protection of natural environment. (Source: RRDA)

	English: environmental protection regulation
	English definition: A government or management prescribed rule for the preservation of natural resources and the prevention of damage or degradation of the ecosystem. (Source: BLD / ISEP)

	English: environmental awareness
	English definition: The growth and development of awareness, understanding and consciousness toward the biophysical environment and its problems, including human interactions and effects. Thinking 'ecologically' or in terms of an ecological consciousness. (Source: UNUN)

	English: environmental stock exchange
	English definition: The buying, selling, or exchanging of ecological commodities. (Source: OED)

	English: environmental monitoring
	English definition: Periodic and/or continued measuring, evaluating, and determining environmental parameters and/or pollution levels in order to prevent negative and damaging effects to the environment. Also include the forecasting of possible changes in ecosystem and/or the biosphere as a whole. (Source: UNUN)

	English: ecologist movement
	English definition: Grouping of individuals and organizations dedicated to the protection of the environment. (Source: PHC)

milieubewust gedrag
	English: environmentally responsible behaviour

milieubewust gedrag
	English: environmental citizenship
	English definition: The state, character or behavior of a person viewed as a member of the ecosystem with attendant rights and responsibilities, especially the responsibility to maintain ecological integrity and the right to exist in a healthy environment. (Source: TOE / RHW)

	English: environmental accounting

	English: environmental chemistry
	English definition: Science dealing with the physical, chemical and biochemical processes that polluting substances undergo when introduced in the environment. (Source: DIZAMB)

	English: environmental criminality
	English definition: Unlawful acts against the environment, such as water contamination, hazardous waste disposal, air contamination, unpermitted installation of plants, oil spills, etc. (Source: AZENPa)

	English: environmental criterion
	English definition: Standards of physical, chemical or biological (but sometimes including social, aesthetic, etc.) components that define a given quality of an environment. (Source: LANDY)

	English: environmental target
	English definition: Environmental elements of recognized importance which can be modified by the completion of a project. (Source: RRDA)

	English: environmental auditing
	English definition: An assessment of the nature and extent of any harm or detriment, or any possible harm or detriment, that may be inflicted on any aspect of the environment by any activity process, development programme, or any product, chemical, or waste substance. Audits may be designed to: verify or otherwise comply with environmental requirements; evaluate the effectiveness of existing environmental management systems; assess risks generally; or assist in planning for future improvements in environment protection and pollution control (Source: GILP96)

	English: environmental economics
	English definition: A recognized field of specialization in the discipline of Economics that embraces the issues of pollution control and environment protection, in which costs and benefits are difficult or impossible to estimate, much of the subject matter falling outside the competitive market system. Yet, it is an area in which immense common property resources need to be allocated sensibly to the overall public good. The subject is also very much concerned with ways and means to achieve this sensible allocation such as emission and effluent charges, user charges for the treatment or disposal of waste, environmental taxes, product charges, deposit refunds, tradeable pollution rights, performance bonds, natural resource accounting, and the economic implications of sustainable development. (Source: GILP96)

milieueconomie van ondernemingen
	English: environmental economics of firms
	English definition: The use of financial resources for the purpose of incorporating ecological principles in the operations of businesses and companies. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

milieueconomische vraagstukken
	English: environmental economy issue
	English definition: A matter of public importance involving both a community's or a country's management of financial resources and its protection of natural resources. (Source: RHW / OED)

milieu-economische waardering
	English: environmental economic valuation
	English definition: The assessment, evaluation, or appraisal of business performance in matters involving ecology and finances. (Source: OED)

	English: environmental impact statement
	English definition: A detailed statement which, to the fullest extent possible, identifies and analyses, among other things, the anticipated environmental impact of a proposed action and discusses how the adverse effects will be mitigated. (Source: LANDY)

	English: environmental impact study
	English definition: Survey conducted to ascertain the conditions of a site prior to the realization of a project, to analyze its possible impacts and compensative measures. (Source: RRDA)

	English: environmental ethics
	English definition: An ecological conscience or moral that reflects a commitment and responsibility toward the environment, including plants and animals as well as present and future generations of people. Oriented toward human societies living in harmony with the natural world on which they depend for survival and well being. (Source: UNUN)

	English: environmental assessment
	English definition: The evaluation or appraisal of ecological or natural resources. (Source: RHW)

	English: environmental assessment criterion
	English definition: Principle or standard for the evaluation or appraisal of ecological or natural resources. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

	English: environmental balance
	English definition: Final part of the environmental impact study and assessment which compares environmental costs and benefits on the basis of homogeneous criteria. (Source: AMBPIAa)

	English: environmental fund
	English definition: Financial resources set aside for measures involving ecological maintenance or the protection, defense, or shelter of natural resources. (Source: ISEP /  OED)

	English: environmental data
	English definition: Information concerning the state or condition of the environment. (Source: RRDA)

	English: environmental medicine
	English definition: The art and science of the protection of good health, the promotion of aesthetic values, the prevention of disease and injury through the control of positive environmental factors, and the reduction of potential physical, biological, chemical, and radiological hazards. (Source: KOREN)

	English: environmental consequence
	English definition: Resultant of natural or man-made perturbations of the physical, chemical or biological components making up the environment. (Source: LANDY)

milieugiftige eigenschappen
	English: ecotoxicity
	English definition: Quality of some substances or preparations which present or may present immediate or delayed risks for one or more sectors of the environment. (Source: GRAHAW)

	English: environmental tax
	English definition: An amount of money demanded by a government to finance clean-up, prevention, reduction, enforcement or educational efforts intended to promote ecological integrity and the conservation of natural resources. (Source: ODE / TOE)

	English: green fiscal instrument

	English: environmental health
	English definition: The art and science of the protection of good health, the prevention of disease and injury through the control of positive environmental factors, and the reduction of potential physical, biological, chemical and radiological hazards. (Source: KOREN)

	English: environmental index
	English definition: An index of available environmental articles from 1972 to present; also known as Environmental Abstract Annual. (Source: KOREN)

	English: environmental indicator
	English definition: A measurement, statistic or value that provides a proximate gauge or evidence of the effects of environmental management programs or of the state or condition of the environment. (Source: EPAGLO)

	English: environmental industry
	English definition: Industries involved in the development of cleaner technologies, waste and wastewater treatment, recycling processes, biotechnology processes, catalysts, membranes, desulphurisation plants, noise reduction, and the manufacture of other products having an environment protection purpose. (Source: DOBRIS)

	English: environmental informatics
	English definition: Science and techniques of data elaboration and of computer processing of information concerning ecosystems and ecology. (Source: ISEP /  TOE)

	English: environmental information
	English definition: Knowledge communicated or received concerning any aspect of the ecosystem, the natural resources within it or, more generally, the external factors surrounding and affecting human life. (Source: TOE)

	English: environmental information network
	English definition: A system of interrelated persons and devices linked to permit the exchange of data or knowledge concerning natural resources, human health and other ecological matters. (Source: ISEP /  TOE)

	English: environmental information system
	English definition: A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources designed to exchange data or knowledge concerning any aspect of the ecosystem, the natural resources within or, more generally, the external factors surrounding and affecting human life. (Source: TOE /  RHW)

	English: environmental investment
	English definition: Securities held for the production of income in the form of interest and dividends with the aim of benefitting the environment. (Source: ISEP /  EFP)

	English: ecolabel
	English definition: A mark, seal or written identification attached or affixed to products that provides specific ecological information allowing consumers to make comparisons with other similar products, or instructions on how to safely use or properly recycle or dispose of both products and packaging. (Source: OPP)

	English: environmental cost
	English definition: Expenses incurred as a result of some violation of ecological integrity either by an enterprise that implements a program to rectify the situation, or by society or the ecosystem as a whole when no person or enterprise is held liable. (Source: IEC / ECH)

	English: environmental science
	English definition: The interdisciplinary study of environmental problems, within the framework of established physical and biological principles, i.e. oriented toward a scientific approach. (Source: UNUN)

	English: environmental quality
	English definition: Properties and characteristics of the environment, either generalized or local, as they impinge on human beings and other organisms. Environmental quality is a general term which can refer to: varied characteristics such as air and water purity or pollution, noise, access to open space, and the visual effects of buildings, and the potential effects which such characteristics may have on physical and mental health. (Source: LANDY)

	English: environmental quality criterion
	English definition: Criteria followed in establishing standards for exposure to pollutants and noise, in respect of pesticides, detergents, composition of effluents, discharge of trade wastes, etc. (Source: GILP96a)

	English: environmental quality objective

	English: indicator of environmental quality
	English definition: Qualitative or quantitative parameter used as a measure of an environmental condition, e.g. of air or water quality. (Source: DIZAMB)

	English: environmental quality standard
	English definition: Normative documents and guidelines for determining the degree of environmental conditions and requirements to avoid negative and damaging effects, influences, and consequences. (Source: UNUN)

	English: ecomarketing
	English definition: The buying, selling, advertising, shipping, and storing of goods in compliance with ecological principles. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

	English: environment market

	English: environmental crime
	English definition: Unlawful acts against the environment, such as water contamination, hazardous waste disposal, air contamination, unpermitted installation of plants, oil spills, etc. (Source: AZENPa)

	English: environmental specimen bank
	English definition: Places in which selected specimens (fish, mussels, milk, soil sample and human tissue, etc.) are stored without being allowed to decompose. (Source: AZENP)

	English: ecomuseum
	English definition: A private, non-profit facility where plants and animals can be viewed in a natural outdoor setting. (Source: AGRENV)

	English: maintenance of environment

	English: environmental enterprise
	English definition: Organisations that are specialized in providing advice on environmental matters, for example investigation and remediation of potentially polluted land, water and air, and in the evaluation of environmental impacts; they employ professionals with the qualifications of engineering, geology, chemistry, hydrogeology, landscaping, environmental economics, etc. (Source: GRAHAWa)

	English: environmental education
	English definition: The educational process that deals with the human interrelationships with the environment and that utilizes an interdisciplinary problem-solving approach with value clarification. Concerned with education progress of knowledge, understanding, attitudes, skills, and commitment for environmental problems and considerations. The need for environmental education is continuous, because each new generation needs to learn conservation for itself. (Source: UNUN)

	English: environmental teaching
	English definition: Instruction, training or the imparting of knowledge about the external conditions affecting the life, development and survival of organisms, including potential dangers to the ecosystem and the means to maintain its integrity. (Source: TOE / RHW)

	English: environmental research
	English definition: The study of the environment and its modifications caused by human activities. (Source: DIFID)

	English: environmental accident
	English definition: An unexpected occurrence, failure or loss, with the potential for harming the ecosystem or natural resources. (Source: TOE / HMD)

	English: environmental development
	English definition: The growth, progress or advancement in matters of ecological concern. (Source: ISEP)

milieuonvriendelijk bedrijf
	English: environmentally unfriendly firm
	English definition: Firms that do not comply with environmental regulations for the disposal of noxious wastes generated during the production cycle. (Source: RRDA)

	English: environmental warfare
	English definition: The direct manipulation or destruction of ecological resources as either a political threat or for actual military advantage. (Source: BAS)

	English: offence against the environment
	English definition: Unlawful acts against the environment, such as water contamination, hazardous waste disposal, air contamination, unpermitted installation of plants, oil spills, etc. (Source: AZENPa)

	English: environmental plan
	English definition: A formulated or systematic method for the protection of natural or ecological resources. (Source: OED)

	English: environmental planning
	English definition: The identification of desirable objectives for the physical environment, including social and economic objectives, and the creation of administrative procedures and programmes to meet those objectives. (Source: GILP96)

	English: environmental performance

	English: environmental programme
	English definition: An organized group of activities and procedures, often run by a government agency or a nonprofit organization, to protect natural or ecological resources and advocate for ecological progress. (Source: RHW)

	English: environmental psychology
	English definition: A branch of experimental psychology which studies the relationships between behavior and the environmental context in which it occurs. Environmental psychology's primary focus is the influence of the physical environment and, therefore, much of the research in this area deals with the influences of noise, air pollution, climatic changes, etc. (Source: JMU)

	English: ecocatastrophe
	English definition: A sudden, widespread disaster or calamity causing extensive damage to the environment that threatens the quality of life for people living in the affected area or region, potentially leading to many deaths. (Source: ALL)

	English: environmental contingency planning
	English definition: The production of an organized, programmatic and coordinated course of action to be followed in the case of some accident, disaster or occurrence threatening an ecosystem and the human health or natural resources within it. (Source: TOE)

	English: environmental report
	English definition: An account or statement, usually in writing, describing in detail events, situations or conditions pertaining to the ecosystem, its natural resources or any of the external factors surrounding and affecting human life. (Source: TOE)

	English: report on the state of the environment
	English definition: A written account on the level of integrity and conditions of the ecosystem and natural resources in a given region, usually presented by an official person or body mandated to protect human health and the environment in that region. (Source: TOE)

	English: environmental law
	English definition: A wide spectrum of options from binding 'hard' laws, such as international treaties and national legislation, to 'soft' laws, covering guiding principles, recommended practices and procedures, and standards. Environmental law also attempts to reconcile international considerations with concerns that focus on very specific problems such as soil degradation, marine pollution or the depletion of non-renewable resources. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: environmental risk
	English definition: Likelihood, or probability, of injury, disease, or death resulting from exposure to a potential environmental hazard. (Source: RRDA)

	English: environmental risk assessment
	English definition: Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the risk posed to the environment by the actual or potential presence and/or use of specific pollutants. (Source: OPPTIN)

	English: environmental damage
	English definition: Harm done to the environment, e.g. loss of wetlands, pollution of rivers, etc. (Source: PHC)

	English: environmental statistics

	English: environmental incentive

	English: environmental criminal law
	English definition: The aggregate of statutory enactments pertaining to actions or instances of ecological negligence deemed injurious to public welfare or government interests and legally prohibited. (Source: RHW)

	English: environmental study
	English definition: A document submitted by an applicant in support of an undertaking which identifies the environmental impacts of the proposed undertaking and its alternatives. (Source: LANDY)

	English: environmental subsidy
	English definition: Payment by a government to assist or improve performance regarding ecological maintenance or the protection, defense, or shelter of natural resources. (Source: ODE)

	English: environmental engineering
	English definition: Branch of engineering concerned with the environment and its proper management. The major environmental engineering disciplines regard water supply, wastewater, stormwater, solid waste, hazardous waste, noise radiology, industrial hygiene, oceanography and the like. (Source: PORT)

	English: environmental technology

	English: environmental terminology
	English definition: The vocabulary of technical terms and usage appropriate to community, corporate, governmental and other groups concerned with protecting natural resources, preserving the integrity of the ecosystem and safeguarding human health. (Source: ISEP /  TOE)

	English: environmentalism
	English definition: 1) Concern for the environment and its protection. 2) Theory emphasizing the primary influence of the environment on the development of groups or individuals. It stresses the importance of the physical, biological, psychological, or cultural environment as a factor influencing the structure or behaviour of animals, including humans.In politics, this has given rise in many countries to Green Parties, which aim to ' Preserve the planet and its people'.

	English: theory of the environment
	English definition: A structured simulation or explanation based on observation, experimentation and reasoning that seeks to demonstrate, characterize or explain the actions and interactions of the total surrounding conditions of a given system. (Source: APD)

	English: environmental toxicologist
	English definition: An environmental health professional who determines the adverse health effects, and the mechanisms of those effects, resulting from exposure to physical, chemical, and biological aspects in the human environment. (Source: KOREN)

	English: environmental training
	English definition: Teaching of specialists and qualified workers who acquire knowledge and skills necessary to solve environmental problems. (Source: UNUN)

milieu-uitgaven van de overheid
	English: government environmental expenditure

	English: environmental vandalism

	English: environmental security
	English definition: Measures taken or policies instituted to protect and promote the safety of external conditions affecting the life, development and survival of an organism. (Source: TOE)

	English: environmental change
	English definition: Changes that may take place in ecosystems, climate, soil, habitats, etc. due to pressures of various origin. (Source: RRDA)

	English: environmental compatibility
	English definition: Condition of products or projects of having a reduced impact or burden on the natural environment. (Source: RRDA)

	English: environmental licence
	English definition: A governmental license or grant that allows and regulates an enterprise's discharge of air pollutants, typically from a commercial or industrial plant. (Source: BLD / TOE)

milieuverklaring (eco-controle)
	English: environmental statement (eco-audit)
	English definition: Assessment made by a company or organization of the financial benefits and disadvantages to be derived from adopting a more environmentally sound policy. (Source: PHC)

	English: pollution norm

	English: pollution risk
	English definition: Probability of harm to human health, property or the environment posed by the introduction of an undesirable substance into the ecosystem. (Source: TOE)

	English: environmental pollution
	English definition: The introduction by man into the environment of substances or energy liable to cause hazards to human health, harm to living resources and ecological systems, damage to structure or amenity, or interference with legitimate uses of the environment. (Source: GRAHAW)

	English: environment friendly
	English definition: Human activities, enterprises or products that reinforce rather than undermine the integrity of the ecosystem. (Source: FLG)

milieuvriendelijk beheer
	English: environmentally friendly management
	English definition: Adoption of integrated and preventative management practices aiming at reducing the impacts of industrial and trade activities on the environment; these practices include, among others, life-cycle analysis in the product development cycle, the introduction of clean process technology and measures of waste minimisation. (Source: DOBRIS)

milieuvriendelijk product
	English: environmentally friendly product
	English definition: Product that is not harmful to the environment. (Source: PHC)

milieuvriendelijke aankopen
	English: environmental friendly procurement
	English definition: The process of obtaining products and services which are favorably disposed toward the environment. (Source: RHW)

milieuvriendelijke architectuur
	English: environmental sustainable architecture
	English definition: Environmentally friendly architecture is based on the following five principles: 1) healthful interior environment; 2) energy efficiency; 3) ecologically benign materials; 4) environmental form; 5) good design. (Source: ARCH)

milieuvriendelijke wagen
	English: clean air car
	English definition: Vehicles that function without emitting pollutants in the atmosphere. (Source: RRDA)

	English: environmental legislation
	English definition: Branch of law relating to pollution control; national parks, wildlife, fauna and flora, wilderness and biodiversity; environmental and occupational health; environmental planning; heritage conservation and a large number of international conventions relating to the environment. (Source: GILP96)

milieuwetgeving met betrekking tot de landbouw
	English: environmental legislation on agriculture
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate any aspect of farm and livestock production that poses a threat to ecological integrity and human health, especially the use of pesticides, fertilizers and land. (Source: TOE / BLD)

	English: environmental legislative process
	English definition: The systematic course of proceedings in which a bill that would preserve or protect ecological resources may be enacted as a law. (Source: ODE)

militair luchtverkeer
	English: military air traffic
	English definition: Air traffic of or relating to the armed forces.

militair terrein
	English: military zone
	English definition: Area whose utilization is exclusively reserved to the army. (Source: ZINZAN)

militaire activiteiten
	English: military activities
	English definition: Actions and movements pertaining to or conducted by the armed forces.

militaire aspecten
	English: military aspects

militaire uitrusting
	English: military equipment
	English definition: Equipment necessary to the performance of military activities, either combat or noncombat. (Source: RRDA)

minder bedreigde soorten (IUCN)
	English: lower risk species  (IUCN)
	English definition: Animals, birds, fish, plants or other living organisms that have been deemed as not being in danger of extinction. (Source: OED /  TOE)

minder ontwikkelde landen
	English: less developed country
	English definition: One of the world's poorest nations, typically small in area and population, with low per capita incomes, literacy levels and medical standards, subsistence agriculture and a lack of exploitable minerals and competitive industries. (Source: UIA)

	English: minority
	English definition: A group that is different racially, politically, etc. from a larger group of which it is a part. (Source: CED)

	English: mineral fibre
	English definition: A fiber manufactured from glass, rock, or slag generally for use in fabricating heat insulation. (Source: HARRIS)

	English: mineral water
	English definition: Water containing naturally or artificially supplied minerals or gases. (Source: MGH)

minerale olie
	English: mineral oil
	English definition: Oil which derives from petroleum and is made up of hydrocarbons. (Source: PHC)

	English: mineralisation
	English definition: The process of fossilization whereby inorganic materials replace the organic constituent of an organism. (Source: MGH)

	English: mineralogy
	English definition: The science which concerns the study of natural inorganic substances called minerals. (Source: MGH)

	English: button-cell battery
	English definition: A tiny, circular battery made for a watch or for other microelectric applications. (Source: LEE)

minimale kostenplanning
	English: minimal cost planning
	English definition: The process of making arrangements or preparations to facilitate the production of goods or services at an output that would require the lowest possible expenditure of money, time or labor. (Source: ODE)

	English: ministry
	English definition: The body of top government administrators or other high ranking public officials that are selected by a head of state to manage certain aspects of a state's affairs, as opposed to civil servants whose tenure is unaffected by public changes resulting from democratic elections or some other process. (Source: BLD)

ministerieel besluit
	English: ministerial decree
	English definition: A formal judgment or mandate handed down on a specific issue or concern from a major administrative department of a state, usually under the authority of that department's chief minister, secretary or administrator. (Source: RHW)

ministeriele bevoegdheid
	English: minister competence
	English definition: The skill, knowledge, qualification, capacity or authority associated with the chief of an administrative department or other high ranking official selected by the head of state. (Source: RHW)

misbruik van geneesmiddelen
	English: drug abuse

	English: crime
	English definition: Any act done in violation of those duties which an individual owes to the community, and for the breach of which the law has provided that the offender shall make satisfaction to the public. (Source: BLACK)

misdadig gedrag
	English: delinquency

	English: nausea

	English: fog
	English definition: Water droplets or, rarely, ice crystals suspended in the air in sufficient concentration to reduce visibility appreciably. (Source: MGH)

	English: mist
	English definition: Fine water droplets suspended in the air, which reduce visibility. Usually mists form at night, when the temperature falls because the sky is clear. If visibility falls below 1,000 metres, the mist becomes a fog. (Source: PHC)

	English: malformation
	English definition: Permanent structural change that may adversely affect survival, development or function. (Source: KOREN)

	English: mobility (physical)
	English definition: The ability of groups or individuals to re-locate or change jobs, or to physically move from one place to another. (Source: ODE)

	English: mud (sediment)
	English definition: A mixture of clay and/or silt with water to form a plastic mass with a particle size preponderantly below 0.06 mm diameter. It is deposited in low-energy environments in lakes, estuaries and lagoons. It may also be deposited in deep-sea environments. (Source: WHIT)

	English: model
	English definition: 1) A representation, usually on a smaller scale, of a device, structure, etc. 2) A quantitative or mathematical representation or computer simulation which attempts to describe the characteristics or relationships of physical events. (Source: CED /  LEE)

	English: modelling
	English definition: An investigative technique using a mathematical or physical representation of a system or theory that accounts for all or some its known properties. Models are often used to test the effect of changes of system components on the overall performance of the system. (Source: LEE)

	English: breast milk
	English definition: Milk from the breast for feeding babies. (Source: CED)

moeilijk te behandelen afval
	English: bulky waste
	English definition: Large items of waste material, such as appliances, furniture, large auto parts, trees, branches, stumps, etc. (Source: LANDY)

moeilijk verwerkbaar afval
	English: hard-to-dispose-of waste
	English definition: Discarded material, often hazardous or in large volume, for which there is no obvious disposal route. (Source: DHW)

	English: marsh
	English definition: An periodically inundated area of low ground having shrubs and trees, with or without the formation of peat. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: swamp
	English definition: A permanently waterlogged area in which there is often associated tree growth, e.g. mangroves in hot climates. (Source: WHIT)

moeras; veenmoeras
	English: bog
	English definition: A commonly used term in Scotland and Ireland for a stretch waterlogged, spongy ground, chiefly composed of decaying vegetable matter, especially of rushes, cotton grass, and sphagnum moss. (Source: WHIT)

	English: methane
	English definition: A colourless, odourless, and tasteless gas, lighter than air and reacting violently with chlorine and bromine in sunlight, a chief component of natural gas; used as a source of methanol, acetylene, and carbon monoxide. Also known as methyl hydride. (Source: MGH)

	English: home garden
	English definition: A plot of cultivated ground adjacent to a dwelling and usually devoted in whole or in part to the growing of herbs, fruits, flowers, or vegetables for household use. (Source: WEBSTE)

mogelijk vervuild gebied
	English: area of potential pollution
	English definition: Area which is supposedly causing dangers to human health and environment. (Source: ECHO2)

mogelijkheid tot afvalvermindering
	English: waste minimisation potential
	English definition: The capability of measures or techniques that reduce the amount of refuse or unwanted materials that is generated, particularly during industrial production processes. (Source: TOE)

mogelijkheid van langdurige voortzetting (van iets)
	English: sustainability
	English definition: Adoption of energy and environmental policies which would not threaten the world environment, yet at the same time allow economic growth. (Source: BRACK)

moleculaire biologie
	English: molecular biology
	English definition: The study of the chemical structures and processes of biological phenomena at the molecular level; the discipline is particularly concerned with the study of proteins, nucleic acids, and enzymes, the macromolecules essential to life processes. It seeks to understand the molecular basis of genetic processes. Techniques used include X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. (Source: GILP96)

	English: mill
	English definition: A building where grain is crushed into flour. (Source: CAMB)

monetaire betrekkingen
	English: monetary relations
	English definition: The different modes in which countries, nations, etc., are brought together by financial, currency, or pecuniary interests. (Source: OED)

monetaire economie
	English: monetary economics
	English definition: The study, policies or system of institutions and procedures by which a country or region's commerce is supplied with notes, coins, bank deposits or other equivalent mediums of exchange. (Source: ODE)

monetaire markt
	English: money market
	English definition: A financial market that trades Treasury bills, commercial paper and other short-term financial instruments. This market is often used by businesses when they need short-term funds to bridge the gap between paying operating costs and collecting revenue from product sales. As such, the term 'money' in money market indicates that businesses are using highly liquid instruments to raise the money need for operating expenses. (Source: AMOS2)

monetaire waardebepaling
	English: monetary assessment
	English definition: Financial determination, adjustment, estimation, or appraisal for purposes of levying a tax, charge or fine. (Source: OED)

	English: monopoly
	English definition: The market condition where a particular commodity or service has only one seller, either because the seller has exclusive possession of an essential input or because large economies of scale inhibit the entrance of a competitor into the market. (Source: ODE)

	English: sampling
	English definition: The obtaining of small representative quantities of material for the purpose of analysis. (Source: MGH)

	English: sampling technique
	English definition: Method of selecting items at random from a set in such a manner that the sample will be representative of the whole. (Source: MGHa)

	English: monument
	English definition: An object, especially large and made of stone, built to remember and show respect to a person or group of people, or a special place made for this purpose. (Source: CAMB)

	English: conservation of monuments
	English definition: Measures adopted for the protection and the maintenance of hystorical and art monuments. (Source: ZINZANa)

morele overreding
	English: moral persuasion
	English definition: Appealing to the ethical principles or beliefs of an adversary or the public to convince the adversary to change behavior or attitudes. (Source: MLK)

	English: morphology
	English definition: The branch of biology concerned with the form and structure of organisms. (Source: CED)

morfologie van de zeebodem
	English: submarine morphology
	English definition: That aspect of geological oceanography which deals with the relief features of the ocean floor and with the forces that modify them. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: moss
	English definition: Any plant of the class Bryophyta, occurring in nearly all damp habitats. (Source: MGH)

	English: mussel farming
	English definition: Breeding of mussels for sale as food. (Source: PHC)

	English: bryophyte
	English definition: Any plant of the division Bryophyta, having stems and leaves but lacking true vascular tissue and roots and reproducing by spores: includes the mosses and liverworts. (Source: CED)

	English: engine
	English definition: A machine in which power is applied to do work by the conversion of various forms of energy into mechanical force and motion. (Source: MGH)

	English: motor fuel
	English definition: Any gaseous or liquid flammable fuel that burns in an internal combustion engine. (Source: ZINZANa)

	English: motorcycle

	English: motor vehicle
	English definition: A road vehicle driven by a motor or engine, especially an internal-combustion engine. (Source: CED)

	English: motor vehicle emission
	English definition: The formation and discharge of gaseous and particulate pollutants into the environment chiefly from car, truck and bus exhaust. (Source: DDP)

	English: motor vehicle industry

	English: motor vehicle exhaust gas
	English definition: Gases vented to the atmosphere by internal-combustion-engine driven vehicles.

	English: mosaic
	English definition: A composite photograph consisting of separate aerial photographs of overlapping surface areas, producing an overall image of a surface area too large to be depicted in a single aerial photograph. (Source: OED / WHIT)

multifunctioneel beheergebied
	English: multiple use management area
	English definition: 1) Coordinated management for the most judicious and harmonious use of the land on a long term basis under the concept of combining two or more uses and/or purposes with attention to sustainability and nonimpairment of the natural resources and land area.2) Use of land for more than one purpose; e.g. grazing of livestock, watershed and wildlife protection, recreation, and timber production. (Source: UNUN /  EPAGLO)

multilaterale overeenkomst
	English: multilateral agreement
	English definition: Multilateralism stands for a long-held but rarely achieved ideal, namely the voluntary co-operation of nations for peace and development. Multilateral initiatives are undermined or diluted by ultra-nationalist, bilateral and regional initiatives. Multilateralism may be undercut by the uncoordinated decisions of those contributing to it. Multilateralism constitutes the democracy of international society. An enlightened multilateralism enhances the specific interests of states while advancing their common cause. (Source: WPR)

multimedia technologie
	English: multimedia technology
	English definition: Any technical means used to combine text, sound, still or animated images and video in computers and electronic products, often allowing audience interactivity. (Source: ENC / WIS)

	English: multinational firm
	English definition: A large business company operating in several countries. (Source: CED)

multispectrale scanner
	English: multispectral scanner
	English definition: A remote sensing term referring to a scanning radiometer that simultaneously acquires images in various wavebands at the same time. A multispectral scanner can be carried aboard an aircraft or satellite. The Landsat multispectral scanner records images in four wavebands of visible and near infrared electromagnetic radiation to enable objects with different reflectance properties to be distinguished. (Source: WHIT)

	English: museum
	English definition: A place or building where objects of historical, artistic, or scientific interest are exhibited, preserved or studied. (Source: CED)

mutagene stof
	English: mutagen
	English definition: An agent that raises the frequency of mutation above the spontaneous rate. An agent that causes changes to plants and animals, particularly to their genetic material and especially at the time of reproduction. Certain chemicals and forms of radiation are powerful mutagens that damage the DNA, or genetic material in the centre of every cell of a living organism. (Source: MGH /  WRIGHT)

mutagene stof
	English: mutagenic substance
	English definition: Agents that induce a permanent change in the genetic material. (Source: KOREN)

	English: mutagenicity
	English definition: The property of chemical or physical agents of inducing changes in genetic material that are transmitted during cell division. (Source: KOREN)

	English: mutant
	English definition: An individual bearing an allele that has undergone mutation and is expressed in the phenotype. (Source: MGH)

	English: mutation
	English definition: A change in the chemical constitution of the DNA in the chromosomes of an organism: the changes are normally restricted to individual genes, but occasionally involve serious alteration to whole chromosomes. When a mutation occurs in gametes or gametocytes an inherited change may be produced in the characteristics of the organisms that develop from them. Mutation is one of the ways in which genetic variation is produced in organisms. A somatic mutation is one that occurs to a body cell, and is consequently past on to all the cells derived from it by mitosis. Natural mutations, at this stage of biological evolution, when they occur in the cells of higher animals, almost always produce deleterious characteristics. Both natural and artificial mutations can be brought about by ionizing radiation (hence the genetic and carcinogenic dangers of nuclear weapons) and by certain chemical substances called mutagens. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: wall
	English definition: A vertical construction made of stone, brick, wood, etc., with a length and height much greater than its thickness, used to enclose, divide or support. (Source: CED)

	English: music
	English definition: The artistic organization of sounds or tones that expresses ideas and emotions through the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony and tonal color. (Source: RHW)

	English: mycete
	English definition: Nucleated usually filamentous, sporebearing organisms devoid of chlorophyll. (Source: MGH)

	English: mycology
	English definition: The branch of botany concerned with the study of fungi. (Source: LBC)

	English: mycorrhiza
	English definition: The symbiotic association of the root of a higher plant with a fungus. In an ectotrophic mycorrhiza (e.g., heath, pine trees) the fungal mycelium covers the outside of the roots; in an endotrophic mycorrhiza (e.g. orchids) the fungus grows inside the cells of the root cortex. (Source: ALL)

	English: myth
	English definition: A traditional or legendary story, usually dealing with supernatural beings, ancestors, heroes or events, that is with or without determinable basis of fact or a natural explanation, but is used to explain some practice, rite or phenomenon of nature, or to justify the existence of a social institution. (Source: RHW)

	English: gymnosperm
	English definition: Any seed-bearing plant of the division Gymnospermae, in which the ovules are borne naked on the surface of the mega sporophylls, which are often arranged in cones. (Source: CED)

	English: conifer
	English definition: An order of conebearing plants which includes nearly all the present day Gymnospermae. Most are tall evergreen trees with needle-like (e.g., pines), linear (e.g. firs) or scale-like (e.g., cedars) leaves. They are characteristic of temperate zones and the main forest trees of colder regions. They provide timber, resins, tars, turpentine and pulp for paper. (Source: ALL)

	English: coniferous tree

	English: coniferous forest
	English definition: A forest type characterized by cone-bearing, needle-leaved trees. They are generally, but not necessarily, evergreen and relatively shallow-rooted. Since they grow more rapidly than most broad-leaved trees, conifers are extensively planted as a source of softwood timber and pulp. They are tolerant of wide-ranging climatic conditions, of many different types of soil and of considerable differences in terrain. Thus, they are found from the polar latitudes to the tropics, on most types of soils (especially, thin acid soils) and from mountain summits to coastal environments. (Source: WHIT)

	English: coniferous wood

naar grootte sorteren
	English: sizing
	English definition: To fix the cross-section of structural components on the basis of statics and material strength. (Source: RRDA)

naar olie boren
	English: drilling for oil
	English definition: Boring a hole for extracting oil. (Source: PHC)

	English: post-treatment
	English definition: Treatment of treated water or wastewater to improve the water quality. (Source: LEE)

naburige eigenaar
	English: neighbouring owner
	English definition: Person who lives in close proximity to another or owns a contiguous property. (Source: WESTSa)

nat afval
	English: wet waste
	English definition: Organic refuse or material left over from a manufacturing process, which is characterized by the presence of moisture. (Source: RHW / GRP)

nat proces
	English: wet process
	English definition: Process used to remove particulate matter and/or gaseous pollutants by means of an aqueous stream or slurry. (Source: KORENa)

nationaal park
	English: national park
	English definition: Areas of outstanding natural beauty, set aside for the conservation of flora, fauna and scenery, and for recreation, if this does not conflict with the conservation objectives of the parks and their landscapes. Hunting, logging, mining, commercial fishing, agriculture and livestock grazing are all controlled within national parks, as is industrial activity. (Source: WRIGHT)

nationaal reservaat
	English: national reserve

nationaal visreservaat
	English: national fishing reserve
	English definition: Limited portion of a water body belonging to the State where angling is allowed. (Source: RRDA)

nationale boekhouding
	English: national accounting
	English definition: Organised method of recording all business transactions in the national economy.

nationale milieuboekhouding
	English: national environmental accounting
	English definition: The collection and processing of financial information regarding the costs for ecological challenges or opportunities for nations or countries. (Source: RHW)

nationale planning
	English: national planning
	English definition: The step by step method and process of defining, developing and outlining various possible courses of actions to meet existing or future needs, goals and objectives for a country or a large body of people associated with a particular territory, often sharing similar ethnic backgrounds, customs and language. (Source: RHW / BLD)

nationale wetgeving
	English: national legislation
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by the government of a sovereign state that holds force throughout the regions and territories within the government's dominion. (Source: RHW)

	English: national economy
	English definition: A nation's financial resources and its financial management, with a view towards its productivity. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

	English: nationalisation
	English definition: The transfer of ownership of a private business or other private property to a national government, either through uncompensated seizure (expropriation) or through forced sale at a government-determinedprice. (Source: DUC)

	English: wet scrubber
	English definition: 1) An air cleaning device that literally washes out the dust. Exhaust air is forced into a spray chamber, where fine water particles cause the dust to drop from the air stream. The dust-ladden water is then treated to remove the solid material and is often recirculated.2) Equipment through which a gas is passed to remove impurities (solid, liquid, or gaseous particles) by intimate contact with a suitable liquid, usually an aqueous medium. (Source: LANDY /  BRACK /  ALL)

	English: nature
	English definition: All natural phenomena and plant and animal life, as distinct from man and his creations. (Source: CED)

natuur, menselijke leefomgeving
	English: natural environment, anthropic environment

	English: management of natural resources
	English definition: Planned use of natural resources, in particular of non-renewable resources, in accordance with principles that assure their optimum long-term economic and social benefits. (Source: MUCKa)

	English: nature conservation
	English definition: Active management of the earth's natural resources and environment to ensure their quality is maintained and that they are wisely used. (Source: PHC)

	English: nature conservation programme
	English definition: An organized group of activities and procedures, often run by a government agency or a nonprofit organization, to preserve and protect elements of the natural world such as mountains, trees, animals or rivers. (Source: RHW)

	English: nature conservation legislation
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to protect, preserve or renew an area's natural habitats or ecosystem. (Source: BLD / RHW)

	English: nature protection
	English definition: Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm to the elements of the material world that exist independently of human activity. (Source: RHW)

	English: natural area
	English definition: An area in which natural processes predominate, fluctuations in numbers of organisms are allowed free play and human intervention is minimal. (Source: LANDY)

natuurgebieden, landschap, ecosystemen
	English: natural areas, landscape, ecosystems

	English: feeling for nature
	English definition: A consciousness, sensibility or sympathetic perception of the physical world and its scenery in their uncultivated state. (Source: RHW)

	English: physics
	English definition: The study of those aspects of nature which can be understood in a fundamental way in terms of elementary principles and laws. (Source: MGH)

natuurkunde, fysica
	English: physics

natuurlijk afbreekbare verontreinigende stof
	English: biodegradable pollutant
	English definition: A pollutant which can be converted by biological processes into simple inorganic molecules. (Source: RRDA)

natuurlijk afwateringssysteem
	English: natural drainage system

natuurlijk bos
	English: natural forest
	English definition: A forest area that has developed free from the influence of humans and remains largely unaffected by their activities. The natural forest may include, but is not necessarily equivalent to, an old-growth forest. (Source: DUNSTE)

natuurlijk erfgoed
	English: natural heritage
	English definition: Generally, the world's natural resources as handed down to the present generation, and specifically, the earth's outstanding physical, biological and geological formations, and habitats of threatened species of animals and plants and areas with scientific, conservation or aesthetic value. (Source: WHC /  OED)

natuurlijk gevaar
	English: natural hazard
	English definition: The probability of occurrence, within a specific period of time in a given area of a potentially damaging phenomenon of nature. (Source: GUNN)

natuurlijk landschap
	English: natural scenery
	English definition: An area where human effects, if present, are not significant to the landscape as a whole. (Source: DUNSTE)

natuurlijk risico
	English: natural risk
	English definition: Probability of harm to human health, property or the environment posed by any aspect of the physical world other than human activity. (Source: APD)

natuurlijke afbraak
	English: biodegradation
	English definition: Breaking down of a substance by microorganisms. (Source: MGH)

natuurlijke afbreekbaarheid
	English: biodegradability
	English definition: The extent to which a substance can be decomposed - or rotted - by bacteria and fungi.Implies that residues from degradation are nontoxic. One of the most misleading claims in business, because shoppers often assume a biodegradable product to be harmless. Some harmful compounds take much longer to degrade than others and the product can harm the environment while it is rotting. Biodegradation may also be incomplete, sometimes leavingresidues in the environment which are more harmful than the original substance. Accumulation in the environment of nonbiodegradable (or poorly biodegradable) substances, such as some biocides, can cause serious problems. (Source: VCN)

natuurlijke balans
	English: balance of nature
	English definition: The condition of equilibrium among the components of a natural community such that their relative numbers remain fairly constant and their ecosystem is stable. Gradual readjustments to the composition of a balanced community take place continually in response to natural ecological succession and to alterations in climatic and other influences. By removing or introducing plants or animals, by polluting the environment, by destroying habitats and by rapidly increasing their own numbers, humans can cause major changes, some of which may be irreversible. (Source: ALL)

natuurlijke drijfkracht
	English: natural dynamics

natuurlijke fauna
	English: wild fauna
	English definition: Not domesticated animals living independently of man. (Source: CED)

natuurlijke hulpbronnen
	English: natural resource
	English definition: A feature or component of the natural environment that is of value in serving human needs, e.g. soil, water, plantlife, wildlife, etc. Some natural resources have an economic value (e.g. timber) while others have a 'noneconomic' value (e.g. scenic beauty). (Source: UNUN)

natuurlijke hulpbronnen; natuurlijke hulpbronn; hulpbronnen; hulpbron
	English: natural resources; natural resource; resource; resources
	English definition: Any component of the environment that can be utilized by an organism. (Source: LBC)

natuurlijke materiaal
	English: natural material

natuurlijke meststof
	English: natural fertiliser
	English definition: Organic material added to the soil to supply chemical elements needed for plant nutrition. (Source: MGH)

natuurlijke omgeving
	English: natural environment
	English definition: The complex of atmospheric, geological and biological characteristics found in an area in the absence of artifacts or influences of a well developed technological, human culture. (Source: LANDY)

natuurlijke processen
	English: natural dynamics

natuurlijke radioactiviteit
	English: natural radioactivity
	English definition: Radiation stemming mainly from uranium, present in small amounts in many rocks, soils, building material, etc. (Source: BRACK)

natuurlijke regeneratie
	English: natural regeneration
	English definition: The replacement by an organism of tissues or organs which have been lost or severely injured. (Source: MGH)

natuurlijke rijkdommen van de zee
	English: living marine resource

	English: natural monument
	English definition: A natural/cultural feature which is of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative of aesthetic qualities or cultural significance. Guidance for selection of a natural monument is: a) The area should contain one or more features of outstanding significance (appropriate natural features include spectacular waterfalls, caves, craters, fossil beds, sand dunes and marine features, along with unique or representative fauna and flora; associated cultural features might include cave dwellings, cliff-top forts, archaeological sites, or natural sites which have heritage significance to indigenous peoples).; b) The area should be large enough to protect the integrity of the feature and its immediately related surroundings. (Source: AERG)

	English: natural park
	English definition: A designation of project lands which preserves natural resources for their scientific, scenic, cultural and/or educational value by limiting development and management practices. Land managed to protect rare and endangered species of flora and fauna will be designed as natural areas. (Source: LANDY)

	English: natural disaster
	English definition: Violent, sudden and destructive change in the environment without cause from human activity, due to phenomena such as floods, earthquakes, fire and hurricanes. (Source: Unesco-Unep)

	English: nature reserve
	English definition: Areas allocated to preserve and protect certain animals and plants, or both. They differ from national park, which are largely a place for public recreation, because they are provided exclusively to protect species for their own sake. Endangered species are increasingly being kept in nature reserves to prevent them from extinction, particularly in India, Indonesia and some African countries. Natural reserves were used once to preserve the animals that landowners hunted, but, in the 19th century, they became places where animals were kept to prevent them from dying out. Special refuges and sanctuaries are also often designated to protect certain species or groups of wild animals or plants, especially if their numbers and distribution have been significantly reduced. They also serve as a place for more plentiful species to rest, breed or winter. Many parts of the world also have marine and aquatic reserves to protect different species of sea or freshwater plant and animal life. (Source: WRIGHT)

natuurreservaat van de staat
	English: state biological reserve
	English definition: An area of land and/or of water designated as having protected status for purposes of preserving certain biological features. Reserves are managed primarily to safeguard these features and provide opportunities for research into the problems underlying the management of natural sites and of vegetation and animal populations. Regulations are normally imposed controlling public access and disturbance. (Source: GOOD)

	English: natural stone
	English definition: A gemstone that occurs in nature, as distinguished from a man-made substitute. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: natural fibre
	English definition: A textile fiber of mineral, plant or animal origin. (Source: MGH)

	English: natural value

	English: natural science
	English definition: The branches of science dealing with objectively measurable phenomena pertaining to the transformation and relationships of energy and matter; includes biology, physics, and chemistry. (Source: MGH)

	English: physical science
	English definition: The sciences concerned with nonliving matter, energy, and the physical properties of the universe, such as physics, chemistry, astronomy, and geology. (Source: CED)

	English: afterburning
	English definition: An afterburner is a gadget fitted to the exhaust flues of furnaces and also to the exhaust systems of motor vehicles. They remove polluting gases and particles, which are the result of incompletely combusted fuel, by incineration and break down other chemical molecules associated with combustion into inert chemicals. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: navigational hazard
	English definition: Any obstacle encountered by a vessel in route posing risk or danger to the vessel, its contents or the environment. (Source: OED)

	English: human settlement
	English definition: Cities, towns, villages, and other concentrations of human populations which inhabit a given segment or area of the environment. Human settlements are associated with numerous and complex environmental, pollution, and living condition problems for planning and management. (Source: UNUN)

nederzetting in het platteland
	English: rural settlement
	English definition: A collection of dwellings located in a rural area. (Source: CEDa)

neergeslagen deeltje
	English: deposited particulate matter

	English: atmospheric precipitation
	English definition: The settling out of water from cloud in the form of dew, rain, hail, snow, etc. (Source: ALL)

	English: precipitation (chemical)
	English definition: The process of producing a separable solid phase within a liquid medium; represents the formation of a new condensed phase, such as a vapour or gas condensing to liquid droplets; a new solid phase gradually precipitates within a solid alloy as a result of slow, inner chemical reaction; in analytical chemistry, precipitation is used to separate a solid phase in an aqueous solution. (Source: MGH)

	English: precipitation enhancement
	English definition: Increase of precipitation resulting from changes in the colloidal stability of clouds. This can be either intentional, as with cloud seeding, or unintentional, as with air pollution, which increases aerosol concentrations and reduces sunlight. (Source: PARCOR)

nesten bouwen
	English: nesting
	English definition: The building of nests for egg laying and rearing of offspring. (Source: AMHER)

	English: nesting area
	English definition: A place where birds gather to lay eggs. (Source: RRDA)

	English: netting policy (emissions trading)
	English definition: All emission sources in the same area that are owned or controlled by a single company are treated as one large source, thereby allowing flexibility in controlling individual sources in order to meet a single emissions standard. (Source: EPAGLO)

netto grondstofvermindering
	English: net resource depletion
	English definition: The total decrease in the amount of natural materials available for use by humans and other living beings. (Source: RHW / APD)

	English: neurotoxicity
	English definition: The occurrence of adverse effects on a nervous system following exposure to a chemical. (Source: KOREN)

	English: neutralisation
	English definition: To make a solution neutral by adding a base to an acidic solution, or an acid to a basic solution. (Source: MGH)

	English: haze
	English definition: Reduced visibility in the air as a result of condensed water vapour, dust, etc., in the atmosphere. (Source: CED)

	English: by-product
	English definition: A product from a manufacturing process that is not considered the principal material. (Source: MGH)

niet biologisch afbreekbare verontreinigende stof
	English: non-biodegradable pollutant
	English definition: An organic compound, usually synthetic, that is not decomposed or mineralized by microorganisms or other biological processes. (Source: FFD)

niet goed afbreekbare organisch verontreinigende stoffen
	English: persistant organic pollutant
	English definition: Organic pollutants that do not break down chemically and remain in the environment. Pollutants with higher persistence may produce more harmful environmental effects. (Source: LANDYa)

niet in mijn achtertuin-houding
	English: NIMBY aptitude
	English definition: Not In My BackYard: phrase used to describe people who encourage the development of agriculture land for building houses or factories, provided it is not near where they themselves are living. (Source: PHC)

niet verontreinigde deel van de atmosfeer
	English: clean air area
	English definition: Areas where significant reductions in ozone forming pollutants have been achieved throughindustrial initiatives to control and/or prevent pollution, through implementation of transportation improvement plans, national efforts to reduce automobile tailpipe emissions and lower the volatility (evaporation rate) of gasoline. (Source: CIHUNT)

niet-conventionele energie
	English: non-conventional energy
	English definition: Energy that is renewable and ecologically safe, such as tidal power, wind power, etc. (Source: PHC)

niet-gouvernementele organisatie
	English: non-governmental organisation
	English definition: Private, voluntary, non-profit organisations, acting as pressure groups. Throughout the world there are more than 5.000 international NGOs which are concerned with the environment and development, with millions of supporters. (Source: WRIGHT)

niet-hernieuwbare energiebronnen
	English: non-renewable energy resource
	English definition: Non-renewable resources have been built up or evolved over a geological time-span and cannot be used without depleting the stock and raising questions of ultimate exhaustibility, since their rate of formation is so slow as to be meaningless in terms of the human life-span. (Source: GOOD)

niet-hernieuwbare hulpbronnen
	English: non-renewable resource
	English definition: A natural resource which, in terms of human time scales, is contained within the Earth in a fixed quantity and therefore can be used once only in the foreseeable future (although it may be recycled after its first use). This includes the fossil fuels and is extended to include mineral resources and sometimes ground water, although water and many minerals are renewed eventually. (Source: ALL)

niet-ioniserende straling
	English: non-ionising radiation
	English definition: Radiation that does not change the structure of atoms but does heat tissue and may cause harmful biological effects. (Source: LEE)

	English: non-metal
	English definition: A nonmetallic element, such as arsenic or silicon, that has some of the properties of a metal. (Source: CED)

niet-metallisch mineraal
	English: non-metallic mineral
	English definition: Minerals containing non-metals, such as quartz, garnet, etc. (Source: RRDA)

niet-vervuilende brandstof
	English: non-polluting fuel
	English definition: Clean fuel that does not release polluting emissions in the environment, such as methane. (Source: RRDA)

niet-vervuilende energiebron
	English: non-polluting energy source
	English definition: Energy that is ecologically safe and renewable. The most widely used source is hydroelectric power, which currently supplies some 6.6% of the world's energy needs. Other non-polluting sources are solar energy, tidal energy, wave energy and wind energy. Most non-polluting energy sources require a high capital investment but have low running costs. (Source: GILP96 /  UVAROV)

niet-vluchtige stof
	English: non-volatile substance
	English definition: Substance that is not capable of changing from a solid or liquid form to a vapour. (Source: CEDa)

nieuw materiaal
	English: new material
	English definition: Novel high-performance materials obtained through the interdisciplinary research of chemistry, applied chemistry, chemical engineering, and mechanical engineering. (Source: CMKYUa)

nieuw voedingsmiddel
	English: novel food
	English definition: Genetically engineered foods. Novel foods, including those altered using biotechnology, should not differ 'significantly' from thefoods they are to replace. Labels should not be misleading, but must make clear any differences between the novel food and its 'conventional' alternative, and must say how that difference was achieved. Foods containing a genetically modified living organism, such as a live yogurt made with an altered culture, would always be labelled. Any food whose modification might raise moral or health worries to consumers would also have to carry a label. This would include genes from an animal considered unclean by some religions, or from a plant that might cause allergic reactions. However, foods which, although made using novel methods, are identical to conventional foods, would nothave to be labelled. (Source: MOND)

nieuwe gemeenschap
	English: new community
	English definition: A sociopolitical, religious, occupational or other group of common characteristics and interests formed as an alternative to social, and often residential, options currently available. (Source: RHW)

nieuwe gemeente
	English: new town
	English definition: Any of several recent urban developments that constitute small and essentially self-sufficient cities with a planned ordering of residential, industrial, and commercial development. (Source: WEBSTE)

nieuwe installatie
	English: new installation
	English definition: A device, system, or piece of equipment that has been recently installed. (Source: CED)

nieuwe technologie
	English: new technology
	English definition: Electronic instruments and devices which have recently been developed and are been introduced into industry. New technologies have been introduced often in almost total ignorance or disregard of the biological and ecological systems that they subsequently disturb, and of the dynamic and evolving nature of living systems. (Source: PHC /  WPR)

	English: newsletter
	English definition: A printed periodical bulletin circulated to members of a group. (Source: CED)

	English: newsgroup
	English definition: A discussion group on a specific topic maintained on a computer network, frequently on the Internet. (Source: ISEP /  WIC)

nijverheid, industrie
	English: industry

	English: nickel
	English definition: A malleable ductile silvery-white metallic element that is strong and corrosion-resistant, occurring principally in pentlandite and niccolite: used in alloys, especially in toughening steel, in electroplating, and as a catalyst in organic synthesis. (Source: CED)

	English: nitrate
	English definition: Any salt or ester of nitric acid, such as sodium nitrate. (Source: CED)

	English: nitrite
	English definition: A salt or ester of nitric acid, included in compounds such as potassium nitrite, sodium nitrite and butyl nitrite. (Source: RHW)

	English: nitrification
	English definition: The process by which ammonia compounds, including man-made fertilizer and the humus provided by organic matter or plant and animal origin, are converted into nitrites and then nitrates, which are then absorbed as a nutrient by crops. Excess nitrate can be leached into surface waters and groundwaters, causing pollution. Excess nitrate may also be converted by microbes back into gaseous nitrogen, which is an important greenhouse gas, and released back into the atmosphere. The ultimate source of nitrogen in the ecosystem is the molecular nitrogen in the atmosphere. To a very limited extent, some dissolves in water. However, none is found in rock. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: nitrosamine
	English definition: Any one of a class of neutral, usually yellow oily compounds containing the divalent group = NNO. (Source: CED)

	English: NOEL
	English definition: Acronym for No Observed Effects Level. (Source: KOREN)

	English: nomad
	English definition: 1) A member of a people or tribe who move from place to place to find pasture and food.2) Nomads include gypsies, desert tribes such as the Bedouin and the many primitive tribes in the Americas, Asia and Australia. Herding survives as a way of life around the Sahara, in the Middle East, in Asia as far east as western India, and in the Asian parts of the USSR. The end of pastoral nomadism would be regrettable not merely on account of the independence and distinctiveness of this way of life but because this type of economy may be a more rational means of raising large numbers of animals under arid conditions than is capital-intensive ranching. (Source: CED /  WPR)

	English: nomenclature
	English definition: A system of names or terms, particularly those related to a specific area of science or art, or the assignment of names to things. (Source: OED)

non-ferro metaalnijverheid
	English: non-ferrous metal industry
	English definition: Industry that deals with the processing of metals other than iron and iron-base alloys. (Source: MGH)

non-ferro metalen
	English: non-ferrous metal
	English definition: Any metal other than iron and its alloys. (Source: MGH)

	English: emergency relief
	English definition: Money, food or other assistance provided for those surviving a sudden and usually unexpected occurrence requiring immediate action, especially an incident of potential harm to human life, property or the environment. (Source: RHW)

	English: emergency relief measure

	English: emergency shelter
	English definition: Shelter given to persons who are deprived of the essential needs of life following a disaster. (Source: GUNNa)

	English: emergency plan
	English definition: Program of procedures to be undertaken in the event of a sudden, urgent and usually unexpected occurrence requiring immediate action, especially an incident of potential harm to human life, property or the environment. (Source: RHW)

	English: emergency law

Noord- en Zuid-Amerika
	English: Americas
	English definition: The landmasses and islands of North America, South America, Mexico, and Central America included in the Western Hemisphere. (Source: AMHER)

	English: North Africa
	English definition: A geographic region of the African continent south of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea, and north of Africa's tropical rain forest, including Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and the Egyptian region west of the Suez Canal, and also the Sahara Desert and Atlas Mountains. (Source: RHW / INP)

	English: North America
	English definition: A continent in the northern half of the western hemisphere, bounded by the Arctic Ocean in the north, by the Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea in the west, and by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico in the east, connected to South America by the Isthmus of Panama, and including the United States, Canada, Mexico and several small island nations. (Source: INP)

Noordatlantische Oceaan
	English: North Atlantic Ocean
	English definition: The northern part of the Atlantic Ocean, extending northward from the equator to the Arctic Ocean. (Source: AMHER)

Noordelijke Stille Oceaan
	English: North Pacific Ocean
	English definition: An ocean north of the equator between the eastern coast of Asia and the western coasts of the Americas, extending northward to the arctic region, with principal arms including the Gulf of Alaska, the Sea of Okhotsk, the Sea of Japan and the Bering, Yellow, East China, South China and Philippine seas, and islands including the Aleutian, Midway, Marshall and Hawaiian islands, the Japanese island arc and the Malay Archipelago. (Source: INP)

	English: North-South relationship
	English definition: The connections, associations or involvement of developed nations, found predominantly in the Northern Hemisphere, with developing nations, found predominantly in the Southern Hemisphere. (Source: UIA)

	English: norm
	English definition: An established standard, guide, or regulation. A principle or regulation set up by authority, prescribing or directing action or forbearance; as the rules of a legislative body, of a company, court, public office, of the law, of ethics. (Source: WESTS)

	English: standard
	English definition: 1) Something considered by an authority or by general consent as a basis of comparison.2) An object regarded as the most common size or form of its kind.3) A rule or principle that is used as a basis for judgment.4) An average or normal quality, quantity, or level.

	English: normalisation

nucleair gevaar
	English: nuclear risk
	English definition: A risk connected to the functioning of nuclear power plants, by the storage or transportation of radioactive materials and involving the release of potentially dangerous levels of radioactive materials into the environment. (Source: FEMAa)

nucleair onderzoekscentrum
	English: nuclear research centre
	English definition: A facility in which scientists and other researchers study the behavior and characteristics of atomic nuclei through testing and other forms of experimentation, often to invent new technology with scientific, medical and industrial purposes. (Source: RAD / MHD)

nucleaire installatie
	English: nuclear facility
	English definition: A place, including buildings, where all the activities relating to nuclear research are performed. (Source: CAMB)

nucleaire veiligheid
	English: nuclear safety
	English definition: Measures and techniques implemented to reduce the possibility of incidence and the potential harm posed by radioactive substances used as an energy source, a test material or in weaponry. (Source: MHD)

	English: nucleic acid
	English definition: Any of several organic acids combined with proteins (DNA or RNA) which exist in the nucleus and protoplasm of all cells. (Source: PHC)

	English: nutrient
	English definition: Chemical elements which are involved in the construction of living tissue and which are needed by both plant and animal. The most important in terms of bulk are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with other essential ones including nitrogen, potassium, calcium, sulphur and phosphorus. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: nutrient cycle
	English definition: A biogeochemical cycle, in which inorganic nutrients move through the soil, living organisms, air and water or through some of these. (Source: ALL2)

	English: public service
	English definition: An enterprise concerned with the provision to the public of essentials, such as electricity or water. (Source: CED)

	English: public utility
	English definition: An enterprise concerned with the provision to the public of essentials, such as electricity or water. (Source: CED)

	English: services
	English definition: The carrying out of work for which there is a constant public demand by the provision of labor and the utilization of tools. (Source: OED)

	English: public function
	English definition: Activity carried out for the benefit of the community. (Source: NDGIUR)

nuttig organisme
	English: beneficial organism
	English definition: Any pollinating insect, or any pest predator, parasite, pathogen or other biological control agent which functions naturally or as part of an integrated pest management program to control another pest. (Source: LEE)

	English: observatory (in general)
	English definition: Any building or structure providing an extensive view of its surroundings. (Source: CED)

	English: observation satellite
	English definition: Man-made device that orbits the earth, receiving, processing and transmitting signals and generating images such as weather pictures. (Source: PHC)

	English: ocean
	English definition: The mass of water occupying all of the Earth's surface not occupied by land, but excluding all lakes and inland seas. (Source: WHIT)

	English: ocean circulation
	English definition: Water current flow in a closed circular pattern within an ocean. (Source: MGH)

	English: oceanic climate
	English definition: A regional climate which is under the predominant influence of the sea, that is, a climate characterized by oceanity; the antithesis of a continental climate. (Source: MGH)

	English: ocean outfall
	English definition: The mouth or outlet of a river, drain, sewer or any other place at which drainage or wastewater is discharged into a body of oceanic water. (Source: OED)

	English: ocean current
	English definition: A net transport of ocean water along a definable path. (Source: MGH)

	English: ocean temperature
	English definition: A measure, referenced to a standard value, of the heat or coldness in a body of oceanic water. (Source: RHW)

	English: Oceania
	English definition: The islands of the southern, western and central Pacific Ocean, including Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. The term is sometimes extended to encompass Australia, New Zealand, and the Malay Archipelago. (Source: AMHER)

	English: oceanography
	English definition: The scientific study and exploration of the oceans and seas in all their aspects. (Source: MGH)

oceanografie riviermonding
	English: estuarine oceanography
	English definition: The study of the physical, chemical, biological and geological characteristics of a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water is measurably diluted with fresh water. (Source: MHE / APD)

	English: patent
	English definition: A grant of right to exclude others from making, using or selling one's invention and includes right to license others to make, use or sell it. (Source: BLACK)

	English: primary forest
	English definition: Forest which originally covered a region before changes in the environment brought about by people. (Source: PHC)

	English: oyster farming
	English definition: There are two types of oyster farming: suspension culture, in which oysters are grown off bottom, in floating trays, is a labor-intensive form of cultivation that requires continuous tending and cleaning of both gear and shellfish, and bottom culture, which is similar to conventional crop farming on land; it involves selecting areas of the sea floor that provide a natural food supply, necessary currents, minimum exposure to predators, and proper temperature and then 'seeding' the bottom with shellfish stock that are left to grow to market size. Then they are harvested with a bottom drag from a boat. Both suspension culture and bottom culture depend on natural food supplies for growing the shellfish being raised. (Source: MSTF)

oevervegetatie; rivieroevervegetatie
	English: riverside vegetation
	English definition: Plants growing in areas adjacent to rivers and streams.  (Source: EPAGLO)

officiele hoorzitting
	English: official hearing
	English definition: Proceedings of relative formality, with definite issues of fact or of law to be tried, in which witnesses are heard and parties proceeded against have right to be heard. (Source: WESTS)

	English: olfactometry
	English definition: The testing and measurement of the sensitivity of the sense of smell. (Source: WEBSTE)

olie- en vettenindustrie
	English: oil and fat industry
	English definition: Industry for the production and processing of edible oils and fats. (Source: RRDA)

olie in kleilagen
	English: oil shale
	English definition: A kerogen-bearing, finely laminated brown or black sedimentary rock that will yield liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons on distillation. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: olive oil mill wastewater
	English definition: Aqueous residue deriving from the process of oil extraction from olives; it is composed of the olive-combined water and of the water used in the extraction and washing processes. It also contains a certain percentage of mineral compounds and of organic substances that are only partially biodegradable. (Source: UIB /  FLGISAa)

oliebindende stof
	English: oil binding agent
	English definition: Highly absorbent agents used for physically removing spilled oil in case of leakages and oil accidents occurring in water bodies, industry, work-shops, on roads, etc. Materials that have been found useful for this service vary from simple, naturally occurring materials such as straw, sawdust, and peat to synthetic agents, such as polyurethane foam and polystyrene powder. (Source: FUNKE /  PZ)

olieboringen op zee
	English: offshore oil drilling
	English definition: The act or process of extracting petroleum from deposits underlying the floor of the ocean or some other large body of water. (Source: ENC)

	English: oil spill
	English definition: The accidental release of oil, or other petroleum products usually into freshwater or marine ecosystems, and usually in large quantities. It can be controlled by chemical dispersion, combustion, mechanical containment, and absorption. (Source: RRDA /  LANDYa)

	English: tank farm
	English definition: Storage space for containers of liquids or gases. (Source: RRDA)

	English: oil pipeline
	English definition: A line of pipe connected to valves and other control devices, for conducting oil. (Source: MGH)

	English: oil production (chain)
	English definition: The petroleum industry is a complex industry utilizing complex combination of interdependent operations engaged in the storage and transportation, separation of crude molecular constituents, molecular cracking, molecular rebuilding and solvent finishing to produce petrochemical products. Treatment may involve oil separation, precipitation, adsorption, and biological treatment. The refining operations can be divided into four major steps: separation, conversion, treating, and blending. The crude oil is first separated into selected fractions (gasoline, kerosine, fuel oil, etc.). Some of the less valuable products such as heavy naphtha, are converted to products with a greater sale value such as gasoline. The final step is the blending of the refined base stocks with each other and various additive to meet final product specifications. The major pollutants emitted are sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and malodorous materials. (Source: PZ)

	English: oil refinery
	English definition: System of process units used to convert crude petroleum into fuels, lubricants, and other petroleum-derived products. (Source: MGH)

	English: oil refining
	English definition: The separation of petroleum mixtures into their component parts. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: oil tanker
	English definition: A very large ship which carries crude oil or other petroleum products in big tanks. (Source: MGH)

	English: oil pollution
	English definition: Contamination of any ecosystem, but usually of freshwater or marine ecosystems, by oil or other petroleum products. (Source: ISEP)

omgekeerde osmose
	English: reverse osmosis
	English definition: A method of obtaining pure water from water containing a salt, as in desalination. Pure water and the salt water are separated by a semipermeable membrane and the pressure of the salt water is raised above the osmotic pressure, causing water from the brine to pass through the membrane into the pure water. This process requires a pressure of some 25 atmospheres, which makes it difficult to apply on a large scale. (Source: DICCHE)

	English: environmental noise
	English definition: The sound and the characteristics of sounds from all sources in the surrounding environment. (Source: CONFER)

	English: neighbourhood noise
	English definition: General noise from a local source (such as the noise of a factory) which is disturbing to people living in the area. (Source: PHC)

omgewaaide bomen
	English: windfall
	English definition: 1) Falling of old trees in a forest caused by a storm or strong wind. It plays an important role in the spontaneous regeneration of forest ecosystems.2) A plot of land covered with trees blown down by the wind. (Source: RAMADE /  CED)

	English: inversion layer
	English definition: The atmosphere layer through which an inversion occurs. (Source: MGH)

omzetting richtlijn
	English: transposition of directive

onbebouwd gebied
	English: non-built-up area
	English definition: Areas which are not intensely developed for housing, commerce, industry, etc. (Source: LANDY)

onbehandeld water
	English: raw water
	English definition: Water that has not been treated. (Source: PHC)

onbepaald rechtsbegrip
	English: indefinite legal concept
	English definition: A condition or extent of time in a government enforced contract, instrument or agreement that lacks precision, distinguishing characteristics or fixed boundaries. (Source: BLD)

	English: onchocerciasis
	English definition: Infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus; results in skin tumours, papular dermatitis, and ocular complications. (Source: MGH)

	English: oncology
	English definition: The study of the causes, development, characteristics, and treatment of tumors. (Source: MGH)

onder druk staand gebied
	English: area under stress
	English definition: Areas that are flooded by rising number of tourists or other kinds of pressure and suffer from insufficient or inappropriate planning and management. Damage frequently arises from a lack of understanding or interest of the value of such sites. (Source: WPR)

onder toezicht staande jachtzone
	English: controlled hunting zone
	English definition: An administered geographic area in which the pursuit, capture and killing of wild animals for food or sport, is allowed, often with certain restrictions or regulations. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

onderbelasting van een elektriciteitscentrale
	English: power station derating
	English definition: The process by which a power plant is finally taken out of operation. (Source: ECHO1a)

	English: lodging
	English definition: Provision of accommodation for rest or for residence in a room or rooms or in a dwelling place. (Source: OED)

onderdeel van de atmosfeer
	English: atmospheric component
	English definition: The Earth's atmosphere consists by volume of nitrogen (79,1%), oxygen (20,9%), carbon dioxide (about 0,03%) and traces of the noble gases (argon, krypton, xenon, helium) plus water vapour, traces of ammonia, organic matter, ozone, various salts and suspended solid particles. (Source: ALL)

	English: repression
	English definition: The act, as by power or authority, of arresting or inhibiting the communication of ideas or facts as expressed in a practice, movement, publication or piece of evidence in a court proceeding. (Source: OED)

	English: subsoil
	English definition: Soil underlying surface soil, devoid of plant roots. (Source: MGH /  ZINZAN)

ondergrondse groeve
	English: underground quarry
	English definition: Quarry located below the surface of the earth. (Source: CAMB)

ondergrondse lozing
	English: underground disposal
	English definition: The discharge, dumping or emission of wastes below the surface of the soil. (Source: RHW)

ondergrondse opslag
	English: underground storage
	English definition: Storage located underground designed to hold gasoline or other petroleum products or chemical solutions. (Source: LEE)

ondergrondse opslag
	English: underground dump
	English definition: Any subterranean or below-ground site in which solid, or other, waste is deposited without environmental controls. (Source: TOE)

onderhandelbare heffingen
	English: negotiable charge

onderhoud (technisch)
	English: maintenance (technical)
	English definition: The upkeep of industrial facilities and equipment. (Source: MGH)

	English: undertaking business
	English definition: Any commercial activity, position or site associated with the preparation of the dead for burial and the management and arrangement of funerals. (Source: RHW)

	English: firm
	English definition: A commercial partnership of two or more persons, especially when incorporated. (Source: AMHER)

	English: company policy
	English definition: Official guidelines or set of guidelines adopted by a company for the management of its activity. (Source: RRDA)

	English: business policy
	English definition: The guiding procedure, philosophy or course of action for an enterprise or company organized for commercial purposes. (Source: RHW)

	English: company structure
	English definition: The type of organization of a company. Three kinds of structure are usually recognized: centralized, formal or hierarchical. (Source: ECONSK)

onderverdeling van de zeebodem
	English: benthic division
	English definition: The bottom of a body of water often occupied by benthos. (Source: GILP96)

	English: malnutrition
	English definition: Defective nutrition due to inadequate intake of nutrients or to their faulty digestion, assimilation or metabolism. (Source: MGH)

onderwater uitlaat
	English: underwater outlet
	English definition: Point of water disposal located below the sea surface. (Source: LANDYa)

	English: subject

	English: education
	English definition: The act or process of imparting or acquiring knowledge or skills. (Source: RHW)

	English: teaching
	English definition: The act of imparting knowledge or skill. (Source: RRDA)

	English: education policy
	English definition: A course of action adopted and pursued by government or some other organization, which promotes or determines the goals, methods and programs to be used for training, instruction or study that leads to the acquisition of skills or knowledge, or the development of reasoning and judgment. (Source: RHW)

	English: educational institution
	English definition: An organization or establishment devoted to the act or process of imparting or acquiring knowledge or skills. (Source: RHW)

	English: teaching material
	English definition: An article or device used to facilitate the learning process in an instructional setting. (Source: RHW)

	English: teaching method
	English definition: A procedure, technique or system with definite plans for instruction or imparting knowledge. (Source: RHW)

	English: educational planning
	English definition: The process of making arrangements or preparations to facilitate the training, instruction or study that leads to the acquisition of skills or knowledge, or the development of reasoning and judgment. (Source: RHW)

	English: educational system
	English definition: Any formulated, regular or special organization of instruction, training or knowledge disclosure, especially the institutional structures supporting that endeavor. (Source: ISEP /  OED)

	English: submarine

	English: research
	English definition: Scientific investigation aimed at discovering and applying new facts, techniques and natural laws. (Source: MGH)

	English: research

onderzoek aan het ecosysteem
	English: ecosystem research
	English definition: Study of the ways in which plants, animals, and microbes interact with each other and with their physical environment and of the processes involving the circulation, transformation and accumulation of both matter, especially nutrient materials, and energy. (Source: CULTER /  PARCORa)

onderzoek aan uitgestoten gassen
	English: waste gas examination
	English definition: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of exhaust gases emitted from vehicles, industrial plants, etc. in order to asses their composition. (Source: RRDA)

onderzoek effect op miliehygiene
	English: environmental health impact assessment
	English definition: Assessment of impacts caused by an action on the health conditions of a population. (Source: RRDA)

onderzoek naar de bereidheid tot betalen
	English: willingness-to-pay analysis

onderzoek naar de effecten
	English: research of the effects
	English definition: Investigation carried out to assess the results deriving from an action or condition; general term applying to many different fields. (Source: RRDA)

onderzoek naar het algemene nut (van ...)
	English: public benefit inquiry
	English definition: An investigation, especially a formal one conducted into a matter of public utility by a body constituted for that purpose by a government, local authority, or other organization. (Source: CED)

onderzoek, wetenschappen
	English: research, sciences

	English: research policy

	English: research centre
	English definition: Place where systematic investigation to establish facts or principles or to collect information on a subject is performed. (Source: CEDa)

	English: research project
	English definition: Proposal, plan or design containing the necessary information and data for conducting a specific survey. (Source: CEDa)

ondoordringbaar struikgewas
	English: maquis
	English definition: A low evergreen shrub formation, usually found on siliceous soils in the Mediterranean lands where winter rainfall and summer drought are the characteristic climate features. It consists of a profusion of aromatic species, such as lavender, myrtle, oleander and rosemary and often includes abundant spiny shrubs. It has been suggested that the maquis is a secondary vegetation, occupying the lands cleared of their natural evergreen oak forests by human activity. (Source: WHIT)

ongecontroleerde storting
	English: uncontrolled dump
	English definition: Place where waste is left on the ground and not buried in a hole. (Source: PHC)

	English: vermin
	English definition: Small animals and insects that can be harmful and which are difficult to control when they appear in large numbers. (Source: CAMB)

	English: accident
	English definition: An unexpected occurrence, failure or loss with the potential for harming human life, property or the environment. (Source: TOE /  HMD)

ongewervelde dieren
	English: invertebrate
	English definition: Any animal lacking a backbone, including all species not classified as vertebrates. (Source: CED)

	English: weed
	English definition: Any plant that grows wild and profusely, especially one that grows among cultivated plants, depriving them of space, food, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: weed control
	English definition: Freeing an area of land from weeds by several means, such as herbicides, tillage, burning, mowing, and crop competition. (Source: RRDA)

	English: on-line service
	English definition: Service providing an active connection with a communications network. (Source: DBMDE)

onomkeerbaarheid van het verschijnsel
	English: irreversibility of the phenomenon
	English definition: That quality of a process that precludes a prior state from being attained again. (Source: MICHa)

onoplosbare stof
	English: insoluble substance
	English definition: Substance incapable of forming a solution, especially in water. (Source: CED)

onrechtmatige daad
	English: wrongful act
	English definition: An act contrary to the rules of natural or legal justice. (Source: CURZON)

onrechtmatige overheidsdaad
	English: wrongful government act
	English definition: A deed performed by a government official or agent in exercise of police, constitutional, legislative, administrative or judicial powers that infringes upon the rights of another and causes damage, without protecting an equal or superior right. (Source: BLD)

	English: deforestation
	English definition: The removal of forest and undergrowth to increase the surface of arable land or to use the timber for construction or industrial purposes. Forest and its undergrowth possess a very high water-retaining capacity, inhibiting runoff of rainwater. (Source: GILP)

	English: forest cover destruction
	English definition: Destruction of forests is carried out in many countries in order to provide new land for agricultural or livestock purposes. It is often done without factors such as climate and topography having been sufficiently studied and on lands where slope nature of the soil or other physiographic characteristics clearly indicate that the land involved is suitable only for forest. Although these practices may lead to a temporary increase in productivity, there are also many indications that in the long run there is usually a decrease in productivity per unit of surface and that erosion and irreversible soil deterioration often accompany this process. Many factors contribute to forest cover destruction: timber production, clearance for agriculture, cutting for firewood and charcoal, fires, droughts, strip mining, pollution, urban development, population pressures, and warfare. (Source: WPR)

	English: dechlorination
	English definition: Removal of chlorine from a substance. (Source: MGH)

	English: expropriation
	English definition: To deprive an owner of property, especially by taking it for public use. (Source: CED)

ontgassing van een afvalstortplaats
	English: landfill degasification
	English definition: Landfill gas is highly dangerous as methane is highly explosive; therefore it must be controlled at all operational landfill sites, whether by active or passive ventilation or both especially in the case of deep sites. There exist venting systems for shallow and deep sites respectively. (Source: PORT)

	English: detoxification
	English definition: The act or process of removing a poison or the toxic properties of a substance in the body. (Source: MGH)

ontginning van de landbouwgrond
	English: cultivation of agricultural land
	English definition: Cultivation of land for the production of plant crops. Agricultural land may be employed in an unimproved state with few, if any, management inputs (extensive rangeland), or in an intensively managed state with annual inputs of fertilizer, pest, control treatments, and tillage. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: softening
	English definition: Reduction of the hardness of water by removing hardness-forming ions (chiefly calcium and magnesium) by precipitation or ion exchange, or sequestering them as by combining them with substances such as certain phosphates, that form soluble but non-ionized salts. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: displaced person
	English definition: Persons who, for different reasons or circumstances, have been compelled to leave their homes. (Source: GUNN)

	English: ontogenesis
	English definition: The entire sequence of events involved in the development of an individual organism. (Source: CED)

	English: explosion
	English definition: A violent, sudden release of energy resulting from powders or gases undergoing instantaneous ignition or from some other means of detonation, often accompanied by a force producing great amounts of heat, major structural damages, shock waves and flying shrapnel. (Source: HMD)

	English: decontamination
	English definition: The removing of chemical, biological, or radiological contamination from, or the neutralizing of it on a person, object, or area. (Source: LANDY)

	English: disinfection
	English definition: The complex of physical, chemical or mechanical operations undertaken to destroy pathogenic germs. (Source: CED /  ZINZAN)

	English: fumigation
	English definition: The use of a chemical compound in a gaseous state to kill insects, nematodes, arachnids, rodents, weeds, and fungi in confined or inaccessible locations; also used to control weeds, nematodes, and insects in the field. (Source: MGH)

	English: disinfectant
	English definition: An agent, such as heat, radiation, or a chemical, that disinfects by destroying, neutralizing, or inhibiting the growth of disease-carrying microorganisms. (Source: AMHER)

	English: recreation
	English definition: Activities that promote refreshment of health or spirits by relaxation and enjoyment. (Source: CED)

ontspanning, recreatie,toerisme
	English: recreation, tourism

	English: recreational area
	English definition: A piece of publicly owned land, especially in a town, used for sports and games. (Source: CAMB)

	English: infection
	English definition: The entry and development or multiplication of an infectious agent in the body of a living organism. (Source: KOREN)

onttrekking van voedingsstoffen
	English: nutrient removal
	English definition: Elimination of nutrients as, for example, from sewage in order to prevent eutrophication of water in reservoirs. (Source: PHCa)

	English: degreasing
	English definition: 1) Removing grease from wool with chemicals. 2) Removing grease from hides or skins in tanning by tumbling them in solvents. 3) Removing grease, oil, or fatty material from a metal surface with fumes from a hot solvent. (Source: MGH)

ontwaterd slib
	English: dehydrated sludge
	English definition: Sludge whose water content has been reduced by physical means. (Source: LEEa)

	English: design (project)
	English definition: A graphic representation, especially a detailed plan for construction or manufacture. (Source: AMHER)

	English: project
	English definition: The complex of actions, which have a potential for resulting in a physical change in the environment. (Source: LANDY)

	English: draft legislation
	English definition: An initial unsigned agreement, treaty, or piece of legislation which is not yet in force. (Source: DICLAW)

ontwikkelde landen
	English: developed country
	English definition: A nation possessing a relatively high degree of industrialization, infrastructure and other capital investment, sophisticated technology, widespread literacy and advanced living standards among its populations as a whole. (Source: UIA)

	English: development
	English definition: Increasing the capacity to meet human needs and improve the quality of human life. (Source: JCU)

ontwikkeling van de waterkant
	English: waterside development
	English definition: Any physical extension of, or changes to, the uses of land in waterfront areas. (Source: RHW)

ontwikkeling waterbronnen
	English: water resources development

	English: development area
	English definition: Area which has been given special help from a government to encourage business and factories to be set up there. (Source: PHC)

	English: status of development
	English definition: The extent to which a society promotes human well-being in all dimensions of existence by forming people's capabilities, expanding choices and increasing opportunities. (Source: POP)

	English: development aid
	English definition: The economic assistance or other types of support provided to developing countries to promote or encourage advancement in living standards, institutions, infrastructure, agricultural practices and other aspects of an economy, and to resolve problems typically  associated with developing countries. (Source: ODE)

	English: developing country
	English definition: A country whose people are beginning to utilize available resources in order to bring about a sustained increase in per capita production of goods and services. (Source: GREENW)

	English: development model
	English definition: A description, representation, or conception of the economic advancement process of a region or people. (Source: ISEP /  OED)

	English: development pattern
	English definition: The combination of qualities, structures, acts and tendencies characterizing the economic and social growth of a community or human group. (Source: RHW)

	English: development plan
	English definition: The statement of local planning policies that each local planning authority is required by statute to maintain, and which can only be made or altered by following the procedures prescribed for that purpose, which include obligations to consult widely and to hold a public local inquiry into objections. The development plan includes: 1) the structure plan for the area (normally prepared by the country council); 2) an area-wide development plan for each district council area. (Source: GRAHAW)

	English: development planning
	English definition: The act or process of formulating a course of action that promotes the economic advancement of a region or people, particularly in countries known to have low levels of economic productivity and technological sophistication. (Source: OED / WBG)

	English: development co-operation

	English: desalination
	English definition: Removal of salt, as from water or soil. (Source: MGH)

ontzilting van water
	English: water desalination
	English definition: Any mechanical procedure or process where some or all of the salt is removed from water. (Source: LEE)

	English: desalination plant
	English definition: 1) Plants for the extraction of fresh water from saltwater by the removal of salts, usually by distilling.2) Parts of the world with severe water shortages are looking to desalination plants to solve their problems. Desalination of water is still nearly four times more expensive than obtaining water from conventional sources. However technology is improving and costs are likely to decrease slightly in the future. There is now more interest in building distillation plants beside electric installations so that the waste heat from power generation can be used to drive the desalination process. (Source: ALL /  WRIGHT)

ontzouting van zeewater
	English: sea water desalination
	English definition: Removing salt from ocean or brackish water. (Source: LEE)

	English: desulphurisation
	English definition: The removal of sulphur, as from molten metals or petroleum oil. Sulphur residues in fuels end up as sulphur dioxide when the fuel is burned causing acid rain. (Source: MGH)

onvruchtbaar gebied
	English: arid land
	English definition: Lands characterized by low annual rainfall of less than 250 mm, by evaporation exceeding precipitation and a sparse vegetation. (Source: LBC)

	English: thunderstorm
	English definition: A storm caused by strong rising air currents and characterized by thunder and lightning and usually heavy rain or hail. (Source: CED)

onwettelijke vestiging
	English: squatter settlement
	English definition: Settlement on land or property to which there is no legal title. (Source: CEDa)

	English: harvest
	English definition: The amount or measure of the crop gathered in a season. (Source: AMHER)

	English: yield (agricultural)
	English definition: The accumulated volume or biomass remaining from gross production after accounting for losses due to respiration during production, herbivory, litterfall, and other factors that decrease the remaining available biomass. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: war
	English definition: A conflict or a state of hostility between two or more parties, nations or states, in which armed forces or military operations are used. (Source: RHW)

	English: war victim
	English definition: A person that suffers from the destructive action undertaken as a result of an armed conflict between two or more parties, particularly death, injury, hardship, loss of property or dislocation. (Source: RHW)

	English: earwig
	English definition: Any of various insects of the order Dermaptera, especially Forficula auricularia, which typically have an elongated body with small leathery forewings, semicircular membranous hindwings, and curved forceps at the tip of the abdomen. (Source: CED)

oorzaak van een ongeluk
	English: accident source
	English definition: The cause or origin of an unexpected occurrence, failure or loss with the potential for harming human life, property or the environment. (Source: OED /  HMD)

oorzaak-gevolg relatie
	English: cause-effect relation
	English definition: The relating of causes to the effects that they produce. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: East Africa
	English definition: A geographic region of the African continent that includes Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia and Somalia, and also Mt. Kilimanjaro and Lake Victoria. (Source: ENA / CIA)

	English: Eastern Asia
	English definition: A geographic region of the Asian continent bordered by the Pacific Ocean in the east that includes China, Japan, Korea, Macao, Taiwan and Siberia. (Source: RHW)

	English: Eastern Europe
	English definition: A geographic region of the European continent west of Asia and east of Germany and the Adriatic Sea, traditionally consisting of countries that were formerly part of the Soviet Union, such as Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Bulgaria. (Source: INP / CIA)

Oost-West handel
	English: East-West trade
	English definition: Trade between countries and companies of the Western hemisphere with those of the Eastern hemisphere (usually referring to former Communist countries of Eastern Europe).

Oost-West verhoudingen
	English: East-West relations

op maat gemaakt chemisch product
	English: speciality chemical
	English definition: Various fine chemical products like glue, adhesives, resins, rubber, plastic compounds, selective herbicide, etc. (Source: ICBT)

op olie gebaseerde energie
	English: oil-based energy
	English definition: Energy produced using oil as fuel. (Source: PHCa)

opbergen kernafval
	English: nuclear power plant disposal

opberging te land
	English: land disposal
	English definition: The discharge, deposit or injection of any waste onto or into the soil or other land surfaces. (Source: ISEP)

	English: yield (economy)
	English definition: Profit or income created through an investment or a business transaction.

open zee
	English: open sea
	English definition: The high seas lying outside the exclusive economic zones of states. All states have equal rights to navigate, to overfly, to lay submarine cables, to construct artificial islands, to fish, and to conduct scientific research within the high seas. (Source: GOOD)

	English: public
	English definition: The community or people in general or a part or section of the community grouped because of a common interest or activity. (Source: CED)

openbaar bad
	English: public bath
	English definition: A place having baths for public use. (Source: CED)

openbaar gebouw
	English: public building
	English definition: A building to which there is free access by the public and which is available for the use of a community. (Source: HARRISa /  CEDa)

openbaar ministerie
	English: public prosecutor's office
	English definition: A government agency for which an elected or appointed attorney or staff of attorneys is vested with the authority by a constitution or statute to try cases on the government's behalf, to represent public interest or to take legal action against persons violating federal, state or local laws. (Source: USC / LTM)

openbaar onderzoek
	English: public inquiry
	English definition: An investigation, especially a formal one conducted into a matter of public utility by a body constituted for that purpose by a government, local authority, or other organization. (Source: CED)

openbaar park
	English: public park
	English definition: Park with big trees, ornamental plants, alleys bordered by trees or bushes, fountains and statues situated in a town and whose access is free. (Source: ZINZAN)

openbaar slachthuis; slachthuis; abattoir
	English: slaughterhouse
	English definition: A place where animals are butchered for food.  (Source: CED)

openbaar vervoer
	English: public transport
	English definition: The act or the means of conveying people in mass as opposed to conveyance in private vehicles. (Source: GOOD)

openbaar vervoersmiddel
	English: public transport vehicle
	English definition: Vehicle for conveying large numbers of paying passengers from one place to another. (Source: RRDA)

openbaar zeegebied
	English: public maritime domain
	English definition: eas or ocean areas owned by the state as opposed to individuals or corporations. (Source: BLD / RHW)

	English: right of access

openbare aanklager
	English: public prosecutor
	English definition: An officer of government whose function is the prosecution of criminal actions, or suits partaking of the nature of criminal actions. (Source: WESTS)

openbare administratieve instelling
	English: public institution of administrative nature
	English definition: Public institution for the management of administrative issues. (Source: ZINZANa)

openbare discussie
	English: public discussion
	English definition: Consideration, commentary by argument or informal debate on some issue that is open and of concern to the general populace. (Source: RHW)

openbare hoorzitting
	English: public hearing
	English definition: Right to appear and give evidence and also right to hear and examine witnesses whosetestimony is presented by opposing parties. (Source: BLACK)

openbare instelling
	English: public institution
	English definition: Institution for the management of public issues. (Source: ZINZAN)

openbare instelling op commercieel en industrieel gebied
	English: public institution of industrial and commercial nature
	English definition: Public institution for the management of industrial and commercial issues. (Source: ZINZANa)

openbare sector
	English: public sector
	English definition: Segment of the economy run to some degree by government, including national and local governments, government-owned firms and quasi-autonomous non-government organizations. (Source: ODE)

openbare waterwegen
	English: public waterways domain
	English definition: Rivers, canals and lakes owned by the state as opposed to individuals or corporations. (Source: BLD / RHW)

openbare werken
	English: public works
	English definition: Structures, as roads, dams, or post offices, paid for by government funds for public use.

opgeloste organische koolstof
	English: dissolved organic carbon
	English definition: The fraction of total organic carbon (all carbon atoms covalently bonded in organic molecules) in water that passes through a 0.45 micron pore-diameter filter. (Source: WQA)

opgeloste zuurstof
	English: dissolved oxygen
	English definition: The amount of oxygen dissolved in a stream, river or lake is an indication of the degree of health of the stream and its ability to support a balanced aquatic ecosystem. The oxygen comes from the atmosphere by solution and from photosynthesis of water plants. The maximum amount of oxygen that can be held in solution in a stream is termed the saturation concentration and, as it is a function of temperature, the greater the temperature, the less the saturation amount. The discharge of an organic waste to a stream imposes an oxygen demand on the stream. If there is an excessive amount of organic matter, the oxidation of waste by microorganisms will consume oxygen more rapidly than it can be replenished. When this happens, the dissolved oxygen is depleted and results in the death of the higher forms of life. (Source: PORT)

opheffing (geologisch)
	English: rising (geological)
	English definition: The slow vertical instability of the earth crust involving up-and-down movements as in the volcanic district west of Naples, Italy. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: public opinion polling
	English definition: The canvassing of a representative sample of a large group of people on some question in order to determine the general opinion of a group. (Source: CED)

	English: opinion survey
	English definition: The canvassing of a representative sample of a large group of people on some question in order to determine the general opinion of a group. (Source: CED)

	English: trend of opinion
	English definition: The general movement, drift or direction of change in a viewpoint collectively and purportedly held by a significant number of people. (Source: RHW)

	English: training
	English definition: The process of bringing a person or a group of persons to an agreed standard of proficiency, by practice and instruction. (Source: CED)

	English: training centre
	English definition: Place where people are prepared for a specific purpose. (Source: CEDa)

	English: level of education
	English definition: A position along a scale of increasingly advanced training marking the degree or grade of instruction either obtained by an individual, offered by a some entity or necessary for a particular job or task. (Source: RHW)

	English: solubility
	English definition: The ability of a substance to form a solution with another substance. (Source: MGH)

	English: solvent
	English definition: Substance, generally a liquid, capable of dissolving another substance. (Source: CED)

	English: dissolution
	English definition: Dissolving of a material. (Source: MGH)

	English: incorporation

opname van verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant absorption
	English definition: The process by which a pollutant is physically incorporated into another substance or body. (Source: FFD)

	English: surface treatment
	English definition: Any method of treating a material (metal, polymer, or wood) so as to alter the surface, rendering it receptive to inks, paints, lacquers, adhesives, and various other treatments, or resistant to weather or chemical attack. (Source: MGH)

	English: surface water
	English definition: All waters on the surface of the Earth found in streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, marshes or wetlands, and as ice and snow. (Source: LANDY /  BJGEO)

	English: surface water management
	English definition: The administration or handling of water naturally open to the atmosphere (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, streams, seas, etc.). (Source: RHW / TOE)

opruimingsoperatie bij rampen
	English: disaster cleanup operation
	English definition: A course or procedure of activity designed to clear the debris or remove harmful substances left by an ecological calamity, natural or human in origin, in a given area. (Source: ISEP /  TOE)

opruimingsschip; olieopruimingsschip
	English: recovery vessel; oil recovery vessel
	English definition: Boats used for recovering oil spilled at sea from oil tankers. The recommended procedure is to contain and physically recover the spill with or without the use of adsorbents. This approach entails three processes: a) confinement of the spill by spill booms; b) recovery of the spill by sorbing agents; c) physical removal of the contained oil by oil pick-up devices. (Source: JBFENV /  PZ)

	English: storage (process)
	English definition: A series of actions undertaken to deposit or hold goods, materials or waste in some physical location, as in a facility, container, tank or dumping site. (Source: RHW)

opslag van warmte
	English: heat storage
	English definition: Keeping heat created during a period of low consumption until a peak period when it is needed. (Source: PHC)

	English: detection
	English definition: The act or process of discovering evidence or proof of governmental, legal or ethical violations. (Source: RHW)

opsporingstechniek voor radioactieve straling
	English: radioactive tracer technique

opstapeling van verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant accumulation
	English definition: The process by which concentrations of pollutants progressively increase in the tissues of living organisms in environments where these pollutants are present. (Source: FFD)

optimalisering van installaties
	English: installation optimisation
	English definition: Adjustments made to a building or to a mechanical or electrical system or apparatus in order to maximize its functionality and efficiency. (Source: OED)

	English: upbringing

	English: order
	English definition: 1) A direction or command of a court. In this sense it is often used synonymously with judgment. 2) The document bearing the seal of the court recording its judgment in a case. (Source: DICLAW)

orde van de Chiroptera [vliegende zoogdieren]
	English: chiropteran
	English definition: Order of placental mammals comprising the bats having the front limbs modified as wings. (Source: CED)

	English: organ
	English definition: A fully differentiated structural and functional unit, such as a kidney or a root, in an animal or plant. (Source: CED)

	English: organisation (law)
	English definition: Term used in commercial law, including a corporation, government or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership or association, two or more persons having a joint or common interest, or any other legal or commercial entity. (Source: BLACK)

organisatie van het onderwijs
	English: organisation of teaching
	English definition: A group or association of persons united to address the concerns, methods and professional status of instructors or educators. (Source: RHW)

organisatie van het rechtsstelsel
	English: organisation of the legal system
	English definition: The specific manner, form and institutions by which a government's ability to make, enforce and interpret laws are brought together into a coordinated whole. (Source: RHW)

organisatie voor natuurbehoud
	English: nature conservation organisation

organisch afval
	English: organic waste
	English definition: Waste containing carbon compounds; derived from animal and plant materials. (Source: PUE)

organisch gebonden koolstof
	English: organic carbon
	English definition: Carbon which comes from an animal or plant.  (Source: PHC)

organisch gebonden stikstof
	English: organic nitrogen
	English definition: Essential nutrient of the food supply of plants and the diets of animals. Animals obtain it in nitrogen-containing compounds, particularly aminoacids. Although the atmosphere is nearly 80% gaseous nitrogen, very few organisms have the ability to use it in this form. The higher plants normally obtain it from the soil after microorganisms have converted the nitrogen into ammonia or nitrates, which they can then absorb. This conversion of nitrogen, known as nitrogen fixation, is essential for the formation of amino acids which, in turn, are the building blocks of proteins. (Source: WRIGHT)

organisch oplosmiddel
	English: organic solvent
	English definition: Organic materials, including diluents and thinners, which are liquids at standard conditions and which are used as dissolvers, viscosity reducers, or cleaning agents. (Source: LEE)

organische chloorverbinding
	English: organochlorine compound
	English definition: Organic compounds containing a C-Cl bond. (Source: RRDA)

organische fosforverbinding
	English: organophosphorous compound
	English definition: Pesticides that contain phosphorous; short-lived, but some can be toxic when first applied. (Source: EPAGLO)

organische halogeenverbinding
	English: organohalogen compound
	English definition: Organic compounds containing a C-halogen bond. (Source: RRDA)

organische metaalverbinding
	English: organometallic compound
	English definition: Molecules containing carbon-metal linkage; a compound containing an alkyl or aryl radical bonded to a metal. (Source: MGH)

organische scheikunde
	English: organic chemistry
	English definition: A branch of chemistry dealing with the study of composition, reaction, properties, etc. of organic compounds. (Source: LEE)

organische silicoonverbinding
	English: organosilicon compound
	English definition: Any natural substance composed of two or more unlike atoms held together by chemical bonds and containing silicon, a non-metallic element often found in rocks or minerals. (Source: RHW)

organische stikstofverbinding
	English: organonitrogen compound
	English definition: Organic compounds having a C-N bond. (Source: RRDA)

organische stof
	English: organic matter
	English definition: Plant and animal residue that decomposes and becomes a part of the soil. (Source: KOREN)

organische stoffen
	English: organic substance
	English definition: Chemical compounds, based on carbon chains or rings and also containing hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, or other elements. (Source: MGH)

organische tinverbinding
	English: organotin compound
	English definition: Chemical compounds used in anti-foulant paints to protect the hulls of boats and ships, buoys and pilings from marine organisms such as barnacles. (Source: EPAGLO)

organische vervuilende stof
	English: organic pollutant
	English definition: A plant- or animal-produced pollutant containing mainly carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. (Source: ERG)

organische vervuiling
	English: organic pollution
	English definition: Pollution caused by animal or plant material derived from living and dead organisms that may contain pathogenic bacteria and negatively influences the environment. (Source: GILP96a)

organische zuurstofverbinding
	English: organooxygen compound
	English definition: Compounds, both aliphatic and aromatic, which have a C-O bond, including alcohols, aldehydes, etc. (Source: RRDA)

organische zwavelverbinding
	English: organosulphur compound
	English definition: One of a group of substances which contain both carbon and sulfur. (Source: MGH)

organisme in water
	English: aquatic organism
	English definition: Organisms which live in water. (Source: PHC)

organisme waarvoor bestrijdingsmiddelen niet bedoeld zijn
	English: non-target organism
	English definition: A plant or animal other than the one against which the pesticide is applied. (Source: JJK)

organismen (taxonomie)
	English: organism
	English definition: An individual constituted to carry out all life functions. (Source: MGH)

organismen vrijlaten
	English: release of organisms
	English definition: The release of organisms in the environment creates the risk that once released they may exhibit some previously unknown pathogenicity, might take over from some naturally occurring bacteria or pass on some unwanted trait to such indigenous bacteria. (Source: WPR)

organoleptische eigenschappen
	English: organoleptic property
	English definition: Properties that can be perceived by sense organs. (Source: RRDA)

	English: hurricane
	English definition: A tropical cyclone of great intensity; any wind reaching a speed of more than 73 miles per hour (117 kilometers per hour) is said to have hurricane force. (Source: MGH)

	English: osmosis
	English definition: The passage of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions of different concentrations. A semipermeable membrane is one through which the molecules of a solvent can pass but the molecules of most solutes cannot. There is a thermodynamic tendency for solutions separated by such a membrane to become equal in concentration, the water (or other solvent) flowing from the weaker to the stronger solution. Osmosis will stop when the two solutions reach equal concentration, and can also be stopped by applying a pressure to the liquid on the stronger-solution side of the membrane. The pressure required to stop the flow from a pure solvent into a solution is a characteristic of the solution, and is called the osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure depends only on the concentration of particles in the solution, not on their nature. (Source: DICCHE)

oud papier
	English: waste paper
	English definition: Newspapers, magazines, cartons and other paper separated from solid waste for the purpose of recycling.

oud stort voor gevaarlijk afval
	English: old hazardous site
	English definition: Abandoned or disused dumps and refuse tips, stockpiles and landfill sites, disused petrol service stations, closed-down coking plants and former industrial and commercial premises, etc., from which considerable risks not only to the soil and to the groundwater, but also to humans and nature, can arise. (Source: AZENP)

oude afzetting
	English: old landfill site
	English definition: Landfill that has been filled and covered with topsoil and seeded. The most common end use for landfills is open spaces with no active recreation taking place over the completed landfill. The obvious reason for this use is that the completed surface is steeply sloped to provide rapid runoff. Also, no irrigation of the cover grasses should be allowed. It is very unlikely to think that commercial or industrial buildings will be constructed on a completed landfill. If the end use is such that the public will be walking on the site, it is important that all manholes be properly secured, leachate lagoons fenced, and other potential hazards eliminated. (Source: CORBITa)

oude banden
	English: scrap tyre
	English definition: Recyclable material from discarded motor vehicle tyres. (Source: APD)

oude installatie
	English: antiquated plant
	English definition: Old installation that do not respond to new rules for the prevention of environmental pollution and whose redevelopment requires investments for adopting technologies related to the protection of waterways, waste management, noise reduction and emission control. (Source: RRDA)

	English: ancient times

	English: furnace
	English definition: A structure or apparatus in which heat is produced by the combustion of fuel, often to warm houses, melt metals, produce steam and bake pottery. (Source: RHW)

	English: overburden
	English definition: The material such as soil and rock lying above a mineral deposit that must be removed in order to work the deposit. (Source: GILP96)

	English: overfishing
	English definition: Taking out of the sea more than natural population growth can sustain. Overfishing has a number of causes, the most ruthless being 'chronic over capacity' of modern fishing fleets to effectively take far more fish than can be replaced. (Source: WPR)

	English: overcrowding
	English definition: An excess of people gathered together in a confined space. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: overpopulation
	English definition: A population density that exceeds the capacity of the environment to supply the health requirements of the individual organism. (Source: LANDY)

	English: overgrazing
	English definition: Intensive grazing by animals, for example cattle, sheep or goats, on an area of pasture. It has become a serious threat to the world's rangelands and grasslands. Several factors have led to overgrazing, which leads to the soil being degraded and becoming liable to erosion by wind and rain, and even to desertification. The main pressures leading to widespread overgrazing have been the need to increase the size and numbers of herds to produce more food for an increasing human population, and the transformation of traditional pasture land into plantations to grow cash crops. Throughout the dry tropics, where traditionally herds ranged over vast areas, intensive livestock-rearing schemes have taken over, mostly to provide meat for the export market. Well-digging operations have also led to heavy concentrations of animals in small areas. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: transport (physics)
	English definition: Transfer of mass, momentum, or energy in a system as a result of molecular agitation, including such properties as thermal conduction and viscosity. (Source: PITT)

	English: contract
	English definition: An agreement between two or more persons which creates an obligation to do or not to do a particular thing. Its essential are competent parties, subject matter, a legal consideration, mutuality of agreement, and mutuality of obligation. (Source: WESTS)

	English: convention
	English definition: International agreement on a specific topic. (Source: RRDA)

overeenkomst (administratieve)
	English: agreement (administrative)
	English definition: A coming together of minds; a coming together in opinion or determination; the coming together in accord of two minds on a given proposition. In law, a concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties, of certain past or future facts or performances. The consent of two or more persons concerning respecting the transmission of some property, right, or benefits, with the view of contracting an obligation, a mutual obligation. The union of two or more minds in a thing done or to be done; a mutual assent to do a thing. (Source: WESTS)

overeenkomst (contract)
	English: agreement (contract)
	English definition: An agreement, convention, or promise of two or more parties, by deed in writing, signed, and delivered, by which either of the parties pledges himself to the other that something is either done, or shall be done, or shall not be done, or stipulates for the truth of certain facts. (Source: WESTS)

overeenkomst (wettige/wettelijke)
	English: agreement (legal)
	English definition: The coming together in accord of two minds on a given proposition. In law, a concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties, of certain past or future facts or performances. The consent of two or more persons concerning respecting the transmission of some property, right, or benefits, with the view of contracting an obligation, a mutual obligation. (Source: WESTS)

	English: overexploitation
	English definition: The use of raw materials excessively without considering the long-term ecological impacts of such use. (Source: WPR)

	English: transition element
	English definition: One of a group of metallic elements in which the members have the filling of the outermost shell to 8 electrons interrupted to bring the penultimate shell from 8 to 18 or 32 electrons; includes elements 21 through 29 (scandium through copper), 39 through 47 (yttrium through silver), 57 through 79 (lanthanum through gold), and all known elements from 89 (actinium) on. (Source: MGH)

	English: transitional arrangement
	English definition: Rules, guidelines or an agreement on the process of changing the administration, structure or constitution of a government or organization. (Source: RHW)

overgebleven hoeveelheid water
	English: residual amount of water
	English definition: Amount of water left in a water course after it has fed a hydropower plant in order to maintain a satisfactory dry-weather-flow for allowing the survival of biotic communities. (Source: RRDA)

	English: administration

overheid, beheer,beleid,politiek,instellingen,plan
	English: administration, management, policy, politics, institutions, planning

	English: government liability
	English definition: A public body's debt or other legal obligation arising out of transactions in the past which must be liquidated, renewed or refunded at some future date. (Source: EFP)

	English: government advisory body

	English: government policy
	English definition: Any course of action adopted and pursued by a ruling political authority or system, which determines the affairs for a nation, state or region. (Source: RHW)

	English: government contracting

	English: public finance
	English definition: The theory and practice of governmental money matters, including taxation, spending, transfer and property incomes, borrowing, debt and revenue management. (Source: ODE)

	English: public financing
	English definition: The act of obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a program, purchase or enterprise from the general population of a community or state, usually through government allocation of tax revenues. (Source: RHW)

	English: government building
	English definition: Building for the offices of the main departments of government. (Source: HARRIS)

	English: ministry building
	English definition: Any structure or edifice occupied by a body of top government administrators or other high ranking public officials selected or appointed by a head of state to manage certain aspects of a state's affairs. (Source: BLD)

	English: public procurement
	English definition: The governmental process of purchasing supplies, equipment and services, or purchasing contracts to secure the provision of supplies, equipment and services, which are often sold by the private sector. (Source: OED / RHW)

	English: public contract
	English definition: Any contract in which there are public funds provided though private persons may perform the contract and the subject of the contract may ultimately benefit private persons.

	English: public debt
	English definition: The total amount of all government securities outstanding. This is also frequently termed government debt. (Source: AMOS2)

	English: public aid
	English definition: Government aid in the form of monies or food stamps to the poor, disabled, aged or to dependent children. (Source: RHW)

	English: public expenditure
	English definition: Spending by national or local government, government-owned firms or quasi-autonomous non-government organizations. (Source: ODE)

	English: consultation
	English definition: Any meeting or inquiry of concerned persons or advisors for the purpose of deliberation, discussion or decision on some matter or action. (Source: BLD)

overleg over kernenergie
	English: nuclear debate
	English definition: The ongoing, public discussion and dispute over the uses of energy. (Source: ISEP /  MHD)

	English: survival
	English definition: The act or fact of surviving or condition of having survived. (Source: CED)

	English: overflow (outlet)
	English definition: Any device or structure that conducts excess water or sewage from a conduit or container. (Source: MGH)

overmatige hoogte van schoorstenen
	English: excessive height of chimney stacks

overmatige planktongroei (zee)
	English: green tide
	English definition: A proliferation of a marine green plankton toxic and often fatal to fish, perhaps stimulated by the addition of nutrients. (Source: RRDA)

	English: surplus
	English definition: The extent to which assets exceed liabilities, especially the profits remaining after operating expenses, taxes, interest and insurance costs are subtracted. (Source: IVW)

	English: crossing place
	English definition: A place, often shown by markings, lights, or poles, where a street, railway, etc. may be crossed. (Source: CED)

	English: overflow (process)

	English: flood
	English definition: An unusual accumulation of water above the ground caused by high tide, heavy rain, melting snow or rapid runoff from paved areas. (Source: ALL)

	English: flooding
	English definition: A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from the overflow of inland and/or tidal waters, and/or the unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source. A great flow along a watercourse or a flow causing inundation of lands not normally covered by water. (Source: LANDY)

	English: flood control
	English definition: Measures taken to prevent or reduce harm caused by an unusual accumulation of water above the ground, often involving the construction of reservoirs and channeling structures. (Source: ALL /  WWC)

	English: flood forecast
	English definition: The hydrological processes generating river floods have been studied extensively and several modelling concepts have been proposed. The standard procedure for flood forecasting consists of calibrating the parameters of the model of a particular river basin on a representative set of historical hydrometric data and subsequently applying this calibrated model in a real-time environment. (Source: YOUNG)

	English: infraction
	English definition: A breach, violation, or infringement; as of a law, a contract, a right or duty. (Source: BLACK)

overwintering; laten overwinteren; overwinteren
	English: overwintering
	English definition: To spend winter in a particular place. (Source: CED)

	English: oxidation
	English definition: A chemical reaction that increases the oxygen content of a compound. (Source: MGH)

	English: oxidation-reduction
	English definition: An oxidizing chemical change, where an element's positive valence is increased (electron loss), accompanied by a simultaneous reduction of an associated element (electron gain). (Source: MGH)

	English: oxide
	English definition: Binary chemical compound in which oxygen is combined with a metal or nonmetal. (Source: MGH)

	English: bacterial bed
	English definition: A device that removes some suspended solids from sewage. Air and bacteria decompose additional wastes filtering through the sand so that cleaner water drains from the bed. (Source: LEE)

oxydeerbare stof
	English: oxidisable material
	English definition: Substance that can undergo a chemical reaction with oxygen. (Source: CEDa)

oxyderende stof
	English: oxidising agent
	English definition: Compound that gives up oxygen easily, removes hydrogen from another compound, or attracts negative electrons. (Source: MGH)

	English: ozone
	English definition: An allotropic form of oxygen containing three atoms in the molecule. It is a bluish gas, very active chemically, and a powerful oxidizing agent. Ozone is formed when oxygen or air is subjected to a silent electric discharge. It occurs in ordinary air in very small amounts only. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: ozonisation
	English definition: The process of treating, impregnating or combining with ozone. (Source: MGH)

	English: ozone layer
	English definition: The general stratum of the upper atmosphere in which there is an appreciable ozone concentration and in which ozone plays an important part in the radiative balance of the atmosphere. (Source: MGH)

	English: spawning ground
	English definition: Area of water where fish come each year to produce their eggs. (Source: PHC)

	English: horse
	English definition: A large animal with four legs which people ride on or use for carrying things or pulling vehicles. (Source: CAMB)

	English: equine
	English definition: Animals belonging to the family of Equidae. (Source: ZINZAN)

pad gevolgd door verontreinigende stoffen
	English: pollutant pathway
	English definition: The retraceable route of a pollutant, from its source, through its interactions with the environment, and finally to its effect upon a target ecosystem or target organisms. (Source: ISEP)

	English: toad
	English definition: Any anuran amphibian of the class Bufonidae, such as Bufo bufo of Europe. They are similar to frogs but are more terrestrial, having a drier warty skin. (Source: CED)

	English: fungus
	English definition: Nucleated usually filamentous, sporebearing organisms devoid of chlorophyll. (Source: MGH)

	English: mushroom
	English definition: A family of Basidiomycetes that are characterized by the production of spores on gills. (Source: ALL)

	English: ice pack
	English definition: Large areas of floating ice, usually occurring in polar seas, consisting of separate pieces that have become massed together. (Source: CED)

	English: palaeoecology
	English definition: The application of ecological concepts to fossil and sedimentary evidence to study the interactions of Earth surface, atmosphere, and biosphere in former times. (Source: ALL)

	English: palaeoclimatology
	English definition: The study of paleoclimates throughout geologic time, and of the causes of their variations, on either a local or a worldwide basis. It involves the interpretation of glacial deposits, fossils and sedimentologic and other types of data. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: palaeontology
	English definition: The study of life in past geologic time, based on fossil plants and animals and including phylogeny, their relationship to existing plants, animals, and environments, and the chronology of the Earth's history. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: paper
	English definition: Felted or matted sheets of cellulose fibers, formed on a fine-wire screen from a dilute water suspension, and bonded together as the water is removed and the sheet is dried. (Source: MGH)

	English: paper industry
	English definition: Industrial production of paper: pulp is produced by mechanically or chemically processing wood or other vegetative materials to extract usable cellulosic fibers as an aqueous slurry. The pulp slurry may be used directly in paper making or it may be shipped elsewhere for processing into paper products. The fundamental industrial operations are divided into two major categories: pulp mill and paper mill. The pulp mill operation includes wood preparation, pulping, deinking, pulp washing, screening and thickening, and bleaching. The paper mill operations include stock preparation, paper machine operation and finishing. (Source: PZ)

	English: parameter
	English definition: 1) A quantity in an equation which must be specified beside the independent variables to obtain the solution for the dependent variables. 2) A quantity which is constant under a given set of conditions, but may be different under other conditions. (Source: LEE /  MGH)

	English: parasite
	English definition: Organism which lives and obtains food at the expense of another organism, the host. (Source: ALL)

	English: parasitology
	English definition: A branch of biology which deals with those organisms, plant or animal, which have become dependent on other living creatures. (Source: MGH)

parkeerplaats; autoparkeerplaats
	English: car park
	English definition: Area of ground or a building where there is space for vehicles to be parked. (Source: CAMB)

	English: parking provision
	English definition: Area where a vehicle can be left for a period of time.  (Source: CAMBa)

	English: Parliament
	English definition: An assembly of elected representatives, typically controlled by a political party and constituting the legislative and, in some cases, the executive power of a state. (Source: CIV / APS)

parlementair debat
	English: parliamentary debate
	English definition: Formal discussion or dispute on a particular matter among the members of the parliament. (Source: ZINZANa)

parlementair verslag
	English: parliamentary report
	English definition: A written account describing in detail observations or the results of an inquiry into an event or situation and presented to an official, deliberative body with legislative powers. (Source: RHW)

	English: member of Parliament

pasta-achtig afval
	English: paste-like waste
	English definition: Waste deriving from various activities having a pasty consistency. (Source: RRDA)

	English: pathogen
	English definition: Any disease-producing agent or microorganism.

pathogeen organisme
	English: pathogenic organism
	English definition: Agents producing or capable of producing disease. (Source: MGH)

	English: pathology
	English definition: The branch of medicine concerned with the causes, origin, and nature of disease, including the changes occurring as a result of disease. (Source: CED)

pathologisch effect
	English: pathologic effect

patrimoniaal beheer
	English: patrimonial management
	English definition: A type of leadership and management style attempting to gain the loyalty and support of subordinates by excessively providing for their needs and interests.

	English: pattern recognition
	English definition: A remote sensing term referring to an automated process through which unidentified patterns can be classified into a limited number of discrete classes through comparison with other class-defining patterns or characteristics. Pattern recognition is an essential part of the classification of remotely sensed images and is used as an aid to image interpretation. (Source: WHIT)

	English: pedagogy
	English definition: The principles, practice, or profession of teaching. (Source: CED)

	English: pedosphere
	English definition: That shell or layer of the Earth in which soil-forming processes occur. (Source: BJGEO)

peil plantegroei
	English: vegetation level
	English definition: A subdivision of vegetation characteristic of a certain altitude above sea level at a given latitude. (Source: ECHO2)

	English: fur animal
	English definition: Animals bred and slaughtered for their fur. (Source: WPR)

	English: commuting

pendelen buiten de spits
	English: off-peak commuting
	English definition: Traveling back and forth regularly over some distance, outside of the hours of maximum traffic frequency. (Source: RHW)

penitentiair recht
	English: law relating to prisons
	English definition: Binding rules and regulations pertaining to the construction, use and operation of jails, penitentiaries and other places of legal confinement and punishment. (Source: BLD)

	English: pentachlorophenol
	English definition: One of the universally toxic phenolic compounds, is a general purpose agent that is used as a fungicide, herbicide and molluscicide, particularly in Egypt where it is used to control snails that carry the larval human blood flukes that cause schistosomiasis. It is also used in wood preservatives and is very poisonous. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: perchloroethylene
	English definition: Stable, colorless liquid, nonflammable and nonexplosive, with low toxicity; used as a dry-cleaning and industrial solvent, in pharmaceuticals and medicines, and for metal cleaning. (Source: MGH)

	English: percolating water
	English definition: Subsurface water that passes, under the force of gravity, through rocks or soil along the line of least resistance. (Source: WWC)

periode van hoogconjunctuur in de olie-industrie
	English: oil boom
	English definition: A floating device used to contain oil on a body of water. Once the boom has been inflated, it is towed downwind of the oil slick and formed into a U-shape; under the influence of wind, the oil becomes trapped within the boom. Skimming equipment travels into the boom enclosure and the oil is pumped into containers. (Source: EPAGLO /  GILP)

	English: periphyton
	English definition: A plant or animal organism which is attached or clings to surfaces of leaves or stems of rooted plants above the bottom stratum. (Source: MGH)

permanente ijslaag
	English: permafrost ecosystem
	English definition: The interacting system of the biological communities and their nonliving environmental surroundings in a climatic region where the subsoil is perennially frozen. (Source: TOE / DOE)

	English: peroxyacetylnitrate
	English definition: A pollutant created by the action of sunlight on hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in the air. An ingredient of smog. (Source: LANDY)

	English: press
	English definition: Printed matter as a whole, especially newspapers and periodicals.

	English: pressing
	English definition: The application of a pressure to squeeze out the juice or contents of a fruit, seed, etc. (Source: WEBSTE)

	English: press release
	English definition: An official statement or announcement distributed to members of the media by a public relations firm, government agency or some other organization, often to supplement or replace an oral presentation. (Source: WOR)

	English: personnel

	English: passenger transport
	English definition: The conveyance of people over land, water or through air by automobile, bus, train, airplane or some other means of travel. (Source: RHW)

	English: private transport
	English definition: Transport performed with private means. (Source: ECHO2)

	English: private car
	English definition: Transportation mean belonging to an individual person. (Source: RRDA)

persoonlijke verantwoordelijkheid
	English: personal responsibility

	English: pest
	English definition: Any organism that damages crops, injures or irritates livestock or man, or reduces the fertility of land. (Source: CED)

	English: petrochemical
	English definition: Chemicals manufactured from the products of oil refineries, based largely on ethylene, propylene and butylene produced in the cracking of petrol fractions. (Source: GILP96)

petrochemische industrie
	English: petrochemical industry
	English definition: The production of materials derived from petroleum or natural gas. (Source: MGH)

	English: pipe
	English definition: A tube made of metal, clay, plastic, wood, or concrete and used to conduct a fluid, gas, or finely divided solid. (Source: MGH)

	English: pest infestation
	English definition: 1) The occurrence of one or more pest species in an area or location where their numbers and impact are currently or potentially at intolerable levels. 2) A sudden increase in destructiveness or population numbers of a pest species in a given area. (Source: DUNSTE)

plaats waar milieuverontreiniging in de bodem doordringt
	English: pollution sink
	English definition: Vehicle for removal of a chemical or gas from the atmosphere-biosphere-ocean system, in which the substance is absorbed into a permanent or semi-permanent repository, or else transformed into another substance. A carbon sink, for example, might be the ocean (which absorbs and holds carbon from other parts of carbon cycle) or photosynthesis (which converts atmospheric carbon into plant material). Sinks are a fundamental factor in the ongoing balance which determines the concentration of every greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. If the sink is greater than the sources of a gas, its concentration in the atmosphere will decrease; if the source is greater than the sink, the concentration will increase. (Source: GLOCHA)

	English: site protection
	English definition: Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm to the environmental integrity of a physical area or location. (Source: RHW)

plaatselijk openbaar vervoer
	English: local passenger service
	English definition: Passenger transport system for a limited local area. (Source: RRDA)

plaatselijk verkeer
	English: local traffic
	English definition: Traffic moving within a city, town, or area and subject to frequent stops, as distinguished from long distance traffic.

plaatselijke bosaanplanting
	English: local afforestation
	English definition: The planting of trees in an area, or the management of an area to allow trees to regenerate or colonize naturally, in order to produce a forest. (Source: ALL)

plaatselijke bouwmaterialen
	English: local building material

plaatselijke financien
	English: local finance
	English definition: The theory and practice of all public money matters pertaining to city, town or small district governments. (Source: ODE / RHW)

plaatselijke ontwikkeling
	English: local development
	English definition: A stage of growth or advancement in any aspect of a community that is defined by or restricted to a particular and usually small district or area. (Source: RHW / ISEP)

plaatselijke overheid
	English: local government
	English definition: An administrative body or system in which political direction and control is exercised over the community of a city, town or small district. (Source: RHW)

plaatselijke vrijetijdsbesteding
	English: local recreation
	English definition: A pastime, diversion, exercise or other means of enjoyment and relaxation that is carried out in a particular city, town or small district. (Source: RHW)

plaatselijke warmtevoorziening
	English: local heat supply
	English definition: The provision of heating fuel, coal or other heating source materials, or the amount of heating capacity, for the use of a specific local community. (Source: ISEP)

	English: site rehabilitation
	English definition: The restoration of the ecological quality of an area or location. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

	English: site selection
	English definition: The process of choosing or picking a location or area for some designated purpose. (Source: RHW)

	English: plan
	English definition: A scheme of action, a method of proceeding thought out in advance. (Source: GOOD)

plan met betrekking tot blootstelling aan lawaai
	English: noise exposure plan
	English definition: A formulated or systematic method to prevent the effects of being subjected to loud or harsh sounds. (Source: OED)

	English: plankton
	English definition: Small organisms (animals, plants, or microbes) passively floating in water. (Source: LANDY)

	English: planning
	English definition: The act of making a detailed scheme for attaining an objective. (Source: CED)

planning van de kustzone
	English: coastal zone planning
	English definition: The objective of coastal management and planning is the preservation of coastal resources whilst simultaneously satisfying the sometimes conflicting interests and requirements of protection, development, usage and conservation. (Source: TELFO)

plannings- en begrotings systeem
	English: Planning-Programming-Budgeting System
	English definition: A system to achieve long-term goals or objectives by means of analysis and evaluation of the alternatives. PPB is designed to solve problems by finding the most effective and most efficient solution on the basis of objective criteria. (Source: GREENW)

planologische maatregel
	English: planning measure
	English definition: A procedure or course of action taken to design, organize or prepare for the future. (Source: RHW)

plantaardig afval
	English: vegetable waste
	English definition: Waste, comprised mainly of vegetable matter, which is capable of being decomposed by microorganisms. (Source: BHE)

plantaardige hulpbronnen
	English: plant resource

plantaardige olie
	English: vegetable oil
	English definition: An edible, mixed glyceride oil derived from plants (fruit, leaves, and seeds), including cottonseed, linseed, tung, and peanut; used in food oils, shortenings, soaps, and medicine, and as a paint drying oil. (Source: MGH)

plantaardige textielvezels
	English: plant textile fibre
	English definition: Natural textile fibres of vegetal origin. (Source: RRDA)

	English: vegetation
	English definition: 1) The plants of an area considered in general or as communities, but not taxonomically; the total plant cover in a particular area or on the Earth as a whole. 2) The total mass of plant life that occupies a given area. (Source: ALL /  MGH)

	English: planting
	English definition: The establishment of trees by planting seedlings, transplants, or cuttings. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: plant (biology)
	English definition: Any living organism that typically synthesizes its food from inorganic substances, possesses cellulose cell walls, responds slowly and often permanently to a stimulus, lacks specialized sense organs and nervous system, and has no powers of locomotion. (Source: CED)

	English: plant component
	English definition: The constituent parts of a plant. (Source: CEDa)

	English: vegetation cover
	English definition: Number of plants growing on a certain area of land. (Source: PHC)

	English: plant ecology
	English definition: Study of the relationships between plants and their environment. (Source: LBC)

	English: flora (document)
	English definition: A work systematically describing the flora of a particular region, listed by species and considered as a whole. (Source: RHW)

	English: herbivore
	English definition: An animal that feeds on grass and other plants. (Source: CED)

	English: plant physiology
	English definition: The study of the function and chemical reactions within the various organs of plants. (Source: UVAROV)

	English: plant community
	English definition: Any group of plants belonging to a number of different species that co-occur in the same habitat or area and interact through trophic and spatial relationships; typically characterized by reference to one or more dominant species. (Source: ALL2)

	English: plant genetics
	English definition: The scientific study of the hereditary material of plants for purposes such as hybridization, improved food resources and increased production. (Source: EEN)

	English: plant biology
	English definition: The scientific study of the natural processes of plants. (Source: CAMBa)

	English: plant life

	English: plant production

	English: plant selection
	English definition: The selection by man of particular genotypes in a plant population because they exhibit desired phenotypic characters. (Source: LBC)

	English: phytosociology
	English definition: The study of vegetation, including the organization, interdependence, development, geographical distribution and classification of plant communities. (Source: LBC)

	English: plant species
	English definition: Species belonging to the plant kingdom. (Source: RRDA)

	English: plant population
	English definition: The number of plants in an area. (Source: PHC)

	English: nursery garden

	English: plant breeding
	English definition: Raising a certain type of plant by crossing one variety with another to produce a new variety where the desired characteristics are strongest. (Source: PHC)

	English: phytopathology
	English definition: The study of plant diseases and their control. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: plant disease

	English: botany
	English definition: A branch of the biological sciences which embraces the study of plants and plant life. (Source: MGH)

plasma technologie
	English: plasma technology
	English definition: 1) Common name for a number of industrial applications of plasma, such as: etching of semiconductor chips, deposition of silicon for solar cell production, deposition of silicon dioxide for passivation of surfaces, activation of surfaces, melting and welding with plasma arcs as well as plasma chemistry. 2) Plasma technology consists of minute gas-filled cells, which emit light when an electric current is channelled through them. (Source: IEAP /  Z2Z)

	English: plastic
	English definition: A polymeric material (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow; usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material); examples are polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, and urea-formaldehyde. (Source: MGH)

	English: plastic waste
	English definition: Any discarded plastic (organic, or synthetic, material derived from polymers, resins or cellulose) generated by any industrial process, or by consumers. (Source: APD)

	English: platinum
	English definition: A ductile malleable silvery-white metallic element very resistant to heat and chemicals. It occurs free and in association with other platinum metals, especially in osmiridium; used in jewellery, laboratory apparatus, electrical contacts, dentistry, electroplating, and as a catalyst. (Source: CED)

	English: rural area
	English definition: Area outside the limits of any incorporated or unincorporated city, town, village, or any other designated residential or commercial area such as a subdivision, a business or shopping center, or community development. (Source: LEE)

	English: rural architecture

plattelandsbeheer en planning
	English: rural management and planning
	English definition: The activity or process of overseeing and preparing for the future physical arrangement and condition of any agricultural or pastoral area, which may involve protecting and developing natural and human resources that affect an area's economic vitality. (Source: RHW / NPH)

	English: rural population
	English definition: The total number of persons inhabiting an agricultural or pastoral region. (Source: RHW)

	English: rural environment
	English definition: Environment pertaining to the countryside. (Source: GOOD)

	English: rural development
	English definition: Any course destined to promote economic growth, modernization, increase in agricultural production and the creation of a framework in which to fulfill primary needs, such as education, health and supply of water in the rural areas. The attainment of such objectives depends in general on the type of administrative systems proposed for the various programmes and on the national political situation as regards, for instance land tenure, agrarian reform, the disbursement of assistance and food policy. (Source: GREMES)

	English: rural law
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government pertaining to matters of importance to residents of sparsely populated regions, especially agricultural and other economic issues. (Source: RUR)

	English: rural water supply

plechtige verklaring (eed)
	English: statutory declaration
	English definition: A declaration made in a prescribed form before a justice of the peace, notary public, or other person authorized to administer an oath. (Source: DICLAW)

	English: square
	English definition: An open area in a town, sometimes including the surrounding buildings. (Source: CED)

	English: pleasure cruising
	English definition: The activity of rowing, sailing or using a boat over a particular region of water, for amusement or enjoyment. (Source: RHW)

	English: poultry
	English definition: Domesticated fowl grown for their meat and eggs. (Source: MGH)

	English: poultry farming
	English definition: One of the commonest of agricultural occupations. Many urban households and many farms maintain some chickens for both meat and eggs. (Source: LOGIE)

	English: plutonium
	English definition: A highly toxic metallic transuranic element. It occurs in trace amounts in uranium ores and is produced in a nuclear reactor by neutron bombardment of uranium-238. The most stable and important isotope, plutonium-239, readily undergoes fission and is used as a reactor fuel in nuclear power stations and in nuclear weapons. (Source: CED)

polaire ecosystemen
	English: polar ecosystem
	English definition: The interacting systems of the biological communities and their nonliving environmental surroundings located in the regions where the air temperature is perennially below 10deg Celsius, usually at and near the North and South Poles. (Source: TOE / DOE / EOC)

	English: polder
	English definition: A generally fertile tract of flat, low-lying land (as in Netherlands and Belgium) reclaimed and protected from the sea, a lake, a river, or other body of water by the use of embankments, dikes, dams, or levees. The term is usually reserved for coastal areas that are at or below sea level and that are constantly protected by an organized system of maintenance and defense. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: police
	English definition: Branch of the government which is charged with the preservation of public order, the promotion of public health and safety, and the prevention, detection, and punishment of crimes.

	English: politics
	English definition: The theory and practice of acquiring and exercising the power to govern in a society in order to arbitrate values, allocate resources and establish and enforce rules. (Source: APS)

politiek van een grondgebied
	English: territorial policy
	English definition: A course of action adopted and pursued by government, business or some other organization, which determines the present and future use of each parcel of land in an area. (Source: DOE)

politieke doctrine
	English: political doctrine
	English definition: A policy, position or principle advocated, taught or put into effect concerning the acquisition and exercise of the power to govern or administrate in society. (Source: RHW)

politieke ecologie
	English: political ecology

politieke geografie
	English: political geography
	English definition: The study of the effects of political actions on human geography, involving the spatial analysis of political phenomena. (Source: GOOD)

politieke ideologie
	English: political ideology
	English definition: A belief system that explains and justifies a preferred economic and governmental order for society, offers strategies for its maintenance or attainment and helps give meaning to public events, personalities and policies. (Source: APS)

politieke macht
	English: political power
	English definition: The might, ability or authority of governments, citizens groups and other interested parties in enacting change or in influencing or controlling the outcome of governmental or public policies affecting a nation, region or municipality. (Source: BLD)

politieke organisatie
	English: political organisation
	English definition: A group of persons organized to seek or exercise power in governmental or public affairs, by supporting candidates for office or by lobbying for action and mobilizing support for bills or governmental policies. (Source: CIV / BLD)

politieke partij
	English: political party
	English definition: An organized group that has as its fundamental aim the attainment of political power and public office for its designated leaders. Usually, apolitical party will advertise a common commitment by its leaders and its membership to a set of political, social, economic and/or cultural values. (Source: DUC)

politieke raadgeving
	English: political counselling

	English: police power

	English: police law
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the employment and tactics of police or other civil agents organized to maintain order, prevent and detect crimes and promote obedience to civil regulations and authority. (Source: RHW)

	English: polybrominated biphenyl
	English definition: A chemical substance the composition of which, without regard to impurities, consists of brominated biphenyl molecules. (Source: KOREN)

	English: polychlorinated biphenyl
	English definition: PCBs are a family of chemical compounds which do not exist in nature but which are man-made. Commercial mixtures are clear, pale yellow liquids, manufactured by the replacement of hydrogen atoms on the biphenyl molecule by chlorine. Because of their physical properties, PCBs are commonly found in electrical equipment which requires dielectric fluid such as power transformers and capacitors, as well as in hydraulic machinery, vacuum pumps, compressors and heat-exchanger fluids. Other uses include: lubricants, fluorescent light ballasts, paints, glues, waxes, carbonless copy paper, inks including newspapers, dust-control agents for dirt roads, solvents for spreading insecticides, cutting oils. PCBs are stable compounds and although they are no longer manufactured they are extremely persistent and remain in huge quantities in the atmosphere and in landfill sites. They are not water-soluble and float on the surface of water where they are eaten by aquatic animals and so enter the food chain. PCBs are fat-soluble, and are therefore easy to take into the system, but difficult to excrete. (Source: PZ /  PHC)

	English: polychlorinated dibenzofuran
	English definition: A family containing 135 individual, colorless compounds known as congeners with varying harmful health and environmental effects. They are produced as unwanted compounds during the manufacture of several chemicals and consumer products such as wood treatment chemicals, some metals, and paper products; also produced from the burning of municipal and industrial waste in incinerators, from exhaust of leaded gasoline, heat, or production of electricity. They are hazardous to the respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, liver, musculoskeletal system, skin and nervous system; and are toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and contact. Symptoms of exposure include frequent coughing, severe respiratory infections, chronic bronchitis, abdominal pain, muscle pain, acne rashes, skin color changes, unexpected weight loss, nonmalignant or malignant liver disease. (Source: KOREN)

	English: polychlordibenzo-p-dioxin
	English definition: PCDD are formed (along with variants including furans) when compounds containing chlorine are burnt at low temperature in improperly operated/designed domestic refuse and industrial waste incinerators where PCDDs can be found in both the flue gases and the fly ash. (Source: PORT)

	English: polychlorinated terphenyl
	English definition: Compounds consisting of three benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions and substituted with chlorine atoms. (Source: RRDA)

polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstof
	English: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
	English definition: Hydrocarbons containing two or more closed rings of atoms. (Source: CED)

polycyclische koolwaterstof
	English: polycyclic hydrocarbon
	English definition: Hydrocarbon molecule with two or more nuclei; examples are naphtalene, with two benzene rings side by side, or diphenyl, with two bond-connected benzene rings. Also known as polynuclear hydrocarbon. (Source: MGH)

	English: polyethylene terephtalate
	English definition: 1) A thermoplastic polyester resin made from ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid; melts at 265degC; used to make films or fibers.2) Type of plastic used to make artificial fibres and plastic bottles, which can be recycled. (Source: MGH /  PHC)

	English: polymer
	English definition: Substance made of giant molecules formed by the union of simple molecules (monomers). (Source: MGH)

	English: polymerisation
	English definition: 1) The bonding of two or more monomers to produce a polymer. 2) Any chemical reaction that produces such a bonding. (Source: MGH)

	English: polyvinyl chloride
	English definition: Polymer of vinyl chloride; tasteless, odourless; insoluble in most organic solvents; a member of the family of vinyl resins. (Source: MGH)

	English: pump
	English definition: A machine that draws a fluid into itself through an entrance port and forces the fluid out through an exhaust port. (Source: MGH)

	English: pumping
	English definition: The removal of gases and vapors from a vacuum system. (Source: MGH)

	English: polar region
	English definition: Area relating to the earth's poles or the area inside the Arctic or Antarctic Circles. (Source: CED)

populatie (ecologisch)
	English: population (ecological)
	English definition: A group of organisms of one species, occupying a defined area. (Source: LBC)

	English: population ecology
	English definition: The study of the interaction of a particular species or genus population with its environment. (Source: ALL2)

populatiestatistieken over in het wild levende planten en dieren
	English: wildlife population statistics
	English definition: The numerical facts or data collected through various methodologies, such as sighting surveys, which represent or estimate the size of any wildlife species for purposes such as analyzing population trends. (Source: RHW / EEN)

posidonia  (soort schaaldier)
	English: posidonia
	English definition: Plant with elongated, planar, green leaves which measure up to 1,5 m. The flowers come out in the autumn but not every year. The fruits are dark balls, which one often finds washed up on beaches after storms. The same happens with the leaves which wilt and separate from the plant at the end of summer. It grows on sandy substrates, and has a rhizome from which several plants grow. The compact form of its growths retains the sediments pulled by the currents along the sea bed. Neptunegrass forms extensive prairies, always on the continental shelf. The plant's presence, apart from constituting an excellent refuge and food reserve for many species, gives an indication of the maturity and good condition of the whole marine ecosystem. (Source: DDGI)

	English: potash
	English definition: Any of several compounds containing potassium, especially soluble compounds such as potassium oxide, potassium chloride, and various potassium sulfates, used chiefly in fertilizers. (Source: AMHER)

	English: prehistory
	English definition: Human history in the period before recorded events, known mainly through archaeological discoveries.

	English: amusement park
	English definition: An open-air entertainment area consisting of stalls, side shows etc. (Source: CED)

preventieve informatie
	English: preventive information
	English definition: Data communicated or received concerning the recommended means of averting risk of an accident, disaster or other undesirable and avoidable incident. (Source: RHW)

preventieve maatregel op het gebied van de gezondheid
	English: preventive health measure

	English: price
	English definition: The amount of money paid per unit for a good or service. (Source: ODE)

	English: prices policy
	English definition: The guiding procedure, philosophy, or course of action for decisions regarding the monetary rate or value for goods and services. (Source: RHW)

prijzenbeleid inzake grondstoffen
	English: pricing policy of resources
	English definition: The guiding procedure or philosophy for decisions regarding the monetary rate or value of a country or region's resources, including natural resources, human resources and capital, or man-made goods. (Source: RHW / ODE)

	English: bulletin board system
	English definition: An assemblage of computer hardware and software that can be linked by computer modem dialing for the purpose of sharing or exchanging messages or other files. (Source: WIC)

primair energieverbruik
	English: primary energy consumption
	English definition: Consumption of energy used in the same form as in its naturally occurring state, for example crude oil, coal, natural gas, e.g. before it is converted into electricity. (Source: BRACK)

primair onderwijs
	English: primary education
	English definition: The first five or six years of instruction in elementary schools. (Source: COE)

primaire behandeling
	English: primary treatment
	English definition: Removal of floating solids and suspended solids, both fine and coarse, from raw sewage. (Source: MGH)

primaire sector
	English: primary sector
	English definition: That part of a country's or region's economy that makes direct use of natural resources, including agriculture, forestry, fishing and the fuel, metal and mining industries. (Source: ODE)

	English: primate
	English definition: Order of mammals containing monkeys, apes, and human beings. (Source: PHC)

prioriteit op milieugebied
	English: environmental priority

privaat bos
	English: private forest

privaat domein
	English: private domain
	English definition: Generally, land and water owned by individuals or corporations as opposed to the state; in French civil law, any government property capable of being owned by non-public entities, which cannot be seized and which is restricted to the stipulated ownership and use. (Source: BLD / ADM)

	English: private law
	English definition: The branch of law dealing with such aspects of relationships between individuals that are of no direct concern to the state. (Source: DICLAW)

private sector
	English: private sector
	English definition: Segment of the economy not run by government, including households, sole traders, partnerships and companies. (Source: ODE)

	English: privatisation
	English definition: The transfer of ownership or control of  a government enterprise or other governmental property to a non-public, non-official company, organization or individual, either through sale or through the establishment of a special enterprise outside direct government control. (Source: RHW)

	English: procaryote
	English definition: Organisms (i.e. prokaryotes) whose genetic material (filaments of DNA) is not enclosed by a nuclear membrane, and that do not possess mitochondria or plastids. Bacteria and cyanophyta are the only prokaryotic organisms. (Source: ALL)

	English: procedure
	English definition: A prescribed step or manner of proceeding in any action or process. (Source: RHW)

procedure bij het verstrekken van vergunningen
	English: licencing procedure
	English definition: Procedures performed by administrative agencies in conjunction with issuance of various types of licences. (Source: BLACK)

	English: process analysis

	English: procedural law
	English definition: Law which prescribes method of enforcing rights or obtaining redress for their invasion. Laws which fix duties, establish rights and responsibilities among and for persons, natural or otherwise, are 'substantive laws' in character, while those which merely prescribe the manner in which such rights and responsibilities may be exercised and enforced in a court are 'procedural laws'. (Source: BLACK)

	English: mechanical engineering
	English definition: The branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and operation of machines. (Source: CED)

	English: process technology
	English definition: Any technical strategies, methods or tools used for the conception, design, development or implementation of any system. (Source: APD / SCP)

	English: litigation
	English definition: A judicial contest, a judicial controversy, a suit at law. (Source: BLACK)

	English: process water
	English definition: Water used in a manufacturing or treatment process or in the actual product manufactured. Examples would include water used for washing, rinsing, direct contact, cooling, solution make-up, chemical reactions, and gas scrubbing in industrial and food processing applications. In many cases, water is specifically treated to produce the quality of water needed for the process. (Source: WQA)

	English: product liability
	English definition: 1) The legal liability of manufacturers and sellers to compensate buyers, users, and even bystanders, for damages or injuries suffered because of defects in goods purchased.2) A tort which makes a manufacturer liable if his product has a defective condition that makes it unreasonably dangerous to the user or consumer. (Source: BLACK)

	English: product
	English definition: Something produced by human or mechanical effort or by a natural process. (Source: AMHER)

producten, materialen
	English: products, materials

	English: product evaluation

	English: product identification
	English definition: Attaching a notice to a product or container bearing information concerning its contents, proper use, manufacturer and any cautions or hazards of use. (Source: KOREN)

	English: production
	English definition: The use of resources to make or manufacture goods or services that have exchange value. (Source: ODE)

	English: production policy
	English definition: Measures and activities promoted by governments aiming at the structural definition of the productive apparatus. (Source: NDGIUR)

	English: restriction of production
	English definition: Any decision, action or policy which limits or constrains the making of valued goods or services. (Source: ODE)

	English: productivity
	English definition: The amount of output or yield per unit of input or expenditure achieved by a company, industry or country. (Source: ODE)

	English: productivity trend
	English definition: The general direction or tendency in the measurement of the production of goods and services having exchange value. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

	English: product advertising
	English definition: The creation and dissemination of paid announcements or public notices to draw attention to goods, services or events offered by some entity, usually for purchase. (Source: RHW)

	English: product standard
	English definition: A standard which prescribes aspects of the physical or chemical composition of products which have potential for causing environmental damage or the handling, presentation and packaging of products, particularly those which are toxic. (Source: GRAHAW)

	English: product comparison
	English definition: Comparison of products or processes to identify those having reduced environmental impacts. (Source: DIZAMBa)

	English: product information
	English definition: Factual, circumstantial and, often, comparative knowledge concerning various goods, services or events, their quality and the entities producing them. (Source: RHW)

	English: test animal
	English definition: Animals on which experiments are conducted in order to provide evidence for or against a scientific hypothesis, or to prove the efficacy of drugs or the reaction to certain products. (Source: CEDa)

	English: impactor
	English definition: Instrument which samples atmospheric suspensoids by impaction; such instruments consist of a housing which constrains the air flow past a sensitized sampling plate. (Source: MGH)

	English: pilot plant
	English definition: A small version of a planned industrial plant, built to gain experience in operating the final plant. (Source: MGH)

	English: pilot project
	English definition: A small scale experiment or set of observations undertaken to decide how and whether to launch a full-scale project. (Source: CED)

	English: thesis
	English definition: A dissertation on a particular subject, in which original research has been done, usually by a candidate for a diploma or degree, or a proposition put forward for consideration, to be discussed and proved or maintained against objections. (Source: RHW)

	English: programme

programma voor het behoud van soorten
	English: species conservation programme
	English definition: An organized group of activities and procedures, often run by a government agency or a nonprofit organization, to preserve and protect living organisms designated as being at risk. (Source: RHW / TOE)

	English: programmes

	English: programming
	English definition: Preparing a detailed sequence of operating instructions for a particular problem to be run on a digital computer. (Source: MGH)

proteinerijk voedsel
	English: high protein food

	English: protocol
	English definition: 1) The original draft of a document.2) An international agreement of a less formal nature than a treaty. It is often used to amend treaties. (Source: DICLAW)

Protocol van Geneve
	English: Geneva Protocol
	English definition: Protocol of Geneva Convention concerning the control of emissions of nitrogen oxides and the reduction of sulphur emissions or their transboundary fluxes by at least 30%. (Source: UNTERM)

Protocol van Montreal
	English: Montreal Protocol
	English definition: An international agreement reached in 1988 by over 30 countries, aimed at protecting the ozone layer by controlling the emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. Under the agreement, initiated by UNEP, CFC consumption is to be progressively reduced worldwide, being phased out completely by 1996. The consumption of halons was not to be allowed to increase above the levels of 1988. The protocol followed the Convention for the protection of the ozone layer (the Vienna convention) adopted in 1985. By the mid-1990s, the Third World continued to provide a substantial market for ozone-damaging chemicals made, but not sold, elsewhere. (Source: GILP96)

	English: protozoan
	English definition: A diverse phylum of eukaryotic microorganisms; the structure varies from a simple uninucleate protoplast to colonial forms, the body is either naked or covered by a test, locomotion is by means of pseudopodia or cilia or flagella, there is a tendency toward universal symmetry in floating species and radial symmetry in sessile types, and nutrition may be phagotrophic or autotrophic or saprozoic. (Source: MGH)

provinciaal gezag
	English: provincial/regional authority (D)
	English definition: The power of a government agency or its administrators to administer and implement laws and government policies applicable to a specific political subdivision or geographical area within the state. (Source: BLD)

provinciale wetgeving
	English: provincial/regional law (D)

	English: county
	English definition: An area comprising more than one city and whose boundaries have been designed according to some biological, political, administrative, economic, demographic criteria. (Source: LANDYa)

	English: province
	English definition: A geographic area of some considerable extent, smaller than a continent but larger than a region, which is unified by some or all of its characteristics and which can therefore be studied as a whole. A faunal province, for example, has a particular assemblage of animal species, which differs from assemblages in different contemporaneous environments elsewhere. (Source: WHIT)

psychisch effect
	English: psychic effect
	English definition: A result or consequence stemming from mental processes that create or influence human consciousness and emotions. (Source: RHW / SMD)

	English: psychology
	English definition: The science that deals with the functions of the mind and the behaviour of an organism in relation to its environment. (Source: MGH)

psychologisch effect
	English: mental effect

psychologisch effect
	English: psychological effect

psychologische stress
	English: psychological stress
	English definition: Strain or disequilibrium of the mind especially in its affective or cognitive functions, or the physical or mental stimulus, agent or experience that causes such an imbalance. (Source: SMD / MED)

psychosomatische klachten
	English: psychosomatic illness
	English definition: Illness arising from or aggravated by a mind-body relationship. (Source: GILP96)

public relations
	English: public relations
	English definition: The methods and activities employed by an individual, organization, corporation, or government to promote a favourable relationship with the public.

publiek toegang tot terreinen
	English: public access to land
	English definition: The right or permission for all persons of a community to use government owned geographic areas such as parks, campgrounds and historical sites. (Source: RHW)

publieke actie
	English: public action
	English definition: A measure or provision taken on behalf and with the consent of the general populace. (Source: RHW)

publieke opinie
	English: public opinion
	English definition: The purported, collective view of the public on some issue or problem, typically formulated by selective polling or sampling, and frequently used as a guide to action or decision. (Source: RHW / ISEP)

publieke opkomst
	English: public attendance

publiek-private samenwerking
	English: public-private partnership
	English definition: A joint venture between corporations and government or between community members and government or business beyond the course of normal interaction. (Source: NTL)

	English: public law
	English definition: A general classification of law, consisting generally of constitutional, administrative, criminal and international law, concerned with the organization of the state, the relations between the state and the people who compose it, the responsibilities of public officers to the state, to each other, and to private persons, and the relations of states to one other. The branch or department of law which is concerned with the state in its political or sovereign capacity, including constitutional and administrative law, and with the definition, regulation, and enforcement of rights in cases where the state is regarded as the subject of the right or object of the duty, - including criminal law and criminal procedure, - and the law of the state, considered in its quasi private personality, i.e., as capable of holding or exercising rights, or acquiring and dealing with property, in the character of an individual. (Source: WESTS)

publiekrechtelijk bedrijfsorgaan
	English: statutory public body
	English definition: An association, supported in whole or part by public funding, that is established to operate programs for the public, often with little interference from government in day-to-day business. (Source: BLD / ODE)

	English: pulp
	English definition: The cellulosic material produced by reducing wood mechanically or chemically and used in making paper and cellulose products. Also known as wood pulp. (Source: MGH)

	English: pulp industry
	English definition: A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in manufacturing and selling the soft, moist, slightly cohering mass deriving from wood that is used to produce paper sheets, cardboard and other paper products. (Source: RHW)

	English: point
	English definition: A position on a reference system determined by a survey. (Source: WHIT)

	English: point source
	English definition: Pollution from a discrete source, such as a septic tank, a sewer, a discharge type, a landfill, a factory or waste water treatment works discharging to a watercourse; stack emission from an industrial process; or spillage from an underground storage tank leaching into groundwater. (Source: GRAHAW)

	English: purin
	English definition: Any of a number of nitrogenous bases, such as guanine and adenine, that are derivatives of purine and constituents of nucleic acids and certain coenzymes. (Source: CED)

	English: pyralene
	English definition: Chemical compound belonging to the polychlorinated biphenyls family, used in the production of electrical equipment which requires dielectric fluid such as power transformers and capacitors, as well as in hydraulic machinery, vacuum pumps, compressors and heat-exchanger fluids. (Source: PZ)

	English: pyrolysis
	English definition: The breaking apart of complex molecules into simpler units by the use of heat. (Source: MGH)

pyschosomatisch effect
	English: psychosomatic effect
	English definition: Any result pertaining to the influence of the mind or higher functions of the brain upon the operations of the body, particularly bodily disorders or diseases. (Source: SMD)

	English: advice
	English definition: An official notice, opinion, counsel or recommendation that is optional or at the receiver's discretion. (Source: BLD)

	English: rape (plant)
	English definition: A Eurasian cruciferous plant, Brassica napus, that is cultivated for its seeds, which yield a useful oil, and as a fodder plant. (Source: CED)

	English: radar
	English definition: A system using beamed and reflected radiofrequency energy for detecting and locating objects, measuring distance or altitude, navigating, homing, bombing and other purposes. (Source: MGH)

	English: radio
	English definition: The process, equipment or programming involved in transmitting and receiving sound signals by electromagnetic waves. (Source: MHD)

radioactief afval
	English: radioactive waste
	English definition: Any waste that emit radiation in excess of normal background level, including the toxic by-products of the nuclear energy industry. (Source: GRAHAW)

radioactief element
	English: radioelement
	English definition: An element that is naturally radioactive. (Source: CED)

radioactieve afvalstortplaats
	English: radioactive dumping
	English definition: Waste generated by the emission of particulate or electromagnetic radiation resulting from the decay of the nuclei of unstable elements. (Source: KOREN)

radioactieve besmetting
	English: radioactive contamination
	English definition: Contamination of a substance, living organism or site caused by radioactive material. (Source: FLGISA)

radioactieve merkstof
	English: radioactive tracer
	English definition: A radioactive isotope which, when injected into a biological or physical system, can be traced by radiation detection devices, permitting determination of the distribution or location of the substance to which it is attached. (Source: MGH)

radioactieve neerslag
	English: fallout
	English definition: The descent of airborne solid or liquid particles to the ground, which occurs when the speed at which they fall due to gravity exceeds that of any upward motion of the air surrounding them. (Source: ALL)

radioactieve neerslag
	English: radioactive fallout
	English definition: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (Source: MGH)

radioactieve ontsmetting
	English: radioactive decontamination
	English definition: The removal of radioactive contamination which is deposited on surfaces or may have spread throughout a work area. Personnel decontamination is also included. Decontamination methods follow two broad avenues of attack, mechanical and chemical. (Source: PARCOR)

radioactieve stof
	English: radioactive substance
	English definition: Any substance that contains one or more radionuclides of which the activity or the concentration cannot be disregarded as far as radiation protection is concerned. (Source: ECHO2)

radioactieve uitstoot
	English: radioactive emission
	English definition: The release of radioactive substances into the environment deriving from nuclear installations and from mining, purification and enrichment operations of radioactive elements. (Source: FLGISA)

radioactieve vervuiler
	English: radioactive pollutant
	English definition: A substance undergoing spontaneous decay or disintegration of atomic nuclei and giving off radiant energy in the form of particles or waves, often associated with an explosion of a nuclear weapon or an accidental release from a nuclear power plant, holding facility or transporting container. (Source: DEE / ISEP)

	English: radioactivity
	English definition: The property possessed by some atomic nuclei of disintegrating spontaneously, with loss of energy through emission of a charged particle and/or gamma radiation. (Source: BRACK)

	English: radionuclide
	English definition: A nuclide that exhibits radioactivity. (Source: MGH)

	English: radio programme
	English definition: A performance or production transmitted in sound signals with electromagnetic waves. (Source: MHD)

	English: radon
	English definition: A radioactive gaseous element emitted naturally from rocks and minerals where radioactive elements are present. It is released in non-coal mines, e.g. tin, iron, fluorspar, uranium. Radon is an alpha particle emitter as are its decay products and has been indicted as a cause of excessive occurrence of lung cancer in uranium miners. Concern has been expressed at radon levels in some housing usually adjacent to granite rocks or old tin mining regions. (Source: PORT)

	English: refinery
	English definition: A factory for the purification of some crude material such as ore, sugar, oil, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: refining
	English definition: The processing of raw material to remove impurities.  (Source: PHC)

raming van de schade
	English: damage assessment
	English definition: The evaluation or determination of losses, harm and injuries to persons, property or the environment. (Source: TOE)

	English: catastrophe
	English definition: A sudden, widespread disaster or calamity that greatly exceeds the resources of an area or region. (Source: HMD)

	English: disaster
	English definition: The result of a vast ecological breakdown in the relations between man and his environment, a serious and sudden event (or slow, as in drought) on such a scale that the stricken community needs extraordinary efforts to cope with it, often with outside help or international aid. (Source: GUNN)

	English: disaster control service
	English definition: Work done or agency established to analyze, plan, assign and coordinate available resources in order to prepare for, respond to, mitigate and recover from damage caused by an ecological calamity, natural or human in origin. (Source: ISEP /  PPB)

rampen, ongevallen, gevaren, risico
	English: disasters, accidents, risk

	English: disaster preparedness
	English definition: The aggregate of measures to be taken in view of disasters, consisting of plans and action programmes designed to minimize loss of life and damage, to organize and facilitate effective rescue and relief, and to rehabilitate after disaster. Preparedness requires the necessary legislation and means to cope with disaster or similar emergency situations. It is also concerned with forecasting and warning, the education and training of the public, organization and management, including plans, training of personnel, the stockpiling of supplies and ensuring the needed funds and other resources. (Source: GUNN)

	English: disaster contingency plan
	English definition: An anticipatory emergency plan to be followed in an expected or eventual disaster, based on risk assessment, availability of human and material resources, community preparedness, local and international response capability, etc. (Source: ECHO1)

	English: risk exposure plan
	English definition: A scheme or method of acting that takes effect if the probability of harm to an area or its population increases beyond a normal level. (Source: ISEP /  HMD)

	English: disaster prevention
	English definition: The aggregate of approaches and measures to ensure that human action or natural phenomena do not cause or result in disaster or similar emergency. It implies the formulation and implementation of long-range policies and programmes to eliminate or prevent the occurrence of disasters. (Source: GUNN)

	English: disaster zone
	English definition: Zone that has been stricken by a disaster and where measures must be taken to reduce the severity of the human and material damage caused by it. (Source: GUNN)

	English: shunting yard
	English definition: Area where a car or a train can be shoven or turned off or moved from one track to another. (Source: MGH)

	English: reporting process

	English: raster
	English definition: One of the two major types of internal data organization used in GIS. Raster systems superimpose a regular grid over the area of interest and associate each cell-or pixel, to use the image term- with one or more data records. The values associated with each grid cell may represent either real values or any scalar or nominal data values associated with the cell coordinates. Among the strengths of the raster method is its ability to accept data directly from remote sensing systems and to represent transitional information. Raster systems tend to be relatively storage-intensive and this imposes practical limits on the area of coverage, the resolution, or both of these. Capacity constraints are, however, becoming less significant as computer memory and storage become more powerful and as data compression techniques become more readily available. (Source: YOUNG)

	English: gridding
	English definition: A system of uniformly spaced perpendicular lines and horizontal lines running north and south, and east and west on a map, chart, or aerial photograph; used in locating points. (Source: MGH)

	English: reaction kinetics
	English definition: That branch of physical chemistry concerned with the mechanisms and rates of chemical reactions. (Source: MGH)

	English: reactor
	English definition: A device that introduces either inductive or capacitive reactance into a circuit, such as a coil or capacitor. (Source: MGH)

	English: reactor safety
	English definition: Those studies and activities that seek to minimise the risk of a nuclear reactor accident. (Source: RRDA)

	English: law (science)
	English definition: Complex of rules fixed by law or custom which regulate social relations. (Source: ZINZAN)

recht op informatie
	English: right to information
	English definition: The individual's right to know in general about the existence of data banks, the right to be informed on request and the general right to a print-out of the information registered and to know the actual use made of the information. (Source: ECHO1)

recht op schadevergoeding
	English: right to compensation
	English definition: A legally enforceable claim for payment or reimbursement to pay for damages, loss or injury, or for remuneration to pay for services rendered, whether in fees, commissions or salary. (Source: BLD)

	English: rights
	English definition: 1) Title to or an interest in any property.2) Any interest or privilege recognized and protected by law. (Source: DICLAW)

rechten van het individu
	English: rights of the individual
	English definition: Just claims, legal guarantees or moral principles accorded to each and every member of a group or state, including the freedom to do certain things and the freedom from certain intrusions imposed by the collective body. (Source: APS / RHW)

rechten van toekomstige generaties
	English: rights of future generations
	English definition: The moral, legal or ethical claims of posterity on present people, based on the recognition that the young and unborn are vulnerable to contemporary decision-making, especially decisions having long-term effect on the societies and environment they inherit. (Source: FUT)

rechterlijk orgaan
	English: judicial body
	English definition: Any public organization or branch of government responsible for the administration of justice or the enforcement of laws. (Source: BLD)

	English: judicial assistance
	English definition: A program sponsored or administered by a government to guide through and represent in court proceedings persons who are in financial need and cannot afford private counsel. (Source: BLD)

	English: legal procedure
	English definition: Term includes all proceedings authorised or sanctioned by law, and brought or instituted in a court of legal tribunal, for the acquiring of a right or the enforcement of a remedy. (Source: WESTS)

	English: jurisdiction
	English definition: The power of a court to hear and decide a case or make a certain order. (Source: DICLAW)

	English: law branch
	English definition: A subdivision of the body of principles and regulations established by a government or other authority, generally defined by its scope or application. (Source: BLD / ISEP)

	English: legal basis
	English definition: The fundamental law or judicial precedent that warrants or supports a subsequent decision or action by any governmental, corporate or private entity. (Source: BLD)

	English: legal remedy
	English definition: The means by which a right is enforced or the violation of a right is prevented, redressed, or compensated. (Source: BLACK)

	English: judiciary rule
	English definition: Specific norms, regulations and precedents governing the conduct, procedure and arrangement of a judicial system, its various divisions and its officers. (Source: BLD)

	English: legal regulation
	English definition: Any order or rule issued by a government stipulating its procedures for the creation, execution or adjudication of laws. (Source: BLD)

	English: judicial system
	English definition: Entire network of courts in a particular jurisdiction. (Source: WESTS)

	English: legal system
	English definition: The organization and network of courts and other institutions, procedures and customs, officers and other personnel concerned with interpretation and enforcement of a country's law or with advice and assistance in matters pertaining to those laws. (Source: OCT / RHW)

	English: trial
	English definition: A judicial examination and determination of issues between parties to action; whether they need issues of law or of fact. A judicial examination, in accordance with law of the land, of a cause, either civil or criminal, of the issues between the parties, whether of law or fact, before a court that has proper jurisdiction. (Source: WESTS)

rechtvaardiging van administratieve handelingen
	English: motivation of administrative acts
	English definition: The underlying reason or cause, a psychological or social factor, that incites or stimulates managers, executives or supervisors to complete tasks that achieve organizational or company goals. (Source: OED)

	English: orthopteran
	English definition: A heterogeneous order of generalized insects with gradual metamorphosis, chewing mouthparts, and four wings. (Source: MGH)

recombinante DNA technologie
	English: recombinant DNA technology
	English definition: Techniques and practical applications associated with recombinant DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid artificially introduced into a cell that alters the genotype and phenotype of the cell and is replicated along with the natural DNA). (Source: DELFIN /  KOREN)

	English: cruising
	English definition: Travelling by sea in a liner for pleasure, usually calling at a number of ports. (Source: CED)

	English: rescue service
	English definition: Service organized to provide immediate assistance to persons injured or in distress. (Source: RRDA)

	English: rescue system
	English definition: Any series of procedures and devices used by trained personnel to provide immediate assistance to persons who are in danger or injured. (Source: GT2 / HMD)

	English: reasonableness

reden tot (be)zorg(dheid)
	English: cause for concern principle
	English definition: Principle connected with the precautionary principle: it means that, if there are strong reasons for expecting serious or irreversible damage to the environment following a given project, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation. Critics of this approach are concerned about large commitments of resources to deal with vaguely defined problems. (Source: GILP96a)

	English: reference service
	English definition: The provision of aid by library staff trained to interpret library materials and library organizational structures to meet the informational, educational, cultural, recreational or research needs of the library's clients. (Source: OED /  LFS)

	English: baseline monitoring
	English definition: Monitoring of long-term changes in atmospheric compositions of particular significance to the weather and the climate. (Source: YOUNG)

	English: reflectometry
	English definition: The study of the reflectance of light or other radiant energy. (Source: WEBSTE)

regelgeving milieuverontreiniging
	English: pollution control regulation
	English definition: A body of rules or orders prescribed by government, management or an international organization or treaty in which limits are established for the emission of substances that harm or adversely alter the environment and human health. (Source: TOE / BLD)

	English: rain
	English definition: Precipitation in the form of liquid water drops with diameters greater than 0.5 millimeter. (Source: MGH)

	English: rain water
	English definition: Water which falls as rain from clouds. (Source: PHC)

	English: earthworm
	English definition: Any of numerous oligochaete worms of the genera Lumbricus, Allolobophora, Eisenia, etc., which burrow in the soil and help aerate and break up the ground. (Source: CED)

	English: rain forest
	English definition: A forest of broad-leaved, mainly evergreen, trees found in continually moist climates in the tropics, subtropics, and some parts of the temperate zones. (Source: MGH)

regering (kabinet)
	English: government (cabinet)
	English definition: A body of top government officials appointed to advise the President or the chief executive officer of a country, usually consisting of the heads of government departments or agencies. (Source: OED)

regering van een grondgebied
	English: territorial government
	English definition: An administrative body or system in which political direction or control is exercised over a designated area or an administrative division of a city, county or larger geographical area. (Source: RHW / BLD)

	English: form of government
	English definition: Form of authority in which an individual or group of individuals wield power over the majority. (Source: WSU)

	English: registration
	English definition: An instance of or a certificate attesting to the fact of entering in an official list various pieces of information in order to facilitate regulation or authorization, including one's name, contact information and, in some instances, data concerning a specific possession or property. (Source: BLD / RHW)

registratie van stoffen
	English: recording of substances

	English: registration obligation
	English definition: The duty to formally enroll with a government agency or an authority in order to be granted certain rights, particularly trademark or copyright privileges, or the  permission to sell and distribute a product. (Source: BLD)

	English: registration proceeding
	English definition: The course of action or record in which an individual, company or an organization formally enrolls with a government agency or an authority in order to be granted certain rights, particularly trademark or copyright privileges, or the permission to sell and distribute a product. (Source: BLD)

regulerend toezicht
	English: regulatory control
	English definition: Government supervision over the obligations and rights of an industry or enterprise for the purpose of providing the public with services that are considered important, vital or necessary to most members of a community or area. (Source: DAM)

regulerende wet
	English: regulative law

	English: cleansing
	English definition: The act or process of washing, laundering or removing dirt and other unwanted substances from the surface of an object, thing or place. (Source: RHW)

	English: cleansing department
	English definition: A division, usually within municipal government, responsible for providing services that remove dirt, litter or other unsightly materials from city or town property. (Source: ISEP)

	English: lye
	English definition: The alkaline solution that is obtained from the leaching of wood ashes. (Source: MGH)

	English: cleansing product

	English: travel cost
	English definition: Expenditure of money or the amount of money incurred for journeying or going from one place to another by some mode of transportation. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

	English: travel
	English definition: Moving from one place to another generally by using a transportation mean. (Source: RRDA)

reizen in de minder drukke periode
	English: off-peak travelling
	English definition: Relating to travelling outside rush-hours to avoid overcrowding in public means of transport. (Source: WPRa)

relaties tussen de Aarde en de Zon
	English: Earth-Sun relationship
	English definition: The Earth depends on the sun for its existence as a planet hospitable to life, and solar energy is the major factor determining the climate. Hence, conditions on the sun and conditions on Earth are inextricably linked. Although the sun's rays may appear unchanging, its radiation does vary. Many scientists suspect that sunspot activity has a greater influence on climatic change than variations attributed to the greenhouse effect. (Source: WRIGHT)

relationele database
	English: relational database
	English definition: A collection of digital information items organized as a set of formally described tables from which the information can be accessed or reassembled in different ways without reorganizing the tables. (Source: WIC)

	English: relief (land)
	English definition: The physical shape, configuration or general unevenness of a part of the Earth's surface, considered with reference to variation of height and slope or to irregularities of the land surface; the elevation or difference in elevation, considered collectively, of a land surface. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: retarding basin
	English definition: A basin designed and operated to provide temporary storage and thus reduce the peak flood flows of a stream. (Source: MGH)

remote sensing
	English: remote sensing
	English definition: 1) The scientific detection, recognition, inventory and analysis of land and water area by the use of distant sensors or recording devices such as photography, thermal scanners, radar, etc. 2) Complex of techniques for the remote measure of electromagnetic energy emitted by objects. (Source: LANDY /  ZINZAN)

	English: remote sensing centre
	English definition: Centre where remote sensing data are stored, handled and analyzed. (Source: GILP96a)

	English: renaturation
	English definition: A process of returning natural ecosystems or habitats to their original structure and species composition. Restoration requires a detailed knowledge of the original species, ecosystem functions and interacting processes involved. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: debt service
	English definition: The fees or amount of money necessary to pay interest on an outstanding debt, the principal of maturing serial bonds, and the required contributions to an amortization or sinking fund for term bonds. (Source: EFP)

	English: reptile
	English definition: A class of terrestrial vertebrates, characterized by the lack of hair, feathers, and mammary glands; the skin is covered with scales, they have a three chambered heart and the pleural and peritoneal cavities are continuous. (Source: MGH)

	English: reserve
	English definition: Any area of land or water that has been set aside for a special purpose, often to prevent or reduce harm to its wildlife and ecosystems. (Source: RHW / DOE)

reservaat voor in het wild levende planten en dieren
	English: wildlife sanctuary
	English definition: 1) An area, usually in natural condition, which is reserved (set aside) by a governmental or private agency for the protection of particular species of animals during part or all of the year. 2) An area designated for the protection of wild animals, within which hunting and fishing is either prohibited or strictly controlled. (Source: UNUN /  LANDY)

reserve van de biosfeer
	English: biosphere reserve
	English definition: Protected land and coastal areas that are approved under the Man and Biosphere programme (MAB) in conjunction with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Each reserve has to have an ecosystem that is recognized for its diversity and usefulness as a conservation unit. The reserves have at least one core area where there can be no interference with the natural ecosystem. A transition zone surrounds this and within it scientific research is allowed. Beyond this is a buffer zone which protects the whole reserve from agricultural, industrial and urban development. Biosphere reserves and buffer zones were regarded as examples of a new generation of conservation techniques. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: resolution (parameter)
	English definition: A remote sensing term which has three separate applications: a) spatial resolution, which refers to the ability of a sensor to distinguish between objects that are spatially close to each other. It is a measure of the smallest angular or linear separation between two objects. b) Spectral resolution which refers to the ability of a sensor to distinguish between objects which are spectrally similar. It is a measure of both the discreteness of wavebands and the sensitivity of the sensor to distinguish between electromagnetic radiation intensity levels. c) Thermal resolution which refers to the ability of a sensor to distinguish between objects with a similar temperature. (Source: WHIT)

	English: resorption
	English definition: Absorption or, less commonly, adsorption of material by a body or system from which the material was previously released. (Source: MGH)

	English: residue
	English definition: Any materials, solid or semisolid, left over from incineration, evaporation or other processes. (Source: DEE / ISEP)

	English: residual waste
	English definition: Material left after any waste treatment process, including industrial, urban, agricultural, mining or other similar treatments. (Source: ERG / ISEP)

	English: residue analysis
	English definition: Analysis of residues from agricultural chemicals used in food crops and contained in foodstuff. The analyses use gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, immunoassays, etc. (Source: RRDA /  USDA)

restauratie van gebouwen
	English: building restoration
	English definition: The accurate reestablishment of the form and details of a building, its artifacts, and the site on which it is located, usually as it appeared at a particular time. (Source: HARRIS)

resten van bestrijdingsmiddellen
	English: residual pesticide
	English definition: A pesticide remaining in the environment for a fairly long time, continuing to be effective for days, weeks, and months. (Source: HMD)

	English: residual risk
	English definition: Remaining potential for harm to persons, property or the environment following all possible efforts to reduce predictable hazards. (Source: TOE)

	English: residual waste sludge
	English definition: The excess, unusable semi-solids or sediment resulting from a wastewater treatment or industrial process. (Source: RHW / TOE)

	English: odour
	English definition: The property of a substance affecting the sense of smell; any smell; scent; perfume. (Source: LEE)

	English: directive
	English definition: The second rank of administrative acts (inferior to regulations, superior to decisions) made by the council or commission of the European Communities on order to carry out their tasks in accordance with the Treaties. They must be addressed to states, not individuals, but many create rights for individuals or allow the directive to be pleaded before municipal court.

richtlijn inzake de waterkwaliteit
	English: water quality directive
	English definition: EC Directive establishing the rules relating to water for human consumption. (Source: DIRAMB)

richtlijn voor de waterbescherming
	English: water protection directive

richtlijn voor proeven
	English: testing guideline

	English: reed
	English definition: Any of various types of tall stiff grass-like plants growing together in groups near water. (Source: CAMB)

	English: reef
	English definition: A line of rocks in the tidal zone of a coast, submerged at high water but partly uncovered at low water. (Source: WHIT)

	English: rice
	English definition: An erect grass, Oryza sativa, that grows in East Asia on wet ground and has drooping flower spikes and yellow oblong edible grains that become white when polished. (Source: CED)

	English: ringing (wildlife)
	English definition: To attach a numbered ring to the leg of a bird so that its movements can be recorded. Ringing is a very common method of tracing bird movement and providing information about bird's ages. It can also cause stress to the birds. (Source: PHC)

	English: annelid
	English definition: Any worms of the phylum Anellida, in which the body is divided into segments both internally and externally. The group includes the earthworms, lugworm, ragworm, and leeches. (Source: CED)

	English: sewage sludge
	English definition: A semi-liquid waste with a solid concentration in excess of 2500 parts per million, obtained from the purification of municipal sewage. (Source: MGH)

	English: sewerage system
	English definition: System of pipes, usually underground, for carrying waste water and human waste away from houses and other buildings, to a place where they can be safely get rid of. (Source: CAMB)

	English: sewage disposal

risico op kanker
	English: cancer risk
	English definition: The probability that exposure to some agent or substance will adversely transform cells to replicate and form a malignant tumor. (Source: APD / HMD)

risico op kernongevallen
	English: nuclear hazard
	English definition: Risk or danger to human health or the environment posed by radiation emanating from the atomic nuclei of a given substance, or the possibility of an uncontrolled explosion originating from a fusion or fission reaction of atomic nuclei. (Source: MHD / TOE)

	English: risk analysis
	English definition: Technique used to determine the likelihood or chance of hazardous events occurring (such as release of a certain quantity of a toxic gas) and the likely consequences. Originally developed for use in nuclear and chemical industry where certain possible events, of low probability, could have extremely serious results. Attempts are being made to use concepts from probabilistic risk analysis to characterise environmental impacts, whose occurrence and nature are not easy to predict with any degree of accuracy. (Source: ERIN)

	English: danger analysis
	English definition: The process of evaluating the scale and probability of harm caused by any hazard to persons, property or the environment. (Source: ISEP /  DDP)

	English: risk-benefit analysis
	English definition: A systematic process of evaluating and assessing the hazards of loss versus the possibility of financial gain or profit. (Source: OED)

	English: risk management
	English definition: The process of evaluating and selecting alternative regulatory and non-regulatory responses to prepare for the probability of an accidental occurrence and its expected magnitude of damage, including the consideration of legal, economic and behavioral factors. (Source: HMD / TOE)

	English: risk reduction
	English definition: Any act, instance or process lowering the probability that harm will come to an area or its population as the result of some hazard. (Source: ISEP /  TOE)

	English: risk
	English definition: The expected number of lives lost, persons injured, damage to property and disruption of economic activity due to a particular natural phenomenon, and consequently the product of the probability of occurrence and the expected magnitude of damage. (Source: GUNN /  RRDA)

	English: river
	English definition: A stream of water which flows in a channel from high ground to low ground and ultimately to a lake or the sea, except in a desert area where it may dwindle away to nothing. A river and all its tributaries within a single basin is termed a drainage system. (Source: WHIT)

rivier hulpbronnen
	English: fluvial resource
	English definition: Any source of supply derived from a river, particularly its water, which is collected, stored and treated, then distributed for domestic, industrial, farm and other uses. (Source: WWC)

	English: river bed
	English definition: The channel containing or formerly containing the water of a river. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: river management
	English definition: The administration or handling of a waterway or a stream of flowing water. (Source: RHW)

	English: river basin development
	English definition: Any growth, maturation or change in an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries. (Source: TOE)

	English: river disposal
	English definition: Discharge of solid, liquid or gaseous waste into a river.

rivieroevers; oeverstrook; rivieroeverstrook; rivier oeverstrook
	English: riparian zone
	English definition: 1) Terrestrial areas where the vegetation complex and microclimate are products of the combined pressure and influence of perennial and/or intermittent water... and soils that exhibit some wetness characteristics.2) Zone situated on the bank of a water course such as a river or stream. (Source: DUNSTE /  GILP96)

	English: river pollution
	English definition: The direct or indirect human alteration of the biological, physical, chemical or radiological integrity of river water, or a river ecosystem. (Source: Landy)

	English: river water
	English definition: Water which flows in a channel from high ground to low ground and ultimately to a lake or the sea, except in a desert area where it may dwindle away to nothing. (Source: WHIT)

	English: sealing
	English definition: Luting, making watertight, waterproofing. (Source: ECHO2)

rode lijst
	English: red list
	English definition: The series of publications produced by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). They provide an inventory on the threat to rare plants and animal species. Information includes status, geographical distribution, population size, habitat and breeding rate. The books also contain the conservation measures, if any, that have been taken to protect the species. There are five categories of rarity status: endangered species; vulnerable organisms, which are those unlikely to adapt to major environmental effects; rare organisms, which are those at risk because there are few of them in the world, such as plants which only grow on mountain peaks or on islands; out of danger species, which were formerly in the above categories, but have had the threat removed because of conservation actions; and indeterminate species, which are the plants and animals probably at risk, although not enough is known about them to assess their status. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: soot
	English definition: Impure black carbon with oily compounds obtained from the incomplete combustion of resinous materials, oils, wood, or coal. (Source: MGH)

	English: smoking
	English definition: The inhalation and exhalation of carcinogenic fumes from burning plant material, usually tobacco. (Source: MED / HHR)

	English: rolling noise
	English definition: Deeply resounding, reverberating noise caused by the friction between car tyres and road surfaces. (Source: CEDa)

rond plein [geografie]
	English: geographic circque
	English definition: A deep steep-walled half-bowl-like recess or hollow, variously described as horseshoe- or crescent-shaped or semi-circular in plan, situated high on the side of a mountain and commonly at the head of a glacial valley and produced by the erosive activity of a mountain glacier. It often contains a small round lake, and it may or may not be occupied by ice or snow. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: circular mail
	English definition: A memorandum, letter or notice in either paper or electronic format distributed widely throughout an organization or to a general list of interested parties. (Source: RHW)

	English: X ray
	English definition: A penetrating electromagnetic radiation, usually generated by accelerating electrons to high velocity and suddenly stopping them by collision with a solid body, or by inner-shell transitions of atoms with atomic number greater than 10; their wavelength ranges from about 10(-5) angstrom to 10(3) angstroms, the average wavelength used in research being 1 angstrom. (Source: MGH)

	English: predator
	English definition: Animal which kills and eats other animals. (Source: PHC)

	English: bird of prey
	English definition: Any of various carnivorous bird of the orders Falconiformes and Strigiformes which feed on meat taken by hunting. (Source: MGH)

rooilijn; lijn
	English: alignment
	English definition: The selection and detailed layout of public transport routes in the light of construction, operation, service, technology, and economic criteria. (Source: ECHO2)

	English: smoke
	English definition: An aerosol, consisting of visible particles and gases, produced by the incomplete burning of carbon-based materials, such as wood and fossil fuels. (Source: FFD)

	English: flue gas
	English definition: The gaseous combustion product generated by a furnace and often exhausted through a chimney (flue). (Source: APD / Landy)

	English: smoke prevention

	English: rubber
	English definition: A cream to dark brown elastic material obtained by coagulating and drying the latex from certain plants, especially the rubber tree. (Source: CED)

	English: rubber waste
	English definition: Any refuse or unwanted material made of synthetic or natural rubber, often the byproduct of rubber processing. (Source: RHW)

rubberverwerkende industrie
	English: rubber processing industry
	English definition: A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the manufacture and marketing of natural or synthetic rubber products. (Source: RHW)

	English: rubber processing
	English definition: The systematic series of actions in which a solid substance deriving from rubber trees and plants is toughened and treated chemically to give it the strength, elasticity, resistance and other qualities needed for the manufacture of products such as erasers, elastic bands, water hoses, electrical insulation and tires. (Source: RHW)

	English: brushwood
	English definition: Woody vegetation including shrubs and scrub trees of non-commercial height and form, often seen in the initial stages of succession following a disturbance. Brush often grows in very dense thickets that are impenetrable to wild animals and serve to suppress the growth of more desirable crop trees. However, brush can also serve an important function as desirable habitat for a range or bird, animal, and invertebrate species, and often provides a good source of browse and cover for larger wildlife. It adds structural diversity within the forest and is important in riparian zones. It is also termed scrub. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: land consolidation
	English definition: Joining small plots of land together to form larger farms or large fields. (Source: PHC)

	English: bilge oil
	English definition: Waste oil that accumulates, usually in small quantities, inside the lower spaces of a ship, just inside the shell plating, and usually mixed with larger quantities of water. (Source: ERG)

	English: space

	English: space

ruimte (uitrustingsprogramma)
	English: outer space (allocation plan)
	English definition: Area out of closed settlements or building. (Source: RRDA)

ruimte; interplanetaire ruimte
	English: space; interplanetary space
	English definition: Space extending between the sun and the planets of the solar system. Interplanetary space is not empty, but contains dust, particles with an electric charge, and the magnetic field of the sun (also called the IMF, or Interplanetary Magnetic Field). (Source: CED /  WINDOW)

	English: space waste
	English definition: Nonfunctional debris of human origin left in a multitude of orbits about the earth as the result of the exploration and use of the environment lying outside the earth's atmosphere. (Source: MHD / ORB)

ruimtelijke ordening
	English: physical planning
	English definition: A form of urban land use planning which attempts to achieve an optimal spatial coordination of different human activities for the enhancement of the quality of life. (Source: LANDY)

ruimtelijke verdeling
	English: spatial distribution
	English definition: A distribution or set of geographic observations representing the values of behaviour of a particular phenomenon or characteristic across many locations on the surface of the Earth. (Source: GOOD)

	English: space research
	English definition: Research involving studies of all aspects of environmental conditions beyond the atmosphere of the earth. (Source: MGH)

	English: space travel
	English definition: Travel in the space beyond the earth's atmosphere performed for scientific research purposes. (Source: RRDA)

	English: space policy
	English definition: A course of action adopted and pursued by government or some other organization, which seeks to support research and the exploration of planets, asteroids and other elements in the region beyond earth's atmosphere or beyond the solar system. (Source: OED)

	English: astronautics
	English definition: The science of space flight. (Source: MGH)

	English: bilge water
	English definition: Water that builds up in the bottom of a ship's bilge. (Source: MGH)

	English: bovid
	English definition: Any animal belonging to the Bovidae family. (Source: CED)

	English: bovine

	English: cattle
	English definition: Domesticated bovine animals, including cows, steers and bulls, raised and bred on a ranch or farm. (Source: MGH)

	English: resting form
	English definition: Resistant structure that allows the organism to survive adverse environmental conditions. (Source: ALL2)

ruwe aardolie
	English: crude oil
	English definition: A comparatively volatile liquid bitumen composed principally of hydrocarbon, with traces of sulphur, nitrogen or oxygen compounds; can be removed from the earth in a liquid state. (Source: MGH)

	English: salamander
	English definition: Any of various urodele amphibians, such as Salamandra salamandra of central and S Europe. They are typically terrestrial, have an elongated body, and only return to water to breed. (Source: CED)

	English: salmonella
	English definition: General name for a family of microorganisms, one of the largest groups of bacteria, that includes those most frequently implicated in food poisoning and gastroenteritis. Unhygienic handling and inadequate cooking of poultry and meat, improper storage of cold meats and, more recently, contamination of battery-reared hen eggs, are the most common sources of salmonella infections. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: compaction
	English definition: Reduction of the bulk of solid waste by rolling and tamping. (Source: LEE)

	English: compression
	English definition: Reduction in the volume of a substance due to pressure. (Source: MGH)

samengestelde verontreiniging
	English: composite pollution
	English definition: Emissions of ozone-degrading gases (CFCs, halons); emissions of greenhouse gases (carbondioxide, methane, CFCs, nitrous oxides, halons); emissions of acidifying gases (sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides); emissions of substances that contribute to eutrophication (phosphate and nitrogen-containing materials); emissions of toxic materials (pesticides, radioactive substances, priority toxic substances); solid wastes returned to the environment. (Source: UNEP)

samengestelde voeding
	English: convenience food
	English definition: Food so prepared and presented as to be easily and quickly ready for consumption. (Source: ECHO2)

samenleving, maatschappij
	English: society

samenstelling van afval
	English: waste composition
	English definition: The component material types, by percentage or weight, emanating from any source. (Source: AWD)

samenstelling van de atmosfeer
	English: atmospheric composition
	English definition: The chemical abundance in the earth's atmosphere of its constituents including nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, water vapour, ozone, neon, helium, krypton, methane, hydrogen and nitrous oxide. (Source: MGH)

samenstelling van de bevolking
	English: composition of population
	English definition: The constituent groupings and proportions of the total inhabitants of a given nation, area, region or city, as seen from various perspectives. (Source: RHW)

	English: co-operation

	English: co-operation policy
	English definition: Political course of action aiming at establishing trade agreements among the states. (Source: NDGIUR)

	English: co-operation principle

	English: cleaning up
	English definition: The process of bringing desert, marsh, sea coast or other waste or unproductive land into use or cultivation. (Source: GOOD)

	English: sanitary fitting
	English definition: The set of furnishings designed for personal hygiene and the disposal of organic waste. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: satellite
	English definition: An object that orbits around a larger one. Artificial satellites orbiting the Earth are used for communications, the gathering of military intelligence, the monitoring of weather and other environmental phenomena, etc. (Source: ALL)

	English: satellite image
	English definition: A pictorial representation of data projected onto a two-dimensional grid of individual picture elements (pixels) and acquired from a human-made vessel placed in orbit round a planet, moon or star. (Source: RSG)

	English: satellite account
	English definition: A separate financial record or statement that discloses financial activity in a particular area and supplements existing financial records. (Source: RHW)

	English: scenario
	English definition: Conditions of the environment chosen for a given survey or activity. (Source: RRDA)

schaal- en schelpdierencultuur
	English: shellfish farming
	English definition: Raising of shellfish in inland waters, estuaries or coastal waters, for commercial purposes. All commercial shellfish beds producing bivalve molluscs must be monitored for microbial contamination. Samples of water and shellfish flesh must be tested for the presence of algal toxins. Periodic monitoring of fish and shellfish must be carried out to check for the presence of contaminants. (Source: WRIGHTa /  MAFF)

schaal-en schelpdieren
	English: shellfish

	English: ovine
	English definition: Horned ruminant mammals raised in many breeds for wool, edible flesh, or skin. (Source: AMHER)

	English: damage
	English definition: An injury or harm impairing the function or condition of a person or thing. (Source: CED)

schade aan akkers
	English: field damage
	English definition: A decline in the productivity of an area of land or in its ability to support natural ecosystems or types of agriculture. Degradation may be caused by a variety of factors, including inappropriate land management techniques, soil erosion, salinity, flooding, clearing, pests, pollution, climatic factors, or progressive urbanization. (Source: GILP96)

schade aan de bodem
	English: soil damage
	English definition: Soil impaired as a consequence of human activity. A study financed by UNEP, reporting in 1992, found that about 10,5% of the world's vegetative surface had been seriously damaged by human activity since 1945. The study found that much of the damage had been masked by a general rise in global agricultural productivity resulting from expanded irrigation, better plant varieties, and greater use of production inputs, such as fertilizers and pesticides. More than 1/3 of the damaged land was in Asia, almost 1/3 in Africa, and 1/4 in Central America. Some land had been damaged beyond restoration. The greatest sources of soil degradation were overgrazing, unsuitable agricultural practices, and deforestation. (Source: GILP96)

schade aan dieren
	English: animal damage
	English definition: Harm caused to the environment by animals as, for instance, in the case of overgrazing, trampling, etc. Overgrazing damage is reduced by properly located watering facilities to decrease daily travel by livestock. Rotation of grazing areas allows time for recovery of grass. Some land can be easily restored if grazing is allowed only during one season. Animals may cause damage to crops when agriculture land borders on virgin territory or game reserves. In addition wild animals may bring disease in valuable domestic herds. Cattle overstocking has caused serious degradation of habitat, and cattle raising is thus, to some extent, counterproductive. (Source: WPR)

schade aan het bos
	English: forest damage
	English definition: Reduction of tree population in forests caused by acidic precipitation, forest fires, air pollution, deforestation, pests and diseases of trees, wildlife, etc. (Source: WPR)

schade ten gevolg van militaire oefeningen
	English: damage from military manoeuvres
	English definition: Injury or harm resulting from the planned movement of armed forces or from the tactical exercises simulating war operations that is carried out for training and evaluation purposes. (Source: GT2 / JSS)

	English: claim for restitution
	English definition: A legal remedy in which a person or party may demand or assert the right to be restored to a former or original position prior to loss, damage or injury. (Source: BLD)

	English: minimisation of damage
	English definition: The activity of reducing the harm or injury done to the environment or ecosystem. (Source: OED)

	English: indemnity
	English definition: Financial compensation, reimbursement or security for damages or loss offered by a government, insurance policy or contractual agreement under specified conditions and for specific casualties. (Source: BLD)

	English: compensation for damage
	English definition: Equivalent in money or other form for a loss sustained for an injury, for property taken, etc. (Source: BLACK)

schadevergoeding; vergoeding
	English: compensation
	English definition: Equivalent in money for a loss sustained; equivalent given for property taken or for an injury done to another; recompense or reward for some loss, injury or service. (Source: WESTS)

	English: damage insurance
	English definition: A commercial product which provides a guarantee against damage to property in return for premiums paid. (Source: RHW /  ISEP)

	English: ship garbage
	English definition: Domestic and operational wastes, disposed of continuously or periodically, that are generated during the normal operation of a ship; usually excluding fresh fish waste from fishing operations. (Source: NGT)

	English: shipbuilding
	English definition: The art or business of designing and constructing ships. (Source: AMHER)

	English: marine engineering
	English definition: The design, construction, installation, operation, and maintenance of main power plants, as well as the associated auxiliary machinery and equipment, for the propulsion of ships. (Source: MGH)

	English: shipping accident
	English definition: An unexpected incident, failure or loss involving a vessel or its contents in the course of commercial transport that poses potential harm to persons, property or the environment. (Source: RHW)

scheider voor lichte vloeistoffen
	English: separator of light liquids
	English definition: A mechanical device for separating and removing residues from fuel and lubricating oil from waste water coming from filling stations and industrial plants in order to avoid pollution of water bodies; this system is based on the different specific weights of water and fuel residues that float on the water and can be easily removed. (Source: RRDA)

scheiding bij de bron
	English: separation at source
	English definition: Segregating various wastes at the point of generation (e.g. separation of paper, metal and glass from other wastes) to make recycling simpler and more efficient. (Source: EPAGLO)

scheiding van stoffen
	English: separation
	English definition: The separation of one substance from another when they are intimately mixed. For example the removal of oil from water, or gas from oil or oil from gas, etc. (Source: BRACK)

scheikunde, stoffen, processen
	English: chemistry, substances, processes

	English: chemistry

	English: shielding device
	English definition: Barriers devised for keeping away from people harmful substances. (Source: KORENa)

scherpte van het gehoor
	English: hearing acuity
	English definition: Effectiveness of hearing. (Source: CAMB)

	English: shooting range
	English definition: Area designed for target shooting. (Source: CED)

	English: painting business
	English definition: A commercial service through which paint, a decorative or protective coating product, or similar products are applied to the interiors and exteriors of buildings and other surfaces. (Source: RHW)

	English: tortoise
	English definition: Any herbivorous terrestrial chelonian reptile of the family Testudinidae, of most warm regions, having a heavy dome-shaped shell and clawed limbs. (Source: CED)

schimmeldodend middel
	English: fungicide
	English definition: Chemicals used to kill or halt the development of fungi that cause plant disease, such as: storage rot; seedling diseases; root rots; vascular wilts; leaf blights, rusts, smuts and mildews, and viral diseases. These can be controlled by the early and continued application of selected fungicides that either kill the pathogens or restrict their development. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: ship
	English definition: A vessel propelled by engines or sails for navigating on the water, especially a large vessel that can not be carried aboard another, as distinguished from a boat. (Source: CED)

schip met dubbele romp
	English: twin-hull craft
	English definition: Oil tank vessels provided with a double-hull to meet the regulatory safety requirements in oil transportation. Requirements include minimum values for depths and breadth of double bottoms. Also called double-hull tank vessel. (Source: PZa)

schone technologie
	English: clean technology
	English definition: Industrial process which causes little or no pollution. (Source: PHC)

	English: school
	English definition: An institution or building at which children and young people receive education. (Source: CED)

	English: school life
	English definition: Any part or the sum of experiences had while attending an instructional institution, or the amount of time spent in such a program. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

	English: school teaching
	English definition: Instruction or training received in any educational institution, but especially to persons under college age. (Source: RHW)

	English: schoolwork
	English definition: The material studied in or for an educational institution, comprising homework and work done in the classroom. (Source: RHW)

	English: contract cleaner
	English definition: A commercial service provider, usually bound by a written agreement, responsible for the removal of dirt, litter or other unsightly materials from any property. (Source: RHW)

	English: chimney
	English definition: A vertical structure of brick, masonry, or steel that carries smoke or steam away from a fire, engine, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: chimney height
	English definition: The appropriate height for chimneys serving industrial combustion plants in order to avoid unacceptable pollution. (Source: PORT)

	English: scrap material
	English definition: Recyclable material from any manufacturing process or discarded consumer products. (Source: APD)

	English: scrap metal
	English definition: Any metal material discarded from manufacturing operations and usually suitable for reprocessing. (Source: TOE)

	English: scrap dump
	English definition: Area where waste material, especially metal, is dumped. (Source: CED)

	English: scrap material market
	English definition: The trade or traffic in discarded or leftover materials that can be reused in some way. (Source: RHW / ISEP)

	English: scrap material price
	English definition: The amount of money or the monetary rate at which materials discarded from manufacturing operations can be bought or sold. (Source: TOE / RHW)

	English: lepidopteran
	English definition: A large order of scaly-winged insects, including the butterflies, skippers, and moths; adults are characterized by two pairs of membranous wings and sucking mouthparts, featuring a prominent, coiled proboscis. (Source: MGH)

	English: shelter
	English definition: Cover or protection, as from weather or danger; place of refuge. (Source: CED)

	English: emergency lodging
	English definition: Housing or dwelling space provided for victims of a sudden, urgent and usually unexpected occurrence, especially when harm has been done to human life, property or the environment. (Source: RHW)

	English: foaming agent
	English definition: Substances which make it possible to form a homogenous dispersion of a gaseous phase in a liquid or solid medium. (Source: ECHO1)

	English: debt
	English definition: Something owed to someone else. (Source: SCRUZ)

schuld van de ontwikkelingslanden
	English: developing countries debt

secundaire behandeling
	English: secondary treatment
	English definition: Stage of the process of waste water treatment: following primary treatment by sedimentation, the second step in most wastewater systems in which biological organisms decompose most of the organic matter into a innocuous, stable form. (Source: CORBIT /  WQA)

secundaire biotoop
	English: secondary biotope
	English definition: In the case of disruption of an existing biotope, secondary biotope can be created as a compensation and substitute measure for the loss of the natural one. (Source: RRDA)

secundaire sector
	English: secondary sector
	English definition: The part of a country or region's economy that produces commodities without much direct use of natural resources. (Source: ODE)

	English: sediment mobilisation
	English definition: The transport or setting in motion by wind or water of insoluble particulate matter. (Source: APD / RHW)

	English: sedimentology
	English definition: The scientific study of sedimentary rocks and of the processes by which they were formed; the description, classification, origin, and interpretation of sediments. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: sediment transport
	English definition: The movement and carrying- away of sediment by natural agents; especially the conveyance of a stream load by suspension, saltation, solution or traction. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: seismic activity
	English definition: The phenomenon of Earth movements. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: seasonal migration
	English definition: The periodic movement of a population from one region or climate to another in accordance with the yearly cycle of weather and temperature changes. (Source: RHW)

	English: seasonal variation
	English definition: In time series, that part of the movement which is assigned to the effect of the seasons on the year. (Source: ECHO2)

selectief fokken van dieren
	English: selective breeding of animals
	English definition: Breeding of animals having desirable characters. (Source: MGH)

selectieve plantenteelt
	English: selective breeding of plants
	English definition: Breeding of plants having desirable characters. (Source: MGH)

selectieve verspreiding van informatie
	English: selective dissemination of information
	English definition: A service provided by a library or other agency that periodically notifies users of new publications, report literature or other data sources in subjects in which the user has specified an interest. (Source: CCL)

	English: selectivity

	English: selenium
	English definition: A highly toxic, nonmetallic element; used in analytical chemistry, metallurgy, and photoelectric cells. (Source: MGH)

	English: sensor
	English definition: The generic name for a device that senses either the absolute value or a change in a physical quantity such as temperature, pressure, flow rate, or pH, or the intensity of light, sound, or ratio waves and converts that change into a useful input signal for an information-gathering system. (Source: MGH)

septische put
	English: septic tank
	English definition: A tank, usually underground, into which sewage flows, the deposited matter being wholly, or partially broken down through anaerobic action. The final effluent may be allowed to soak into the ground through a system of agricultural drains, if the soil is suitable. Alternatively, the tank must be emptied at regular intervals by a special road-tanker. (Source: GILP96)

	English: Seveso Directive
	English definition: Directive issued by the European Community in 1981 that obliged industries to notify the authorities, their own workers, and local residents of dangerous chemicals held, while also laying down rules for the storage of specified chemicals. (Source: GILP96)

	English: silicon
	English definition: A brittle metalloid element that exists in two allotropic forms; occurs principally in sand, quartz, granite, feldspar, and clay. It is usually a grey crystalline solid but is also found as a brown amorphous powder. It is used in transistors, rectifiers, solar cells, and alloys. Its compounds are widely used in glass manufacture, the building industry, and in the form of silicones. (Source: CED)

	English: silo
	English definition: A large round tower on a farm for storing grain or winter food for cattle. (Source: CAMB)

	English: simulation
	English definition: A representation of a problem, situation in mathematical terms, especially using a computer. (Source: CED)

	English: sintering
	English definition: Forming a coherent bonded mass by heating metal powders without melting, used mostly in powder metallurgy. (Source: MGH)

	English: skiing
	English definition: Gliding over snow on skis, especially as a sport. (Source: CED)

	English: ski run
	English definition: A trail, slope, or course for skiing. (Source: CED)

	English: sleep
	English definition: A periodic state of physiological rest during which consciousness is suspended and metabolic rate is decreased. (Source: CED)

	English: sleep disturbance

	English: slaughterhouse waste
	English definition: Animal body parts cut off in the preparation of carcasses for use as food. This waste can come from several sources including slaughterhouses, restaurants, stores and farms. (Source: OED)

	English: animal for slaughter
	English definition: Animals bred and killed for the production of food. (Source: RRDA)

	English: beef cattle
	English definition: Cattle bred for the production of meat. (Source: RRDA)

slak; metaalslak; metaalslakken
	English: slag
	English definition: A nonmetallic product resulting from the interaction of flux and impurities in the smelting and refining of metals. (Source: MGH)

	English: snake
	English definition: Any reptile of the suborder Ophidia, typically having a scaly cylindrical limbless body, fused eyelids, and a jaw modified for swallowing large prey: includes venomous forms such as cobras and rattlesnakes, large nonvenomous constrictors, and small harmless types such as the grass snake. (Source: CED)

slechte werking
	English: malfunction
	English definition: Failure to function or defective functioning. (Source: CED)

	English: silt
	English definition: The fine mineral material formed from the erosion of rock fragments and deposited by rivers and lakes. Its particles are the intermediate form between sand and clay. The particles can range in size from 0.01-0.05 mm in diameter. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: sludge
	English definition: 1) A soft, soupy, or muddy bottom deposit, such as found on tideland or in a stream bed. 2) A semifluid, slushy, murky mass of sediment resulting from treatment of water, sewage, or industrial and mining wastes, and often appearing as local bottom deposits in polluted bodies of water. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: sludge digestion
	English definition: A treatment to stabilize raw sludge. The treatment can be either anaerobic process or aerobic process. (Source: LEE)

	English: sludge stabilisation
	English definition: Usually anaerobic sludge digestion, a treatment that stabilizes raw sludge. Fully digested sludge has little readily biodegradable organic matter. It is not smelly and about 50% of the solids are inorganic. Sludge can also be digested aerobically.

	English: sludge incineration
	English definition: A method used for drying and reducing sludge volume and weight. Since incineration requires auxiliary fuel to obtain and maintain high temperature and to evaporate the water contained in the incoming sludge, concentration techniques should be applied before incineration. Sludge incineration is a two-step process involving drying and combustion after a preceding dewatering process, such as filters, drying beds, or centrifuges. (Source: CORBIT)

	English: sludge treatment
	English definition: The processing of wastewater sludges to render them innocuous. This may be done by aerobic or anaerobic digestion followed by drying in sand beds, filtering, and incineration, filtering, and drying, or wet air oxidation.

	English: sludge settling pond
	English definition: Pond for the removal of settleable solids through which wastewater is passed in a treatment works. (Source: LANDY)

slikwad; wad
	English: mud flat
	English definition: A relatively level area of fine silt along a shore (as in a sheltered estuary) or around an island, alternately covered and uncovered by the tide, or covered by shallow water. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: demolition waste
	English definition: Masonry or rubble wastes arising from the demolition of buildings or other civil engineering structures.

	English: ditch
	English definition: A long, narrow excavation artificially dug in the ground; especially an open and usually unpaved waterway, channel, or trench for conveying water for drainage or irrigation, and usually smaller than a canal. Some ditches may be natural watercourses. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: demolition business
	English definition: The activity of reducing buildings or other structures to rubble. (Source: OED)

	English: sluice
	English definition: Vertical sliding gate or valve to regulate the flow of water in a channel or lock. (Source: MGH)

	English: sluice-gate
	English definition: A valve or gate fitted to a sluice to control the rate of flow of water. (Source: CED)

	English: closing down
	English definition: The cessation, discontinuation or breaking-off of a business transaction, lease, contract or employment arrangement, usually before its anticipated or stipulated end. (Source: BLD)

	English: proboscidean
	English definition: An order of herbivorous placental mammals characterized by having a proboscis, incisors enlarged to become tusks, and pillarlike legs with five toes bound together on a broad pad. (Source: MGH)

smaak van water
	English: water taste
	English definition: Taste in water can be caused by foreign matter, such as organic compounds, inorganic salts or dissolved gases. These materials may come from domestic, agricultural or natural sources. Some substances found naturally in groundwater, while not necessarily harmful, may impart a disagreeable taste or undesirable property to the water. Magnesium sulphate, sodium sulphate, and sodium chloride are but a few of these. Acceptable waters should be free from any objectionable taste at point of use. (Source: CORBIT)

	English: flavouring
	English definition: A substance, such as an extract or a spice, that imparts flavor. (Source: AMHER)

	English: lubricant
	English definition: A substance used to reduce friction between parts or objects in relative motion. (Source: MGH)

	English: smog
	English definition: Air pollution consisting of smoke and fog. The air pollution caused by the action of sunlight on unburned hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, mostly from car exhaust. It occurs over large industrial areas and urban complexes, and causes eye irritations, breathing problems and damage to plant life. (Source: MGH /  WRIGHT)

	English: smog warning
	English definition: Action, device or announcement that serves to give caution or notice to the level of air pollutants typically associated with oxidants in a given area. (Source: TOE / RHW)

	English: snow
	English definition: The most common form of frozen precipitation, usually flakes or starlike crystals, matted ice needles, or combinations, and often rime-coated. (Source: MGH)

	English: snowslide
	English definition: An avalanche of relatively pure snow; some rock and earth material may also be carried downward. (Source: MGH)

	English: speed
	English definition: A scalar measure of the rate of movement of a body expressed either as the distance travelled divided by the time taken (average speed) or the rate of change of position with respect to time at a particular point (instantaneous speed). It is measured in metres per second, miles per hour, etc. (Source: CED)

	English: speed limit
	English definition: The maximum permitted speed at which a vehicle may travel on certain roads. (Source: CED)

snelle proef
	English: rapid test
	English definition: Tests performed in the medical field whose results are available very quickly. (Source: RRDA)

snelle reactor
	English: fast reactor
	English definition: Nuclear reactor which produces more fissile material than it consumes, using fast-moving neutrons and making plutonium-239 from uranium-238, thereby increasing the reactor's efficiency. (Source: PHC)

	English: fast traffic

	English: highway
	English definition: A public road especially an important road that joins cities or towns together. (Source: CAMB)

	English: pruning
	English definition: The cutting off or removal of dead or living parts or branches of a plant to improve shape or growth. (Source: AMHERa)

sociaal beleid
	English: social policy
	English definition: A course of action adopted and pursued by government, business or some other organization, which seeks to ensure that all people have acceptable working or living conditions by providing social security, welfare, health care, insurance, fair employment practices, low cost housing or educational opportunities. (Source: MGHME)

sociaal gedrag
	English: social behaviour
	English definition: A person or community's general treatment, manner of conduct or action toward others as individuals or as members of variously identified groups. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

sociaal gedrag
	English: social-minded behaviour

sociaal probleem
	English: social problem
	English definition: A generic term applied to the range of conditions and aberrant behaviours which are considered to be manifestations of social disorganization and to warrant changing via some means of social engineering. Typically, these problems include many forms of deviant behaviour (such as crime, juvenile delinquency, prostitution, mental illness, drug addiction, suicide) and of social conflict (ethnic tension, domestic violence, industrial strife, andso forth).

sociaal systeem
	English: social system
	English definition: The concept of system appears throughout the social and natural sciences and has generated a body of literature of its own (general systems theory). A system is any pattern of relationships between elements, and is regarded as having emergent properties on its own over and above the properties of its elements.

sociaal-opvoedkundige activiteit
	English: socioeducational activity
	English definition: Instruction or events designed to offer learning or cultural experiences to populations without access to traditional educational institutions due to social or economic barriers. (Source: OED)

sociale analyse
	English: social analysis

sociale aspecten, bevolking
	English: social aspects, population

sociale aspecten, milieubeleidsmaatregelen
	English: social aspects, environmental policy measures

sociale bescherming
	English: social protection
	English definition: The monies and programs a society enacts through either public or private entities to provide economic security and general welfare for its members, often on account of old age, unemployment, health, disability or death of a spouse, parent or other benefactor. (Source: RHW)

sociale beweging
	English: social movement
	English definition: A organized effort by a significant number of people to change (or resist change in) some major aspect or aspects of society.

sociale dienst(verlening)
	English: social service
	English definition: Welfare activities organized by the state or a local authority and carried out by trained personnel. (Source: CED)

sociale differentiatie
	English: social differentiation
	English definition: A concept associated with evolutionary theories of history and with structural functionalism. Societies are seen as moving from the simple to the complex via a process of social change based on structural differentiation.

sociale dynamiek
	English: social dynamics
	English definition: The pattern, change, development and driving forces of a human group, community or society. (Source: RHW)

sociale geneeskunde
	English: social medicine
	English definition: Medicine as applied to treatment of diseases which occur in certain social groups. (Source: PHC)

sociale groep
	English: social group
	English definition: A collection of people who interact with one another and share a certain feeling of unity. (Source: SOC)

sociale hulpverlening
	English: social relief
	English definition: Public assistance especially financial given to persons in special need or difficulty.

sociale indicator
	English: social indicator
	English definition: Easily identified features of a society which can be measured, which vary over time, and are taken as revealing some underlying aspect of social reality. In general, the most commonly used indicators are derived from official statistics, and include unemployment figures, health and mortality data, and crime rates. (Source: SOCIOL)

sociale kosten
	English: social cost
	English definition: The price paid or the loss incurred to acquire, produce or maintain an objective or goal in a group, community or society. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

sociale omstandigheden
	English: social condition
	English definition: An existing circumstance, situation or state affecting the life, welfare and relations of human beings in community. (Source: RHW)

sociale omstandigheden
	English: social framework
	English definition: The underlying structure that connects and supports the various members and parts of a community or human organization. (Source: RHW)

sociale ongelijkheid
	English: social inequality
	English definition: Unequal rewards or opportunities for different individuals within a group or groups within a society. If equality is judged in terms of legal equality, equality of opportunity, or equality of outcome, then inequality is a constant feature of the human condition.

sociale ontwikkeling
	English: social development
	English definition: The state of nations and the hystorical processes of change experienced by them. The concept of development subsumes associated cultural and political changes as well as welfare measures which reflect distribution of goods, wealth and opportunities. (Source: GOOD)

sociale participatie
	English: social participation
	English definition: Collective, civic action shared and performed by a significant number of the community or general population. (Source: RHW)

sociale proces
	English: social process
	English definition: A continuous action, operation, or series of changes taking place in a definite manner and pertaining to the life, welfare, and relations of human beings in a community. (Source: RHW)

sociale psychologie
	English: social psychology
	English definition: Study of the effects of social structure on cognition and behavior, of processes of face-to-face interaction, and of the negotiation of social order. (Source: SASW)

sociale structuur
	English: social structure
	English definition: A term loosely applied to any recurring pattern of social behaviour; or, more specifically, to the ordered interrelationships between the different elements or a social system or society.

sociale vertegenwoordiging
	English: social representation
	English definition: A system of values, ideas and practices established to orient individuals in their community and culture and to provide them with naming, classification and communication codes. (Source: SRD)

sociale verzekering
	English: social security

sociale voorziening
	English: social facility
	English definition: Any structure designed, built or installed to provide space for living or interaction among persons in a community. (Source: RHW)

sociale waarde
	English: social value
	English definition: Regarding social values, distinctions are often drawn between values, which are strong, semi permanent, underlying, and sometimes inexplicit dispositions, and attitudes, which are shallow, weakly held, and highly variable views and opinions. Societies can usually tolerate highly diverse attitude, whereas they require some degree of homogeneity and consistency in the values held by people, providing a common fund of shared values which shape social and political consensus. (Source: SOCIOL)

sociale wetenschappen
	English: social science
	English definition: The study of society and of the relationship of individual members within society, including economics, history, political science, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. (Source: CED)

socio-culturele groep
	English: socio-cultural group
	English definition: A collection of people who interact and share a sense of unity on account of a common ethnic, ancestral, generational or regional identity. (Source: RHW)

	English: socioeconomics
	English definition: Economic and social structure of communities, tax rates, characteristic types of development. (Source: PASTU)

socio-economisch effect van biotechnologie
	English: socioeconomic impact of biotechnologies
	English definition: Biotechnology is the application of biological and technical solutions to problems, and often refers to the industrial use of microorganisms (perhaps genetically altered) to perform chemical processing, for example of waste or water, or to manufacture hormones or enzymes for medicinal and commercial purposes. Biotechnology offers great potential to increase farm production and food processing efficiency, to lower food costs, to enhance food quality and safety and to increase international competitiveness. (Source: WPR)

socio-economische factor
	English: socioeconomic factor
	English definition: An essential element in a society's make-up, organization or behavior that combines financial dimensions with inter-personal or inter-group dynamics. (Source: RHW / ISEP)

socio-economische kant van menselijke nederzettingen
	English: socioeconomic aspect of human settlements

	English: sociology
	English definition: The study of the development, organization, functioning and classification of human societies. (Source: CED)

sociologisch onderzoek
	English: social survey
	English definition: Data collections that employ both interviewing and sampling to produce quantitative data-sets, amenable to computer-based analysis. (Source: SOCIOL)

sociologisch onderzoek
	English: sociological survey
	English definition: Research on social questions or problems, especially focusing on cultural and environmental factors. (Source: WEBSTE)

sociopolitiek aspect
	English: sociopolitical aspect
	English definition: Any part, feature or quality of society that combines governmental dimensions with inter-personal or inter-group dynamics. (Source: RHW)

soepele benadering van milieubescherming
	English: flexible approach to environmental protection
	English definition: Plans, referred to in various rules as emissions averaging, or flexible compliance plans, allow facilities to undercontrol some emission points that are too costly to control to mandated levels as long as these units are balanced by overcontrolling other emission units that are more cost-effective to control. (Source: ENVAR)

	English: software
	English definition: Software is the general term used to describe all of the various programs that may be used on a computer system. Software can be divided into four main categories: systems software, development software, user interface software, applications software. (Source: POPTEL)

	English: software development

	English: species
	English definition: A taxonomic category ranking immediately below a genus and including closely related, morphologically similar individuals which actually or potentially inbreed. (Source: MGH)

soort aanspraak
	English: type of claim
	English definition: A class or category of interests or remedies recognized in law or equity that create in the holder a right to the interest or its proceeds, typically taking the form of money, property or privilege. (Source: BLD)

soort aanstelling
	English: type of tenure
	English definition: The manner in which land is owned and possessed, i.e. of title to its use. (Source: GOOD)

soort bedrijf
	English: type of business
	English definition: The class or category of an enterprise or organization involved in an economy. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

soort bedrijfsvoering
	English: type of management
	English definition: The different, specific methods of business administration. (Source: OED)

soort document
	English: document type
	English definition: Any one of a number of diverse classes of written, printed or digitized items furnishing information or evidence, and distinguished by content, form or function. (Source: RHW)

soort ecosysteem
	English: ecosystem type
	English definition: Ecosystems can be classified according to various criteria: from the point of view of energy source, two major types of ecosystems can be distinguished. Autotrophic ecosystems have primary producers as a principal component and sunlight has the major initial energy source; etherotrophic ecosystems depend upon preformed organic matter that is imported from autotrophic ecosystems elsewhere. Ecosystems can also be classified in terrestrial, marine and freshwater. (Source: PARCOR)

soort energie
	English: energy type
	English definition: According to the source, energy can be classified as hydroenergy, solar energy, tidal energy, wind energy, waves energy, geothermal energy, etc.. According to the type of fuel used for its production, energy can be classified as nuclear energy, coal derived energy, petroleum derived energy, biomass derived energy, etc. (Source: RRDA)

soort geluid
	English: noise type

soort milieuverontreiniging
	English: pollution type

soort plantegroei
	English: vegetation type
	English definition: A community of plants or plant life that share distinguishable characteristics. (Source: PEM)

	English: protection of species
	English definition: Measures adopted for the safeguarding of species, of their ecosystems and their biodiversity. (Source: ADMIN)

soorten afval
	English: waste
	English definition: Material, often unusable, left over from any manufacturing, industrial, agricultural or other human process; Material damaged or altered during a manufacturing process and subsequently left useless. (Source: HMD /  OED)

soorten met aanpassingsvermogen
	English: adaptable species

	English: species impoverishment
	English definition: Loss of species due to factors such as climate change or random events such as persistent drought, natural catastrophe, the emergence of a new predator, or genetic mutation. (Source: WRES)

	English: sorption
	English definition: The taking up, usually, of a liquid or gas into the body of another material (the absorbent). Thus, for instance, an air pollutant may be removed by absorption in a suitable solvent. (Source: HARRIS)

	English: reservoir
	English definition: An artificial or natural storage place for water, such as a lake or pond, from which the water may be withdrawn as for irrigation, municipal water supply, or flood control. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: water reservoir
	English definition: Artificial or natural area of water, used for storing water for domestic or industrial use. (Source: PHC)

spaarbekken voor overtollig regenwater
	English: storm water basin
	English definition: Basin used to hold water which falls as rain during a storm. (Source: RRDA)

spaarzaam energieverbruik
	English: energy economics
	English definition: The production, distribution, and consumption of usable power such as fossil fuel, electricity, or solar radiation. (Source: RHW)

	English: stress
	English definition: A stimulus or succession of stimuli of such magnitude as to tend to disrupt the homeostasis of the organism. (Source: MGH)

spasmodische kroep
	English: spasmodic croup

speciale vergunning
	English: special authorisation
	English definition: An exceptional granting of power or permission or a legislative act authorizing money to be spent on government programs. (Source: RHW)

specialisatie (biologisch)
	English: specialisation (biological)
	English definition: Evolutionary adaptation to a particular mode of life or habitat. (Source: LBC)

	English: spectral band
	English definition: Closely grouped bands of lines characteristic of molecular gases of chemical compounds (spectroscopy). (Source: DICCHE)

	English: spectroscopy
	English definition: The branch of physics concerned with the production, measurement, and interpretation of electromagnetic spectra arising from either emission or absorption of radiant energy by various substances. (Source: MGH)

	English: playground
	English definition: A piece of land used for recreation, especially by children, often including equipment such as swings and slides. (Source: RHW)

	English: game (play)
	English definition: An amusement or pastime; diversion. (Source: CED)

	English: muscular system
	English definition: The muscle cells, tissues, and organs that effect movement in all vertebrates. (Source: MGH)

	English: spider
	English definition: Any predatory silk-producing arachnid of the order Araneae, having four pairs of legs and a rounded unsegmented body consisting of abdomen and cephalothorax. (Source: CED)

	English: nuclear fuel element
	English definition: A piece of nuclear fuel which has been formed and coated, and is ready to be placed in a reactor fuel assembly. (Source: MGH)

	English: sponsorship
	English definition: A person, firm, organization, etc. that provides or pledges money for an undertaking or event.

	English: poriferan
	English definition: The sponges, a phylum of the animal kingdom characterized by the presence of canal systems and chambers through which water is drawn in and released; tissues and organs are absent. (Source: MGH)

	English: rail traffic
	English definition: The movement and circulation of vehicles transporting goods and people on railroad systems. (Source: RRDA)

	English: rail transport
	English definition: Transportation of goods and persons by railway. (Source: CEDa)

	English: railroad vehicle

	English: railway
	English definition: A permanent track composed of a line of parallel metal rails fixed to sleepers, for transport of passengers and goods in trains. (Source: CED)

	English: railway network
	English definition: The whole system of railway distribution in a country. (Source: RRDA)

	English: trace element
	English definition: Any of various chemical elements that occur in very small amounts in organisms and are essential for many physiological and biochemical processes. (Source: CED)

	English: trace material
	English definition: 1) Both metals and non-metals, essential for the metabolic processes of algae, invertebrates and vertebrates. Organisms that derive nearly all their energy via photosynthesis are especially dependent upon dissolved trace substances.2) Impurities that are present at small but detectable levels. (Source: NATURE /  GEMAIR)

	English: sport
	English definition: The complex of individual or group activities pursued for exercise or pleasure, often taking a competitive form. (Source: CED)

	English: sports facility
	English definition: Buildings, constructions, installations, organized areas and equipment for indoor and outdoor sport activities. (Source: RRDA)

	English: speech
	English definition: An address or form of oral communication in which a speaker makes his thoughts and emotions known before an audience, often for a given purpose. (Source: RHW)

	English: explosive
	English definition: A substance, such as trinitrotoluene, or a mixture, such as gunpowder, that is characterized by chemical stability but may be made to undergo rapid chemical change without an outside source of oxygen, whereupon it produces a large quantity of energy generally accompanied by the evolution of hot gases. (Source: MGH)

	English: grasshopper
	English definition: A plant-eating insect with long back legs that can jump very high and makes a sharp high noise using its back legs or wings. (Source: CAMB)

	English: sprayed asbestos
	English definition: Asbestos emitted into the atmosphere in a spraying operation.

	English: spray can
	English definition: An aerosol can for applying paint, deodorant, etc., as a fine spray. (Source: SHOOX)

	English: spurting
	English definition: Supplying water or pesticides to crops with a spray. (Source: PHCa)

	English: steel
	English definition: Any of various alloys based on iron containing carbon (usually 0.1-0.7 per cent) and often small quantities of other elements such as phosphorus, sulphur, manganese, chromium, and nickel. Steels exhibit a variety of properties, such as strength, machinability, malleability, etc., depending on their composition and the way they have been treated. (Source: CED)

	English: steel industry
	English definition: Industry that deals with the processing of iron. (Source: RRDA)

	English: state
	English definition: A people permanently occupying a fixed territory bound together by common law, habits and custom into one body politic exercising, through the medium of an organized government, independent sovereignty and control over all persons and things within its boundaries, unless or until authority is ceded to a federation or union of other states. (Source: BLD)

	English: state forest
	English definition: Forest owned and managed by the State. (Source: WEBSTEa)

	English: state control
	English definition: The power or authority of a government to regulate or command industry, organizations, programs, initiatives and individuals. (Source: RHW)

	English: public domain
	English definition: That which can be accessed, used and shared by the general populace without restrictions, penalties or fees. (Source: RHW)

	English: constitutional law
	English definition: That branch of the public law of a nation or state which treats of the organization, powers and frame of government, the distribution of political and governmental authorities and functions, the fundamental principles which are to regulate the relations of government and citizen and which prescribes generally the plan and method according to which the public affairs of the nation or state are to be administered. (Source: BLACK)

	English: municipal law
	English definition: Broadly, a law or body of laws that pertains solely to the citizens and inhabitants of a state; narrowly, a law or body of laws pertaining to towns, cities, villages and their local governments. (Source: BLD)

	English: mobile home
	English definition: Living quarters mounted on wheels and capable of being towed by a motor vehicle. (Source: CED)

	English: city
	English definition: Term used generically today to denote any urban form but applied particularly to large urban settlements. There are, however, no agreed definitions to separate a city from the large metropolis or the smaller town. (Source: GOOD)

	English: urban stress
	English definition: A state of bodily or mental tension developed through city living, or the physical, chemical, or emotional factors that give rise to that tension. (Source: MED)

	English: urban ecology
	English definition: Concept derived from biology: the city is viewed as a total environment, as a life-supporting system for the large number of people concentrated there, and within this people organize themselves and adapt to a constantly changing environment. Regarded as the same as human ecology. (Source: GOOD)

	English: urban community
	English definition: Body of people living in a town or city.

	English: urban landscape
	English definition: The traits, patterns and structure of a city's specific geographic area, including its biological composition, its physical environment and its social patterns. (Source: TOE)

	English: urban noise
	English definition: Noise emitted from various sources in an urban environment.

	English: urban study
	English definition: The study and theory of building and other physical needs in cities or predominantly urban cultures. (Source: ECHO2)

	English: urban development
	English definition: Any physical extension of, or changes to, the uses of land in metropolitan areas, often involving subdivision into zones; construction or modification of buildings, roads, utilities and other facilities; removal of trees and other obstructions; and population growth and related economic, social and political changes. (Source: CGP / AAG)

stadsplanning en -ontwikkeling
	English: urban planning and development
	English definition: The activity or process of preparing for the future arrangement and condition of an urban center, particularly the development of its physical lay-out, which would include the construction, reconstruction, conversion, alteration or enlargement of buildings and other structures, and the extension or use of undeveloped land. (Source: RHW / ELD)

	English: urban sanitation
	English definition: The renovation or redevelopment of the decaying areas of cities by the demolition or up-grading of existing dwellings and buildings and a general improvement in environmental conditions. (Source: GILP96)

	English: urban structure
	English definition: The built-up components, the street system and the facilities which make up an urban unit. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: rapid transit train

	English: urban sprawl
	English definition: The physical pattern of low-density expansion of large urban areas under market conditions into the surrounding agricultural areas. Sprawl lies in advance of the principal lines of urban growth and implies little planning control of land subdivision. Development is patchy, scattered and strung out, with a tendency to discontinuity because it leap-frogs over some areas, leaving agricultural enclaves. (Source: GOOD)

	English: urban traffic
	English definition: Movements of vehicles and people within a city. (Source: RRDA)

	English: urban renewal
	English definition: A continuing process of remodelling urban areas by means of rehabilitation and conservation as well as redevelopment. Urban renewal programmes are generally undertaken by public authorities and concern those parts of the city which have fallen below current standards of public acceptability. (Source: GOOD)

	English: urban decay
	English definition: Condition where part of a city or town becomes old or dirty or ruined, because businesses and wealthy families have moved away from it. (Source: PHC)

	English: urban pollutant

	English: urban pollution
	English definition: Pollution of highly populated areas mainly deriving from motor vehicles, industrial plants, combustion and heating plants, etc. (Source: GREMES)

	English: district heating
	English definition: The supply of heat, either in the form of steam or hot water, from a central source to a group of buildings. (Source: MGH)

	English: district heating plant
	English definition: Plant for heating all houses in a district; it consists of a large, efficient, centralized boiler plant or 'waste' steam from a power station. The heat is distributed by means of low-pressure steam or high-temperature water to the consumers. (Source: PHC /  PORT)

	English: urban settlement
	English definition: A collection of dwellings located in an urban area. (Source: CEDa)

	English: urban facility
	English definition: Supply of essential services to the community, e.g. electricity, gas, water. (Source: GOOD)

	English: urban water
	English definition: Water destined for private and public use in a town. (Source: RRDA)

	English: stable
	English definition: A building or structure usually with stalls that is used to house and feed horses, cattle or other animals. (Source: RHW)

	English: stock (biological)
	English definition: A group of individuals of one species within a specified area. (Source: LBC)

	English: standardisation
	English definition: The act of conforming to a rule. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: code of practice
	English definition: A systematic collection of procedures outlining the established method of application of all relevant laws, rules or regulations to a specific endeavor. (Source: BLD)

statiegeldregeling voor verpakking
	English: arrangement for a deposit on packaging
	English definition: Agreement to provide refunds or payments in exchange for used bottles or packaging materials. (Source: RHW)

	English: station
	English definition: A place along a route or line at which a bus, train, etc. stops for fuel or to pick up or let off passengers or goods, especially with ancillary buildings and services. (Source: CED)

	English: statistics
	English definition: A branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of masses of numerical data. (Source: LANDY)

statistische analyse
	English: statistical analysis
	English definition: The body of techniques used in statistical inference concerning a population. (Source: MGH)

statistische gegevens
	English: statistical data

statistische informatie
	English: statistical information
	English definition: Knowledge pertaining to the collection, classification, analysis and interpretation of numerical data. (Source: ISEP /  RHW)

statistische informatiesysteem
	English: statistical information system
	English definition: A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources enabling the exchange of numerical data that has been collected, classified or interpreted for analysis. (Source: RHW)

statistische reeks
	English: statistical series
	English definition: An ordered sequence of data samples in numerical form used to predict or demonstrate trends through time and space. (Source: RHW / APD)

status van de vrouw
	English: woman's status
	English definition: The social position, rank or relative importance of women in society.

stedelijk actieplan
	English: urban action program
	English definition: A planned, coordinated group of activities or services intended for improving urban centers in order to provide healthy and safe living conditions, efficient transport and communication, adequate public facilities and aesthetic surroundings. (Source: RHW / INP)

stedelijk afvalwater
	English: urban wastewater
	English definition: The liquid wastes deriving from domestic, commercial and industrial activities of an urban settlement. (Source: RRDA)

stedelijk beheer
	English: urban management
	English definition: The administration, organization and planning performed for cities or towns, particularly the process of converting farmland or undeveloped land into offices, businesses, housing and other forms of development. (Source: DOE)

stedelijk beleid
	English: urban policy
	English definition: A course of action adopted and pursued by government, business or some other organization, which seeks to improve or develop cities or towns through land use planning, water resource management, central city development, policing and criminal justice, or pollution control. (Source: MGHME)

stedelijk ecosysteem
	English: urban ecosystem
	English definition: Towns and cities viewed as ecosystems, having an input of matter and energy, recycling within the system, and an output of matter and energy into the surroundings. (Source: GILP96)

stedelijk gebied
	English: urban area
	English definition: Areas within the legal boundaries of cities and towns; suburban areas developed for residential, industrial or recreational purposes. (Source: LANDY)

stedelijk groeipatroon
	English: pattern of urban growth
	English definition: The combination of acts, tendencies and other observable characteristics that demonstrates a municipal area's progress or state of development, including its population trends. (Source: RHW)

stedelijk groen
	English: urban green
	English definition: The complex of private and public gardens in an urban area. (Source: DIFID)

stedelijk leefmilieu, stedelijke druk
	English: urban environment, urban stress

stedelijke bevolking
	English: urban population
	English definition: The total number of persons inhabiting a city, metropolitan region or any area where the sum of residents exceeds a designated amount. (Source: RHW)

stedelijke concentratie
	English: urban concentration
	English definition: A process in which an increasing proportion of a country's population is concentrated in urban areas. (Source: GOOD)

stedelijke habitat
	English: urban habitat
	English definition: The resulting effects and interrelationships of human population concentrations, the built environment, and the biophysical environment. (Source: UNUN)

stedelijke ontwikkelingsdocument
	English: urban development document
	English definition: A written or printed text furnishing proposals or procedures for the improvement of living conditions, especially housing, for the inhabitants of a city or densely populated area. (Source: RHW)

stedelijke ontwikkelingswet
	English: urban development law
	English definition: A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by government to regulate public services and the competing claims of residential, commercial and industrial interests in municipal areas generally characterized by moderate to high population density. (Source: CGP)

stedelijke planning
	English: urban planning
	English definition: The activity of designing, organizing or preparing for the future lay-out and condition of a city or town. (Source: RHW)

stedelijke stromen (hulpbronnen)
	English: urban flows (resources)

stedelijke vormgeving
	English: urban design
	English definition: A plan, outline or preliminary sketch of, or for, a city or town. (Source: ISEP)

stedelijke watervoorziening
	English: urban water supply
	English definition: The distribution of water, including collection, treatment and storage, for use in a town, city or municipal area, and used generally for domestic and industrial needs. (Source: WWC)

	English: random test
	English definition: Tests which do not always yield the same result when repeated under the same conditions. (Source: MGH)

	English: stone
	English definition: A general term for rock that is used in construction, either crushed for use as aggregate or cut into shaped blocks as dimension stone. (Source: BJGEO)

	English: black coal
	English definition: A natural black graphitelike material used as a fuel, formed from fossilized plants and consisting of amorphous carbon with various organic and some inorganic compounds. (Source: AMHER)

	English: coal
	English definition: The natural, rocklike, brown to black derivative of forest-type plant material, usually accumulated in peat beds and progressively compressed and indurated until it is finally altered in to graphite-like material. (Source: MGH)

	English: coal-fired power plant
	English definition: Power plant which is fuelled by coal. (Source: CAMB)

	English: coal-based energy
	English definition: Power generated by the steam raised by burning coal in fire-tube or water-tube boilers. (Source: PARCOR)

	English: coal industry
	English definition: Industry related with the technical and mechanical activity of removing coal from the earth and preparing it for market. (Source: MGH)

	English: coal liquefaction
	English definition: The process of preparing a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons by destructive distillation of coal. (Source: MGH)

	English: coal mining
	English definition: The technical and mechanical job of removing coal from the earth and preparing it for market. (Source: MGH)

	English: coal gasification
	English definition: Process of conversion of coal to a gaseous product which is used as fuel in electric power stations. (Source: ECSK)

	English: rock wool
	English definition: A generic term for felted or matted fibers manufactured by blowing or spinning threads of molten rock, slag, or glass. The material is used for thermal insulation. (Source: BJGEO)

stek [planten]
	English: cutting (vegetative propagation)
	English definition: In plant propagation, young shoots or stems removed for the purpose of growing new plants by vegetatively rooting the cuttings. (Source: DUNSTE)

	English: echinoderm
	English definition: Marine coelomate animals distinguished from all others by an internal skeleton composed of calcite plates, and a water-vascular system to serve the needs of locomotion, respiration, nutrition or perception. (Source: MGH)

	English: voting
	English definition: The act of formally expressing an opinion or choice in some matter or for some candidate, usually by voice or  ballot. (Source: CIV)

	English: mortality
	English definition: The number of deaths occurring in a given population for a given period of time. (Source: MGH)

	English: sterilisation (biological)
	English definition: Procedure by which a human or other animal is made incapable of reproduction. (Source: WEBSTE)

	English: sterilisation (process)
	English definition: An act or process of destroying all forms of microbial life on and in an object. (Source: MGH)

	English: steroid
	English definition: A compound composed of a series of four carbon rings joined together to form a structural unit called cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. (Source: MGH)

stijgende zeespiegel
	English: rising sea level
	English definition: Sea level rises are a possible consequence of global warming. As the amount of free water in the ocean increases, and as the water becomes warmer, global warming will increase. In addition, according to theory, the heating at the poles may reduce the amount of water trapped in glaciers and ice caps. By the year 3000, the seas could rise between one and two metres. Such an event would clearly threaten low-lying areas, particularly in Asia, where million of people live and farm on river deltas and flood plains. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: nitrogen
	English definition: An essential nutrient in the food supply of plants and the diets of animals. Animals obtain it in nitrogen-containing compounds, particularly amino acids. Although the atmosphere is nearly 80% gaseous nitrogen, very few organisms have the ability to use it in this form. The higher plants normally obtain it from the soil after micro-organisms have converted the nitrogen into ammonia or nitrates, which they can then absorb. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: nitrogen fixation
	English definition: Assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by a variety of microorganisms which live freely in soil. Once the nitrogen has been captured by one of the microorganisms, there are many different routes by which it is handled. Some is retained in the soil as decomposing plant matter, waiting to be released and taken up by new crops as a nitrate. That nitrate is produced by nitrifying bacteria living in the soil that thrive on ammonia, which is produced by decaying plant and animal material. In processing nitrogen the nitrifying bacteria produce nitrate that can be absorbed by the roots of plants. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: nitrogen dioxide
	English definition: A reddish-brown gas; it exists in varying degrees of concentration in equilibrium with other nitrogen oxides; used to produce nitric acid. (Source: MGH)

	English: nitrogen cycle
	English definition: The complex set of processes by which crops acquire the large amount of nitrogen they need to make proteins, nucleic acids and other biochemicals of which they are composed, and how the nitrogen returns to the atmosphere. (Source: WRIGHT)

	English: nitrogenous fertiliser
	English definition: Fertilizer materials, natural or synthesized, containing nitrogen available for fixation by vegetation, such as potassium nitrate or ammonium nitrate. (Source: MGH)

	English: nitrogen monoxide
	English definition: A colourless gas, soluble in water, ethanol and ether. It is formed in many reactions involving the reduction of nitric acid, but more convenient reactions for the preparation of reasonably pure NO are reactions of sodium nitrite, sulphuric acid, etc. (Source: DICCHE)

	English: nitrogen oxide
	English definition: A colorless gas that, at room temperature, reacts withoxygen to form nitrogen dioxide; may be used to form other compounds. (Source: MGH)

	English: nitrogen oxides
	English definition: Oxides formed and released in all common types of combustion; they are formed by the oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen at high temperatures. Introduced into the atmosphere from car exhausts, furnace stacks, incinerators, power stations and similar sources, the oxides include nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen pentoxide and nitric acid. The oxides of nitrogen undergo many reactions in the atmosphere to form photochemical smog. (Source: GILP96)

	English: nitro compound
	English definition: Any one of a class of usually organic compounds that contain the monovalent group, -NO2 (nitro group or radical) linked to a carbon atom. (Source: CED)

stille technologie
	English: noise-free technology
	English definition: Sound is radiated both as air-borne and as structure-borne; most sources produce both, thus various noise attenuation principles must be employed. Measures include: the replacement of components with quieter parts and material; the enclosure of particularly noisy components; the selection of quieter types of fan; the replacement of noisy compressed-air nozzles with quieter types; the choice of quieter transmission and cooling systems. (Source: GILP96a)

	English: incentive tax

	English: incentive fund
	English definition: Money or financial resources set aside to stimulate, encourage, or incite action towards greater productivity. (Source: RHW)

	English: dust
	English definition: Any kind of solid material divided in particles of very small size. (Source: ZINZAN)

	English: balance of matter
	English definition: A calculation to inventory material inputs versus outputs in a process system. (Source: MGH)

	English: behaviour of substances
	English definition: Reactivity of a compound depending on the structure of the molecules. (Source: RRDA)

	English: dust immission

	English: dust removal
	English definition: The removal of dust from air by ventilation or exhaust systems. (Source: KOREN)

	English: metabolism
	English definition: All the chemical reactions that take place in a living organism, comprising both anabolism and catabolism. Basal metabolism is the energy exchange of an animal at rest. Catabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones. Catabolism is the breaking down by organisms of complex molecules into simpler ones with the liberation of energy. (Source: ALL)

stofwisseling van bestrijdingsmiddelen
	English: metabolism of pesticides
	English definition: The sum of chemical reactions, including both synthesis and breakdown, that occurs in substances or mixtures intended to prevent, destroy or mitigate pests that are directly or indirectly detrimental to harvest crops and other humans interests. (Source: SOI / TOE / IPC / DOE)

	English: metabolite
	English definition: A product of intermediary metabolism. (Source: MGH)

	English: coagulation
	English definition: A separation or precipitation from a dispersed state of suspensoid particles resulting from their growth; may result from prolonged heating, addition of an electrolyte, or from a condensation reaction between solute and solvent. (Source: MGH)

	English: fuel oil
	English definition: A liquid product burned to generate heat, exclusive of oils with a flash point below 38degC; includes heating oils, stove oils, furnace oils, bunker fuel oils. (Source: MGH)

	English: steam generator
	English definition: A pressurized system in which water is vaporized to steam by heat transferred from a source of higher temperature, usually the products of combustion from burning fuels. Also known as steam boiler. (Source: MGH)

storend geluid
	English: noise pollutant
	English definition: Noise in the environment which can be harmful to human beings, animals and plants. (Source: ISEP)

	English: storm