Note: As per the author’s instructions[1], I have copied his entire page, verbatim.

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A Glossary of Computer Oriented Abbreviations and Acronyms

Version 96C
Copyright ©: 1989-1996.......Irving Kind.......All Rights Reserved
       (1) Using the vertical scroll bar.
       (2) Using the PgDn key.
       (3) Using your browser's FIND command.
       (4) Clicking on one of the (TOP) or (UP/DN to ...) or (BOTTOM)
           buttons found at the top of each letter-group section.
       (5) START by clicking on any letter-group button below.
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) ( I ) (J ) (K) (L) (M)
(N) (O) (P) (Q) (R) (S) (T) (U) (V ) (W) (X) (Y) (Z)
(Opening Page)(Appendix A) (AppendixB) (Appendix C)
     First compiled when I became frustrated while reading magazine
articles, help wanted ads and equipment for sale brochures....all
pertaining to computers....where the following Abbreviations and
Acronyms were used and their meanings were either not known to me
or were not immediately available. I have actually seen (or have
been told about) these combinations of letters used at one time or
another in magazines, newspapers, handbooks, etc. They apply to
personal computers, multimedia, communications, programming,
networking, name it. This glossary can never be
considered complete and that is why I now request your help. Look
over the definitions and let me have your feedback. If you have
ever seen letter combinations that you also did not understand,
please drop me a note at the address below. Also, if you find any
errors, obsolete information or can suggest any additions or
deletions, they will be most welcome. If you can help, you have my
thanks in advance.
     Keep BABEL on your computer or print it out and keep it on
your desk. Either way, you will have an outstanding reference.
BABEL is revised three times a year, in January, May and September
so as to keep you up-to-date. You may download the latest version
of BABEL from your favorite BBS or from the Internet. See
APPENDIX A for description of methods that may be used to obtain
     Letter groups followed with " * " were used before 1965. At
some of these, I have noted historical information. For a brief
interpretation of "smiley faces" and other informal expressions
used in electronic mail messages, see APPENDIX B. For a partial
list of Country Domain Names, see APPENDIX C.
     BABEL is not public domain. Permission is hereby granted to
any individual or public institution to redistribute BABEL; only in
its entirety and provided it is distributed without ANY modification
to also include this opening page, copyright and version notices,
and format. It may not be incorporated into any other document, or
published, or sold (for profit or otherwise), without my express
written permission. Any questions concerning these restrictions
should only be made in writing and mailed to address shown below.
     And please remember to ECAL.
                 Irving Kind Internet:
                 c/o K & D
                 One Church Lane
                 Baltimore, MD 21208
Jan 1996 version = BABEL96A Jan 1997 version = BABEL97A
May 1996 version = BABEL96B May 1997 version = BABEL97B
Sep 1996 version = BABEL96C Sep 1997 version = BABEL97C
(TOP) (DN to B) (BOTTOM)
AA Auto Answer
AAB All-to-All Broadcast
AAL Asynchronous Transfer Mode Adaption Layer
AAP Applications Access Point [DEC]
AAS All-to-All Scatter
AASP ASCII Asynchronous Support Package
AAT Average Access Time
ABC * Atanasoff-Berry Computer (First digital
          calculating machine that used vacuum tubes)
ABEND Abnormal End
ABI Application Binary Interface
ABIST Automatic Built-In Self-Test [IBM]
ABLE Adaptive Battery Life Extender
ABR Available Bit Rate
ABRS Automated Book Request System [British Library]
ABS Absolute
ABT Abort
ABTS ASCII Block Terminal Services
AC Autocheck + Automatic Computer + Alternating Current
ACC Accumulator
ACD Automated Call Distribution +
          Automatic Call Distributor
ACDI Asynchronous Communications Device Interface
ACE Advanced Computing Environment [SCO] +
          Adverse Channel Enhancements [Microcom] +
       * Automatic Computing Engine
ACF Access Control Field +
          Advanced Communications Function
ACH Automated Clearing House
ACIAS Automated Calibration Interval Analysis System
ACIS American Committee for Interoperable Systems
ACK Acknowledgment
ACL Access Control List
ACM Association for Computing Machinery
          Audio Compression Manager [Microsoft]
ACMS Application Control Management System
ACP Ancillary Control Program +
          Auxillary Control Process
ACROSS Automated Cargo Release and Operations
          Service System
ACS Access + Access Control Set +
          Access Control System +
          Asynchronous Communication Server
ACTS Automated Computer Time Service
ACTT Advanced Communication and Timekeeping
          Technology [Seiko]
ACU Automatic Calling Unit
A/D Analog to Digital
ADA Automatic Data Acquisitions + Programming
          Language named after Augusta Ada Lovelace)
ADB Apple Desktop Bus
ADC Adaptive Data Compression (protocol) [Hayes] +
          Add with Carry + Analog to Digital Converter
ADCCP Advanced Data Communication Control Procedures
ADD Automatic Document Detection [WordPerfect]
ADF Automatic Document Feeder +
          Automatically Defined Function
.ADF Adapter Description File (file name extension)
ADI AutoCad Device Interface (driver)
ADL Address Data Latch
ADLAT Adaptive Lattice Filter
ADLC Adaptive Lossless Data Compression [IBM] +
          Asynchronous Data Link Control
ADMACS Apple Document Mangagement And Conrol System
ADMD Administrative Management Domain [X.400]
.ADN Add In Utility (file name extension)
          [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
ADP Automatic Data Processing
ADPCM Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
ADR Address
ADS Application Development Solutions [AT&T] +
          Application Development System +
          Automatic Distribution System
ADSC Address Status Changed +
          Adobe Document Structuring Conventions
ADSL Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
ADSR Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release
ADT Application Data Types
ADU Automatic Dialing Unit
AE Above or Equal
AEB Analog Expansion Bus [Dialogic]
AF Auxiliary carry Flag
AFA Accelerated File Access
AFC Automatic Font Change + Automatic Frequency Control
AFD Automatic File Distribution
AFII Association for Font Information Interchange
AFIRM Automated Fingerprint Image Reporting and Match
AFIS Automated Fingerprint Identification System
.AFM Adobe Font Metrics (file name extension)
          [Adobe Systems]
AFP Appletalk Filing Protocol [Macintosh]
AFS Andrew File System (protocols)
AFTP Anonymous File Transfer Protocol
AGC Automatic Gain Control
AGRAS Antiglare-Antireflective-Antistatic
AGU Address-Generation Unit
AI Analog Input + Artificial Intelligence
AIA Applications Integration Architecture [DEC]
AIC AIXwindows Interface Composer [IBM]
AIF Audio Interchange Format
AIIM Association for Information and Image Management
AIN Advanced Intelligent Network [Bell Atlantic]
AIS Automated Identification System [NCIC]
AISB Association of Imaging Service Bureaus
AISP Association of Information Systems Professionals
AIX Advanced Interactive Executive [IBM]
ALC Arithmetic and Logic Circuits +
          Automatic Level Control
ALE Address Latch Enable
ALGOL Algorithmic Oriented Language (see IAL)
ALIBI Adaptive Location of Internetworked Bases
          of Information
ALINK Active Link [HTML]
ALIWEB Archie Like Indexing in the Web [Internet]
ALN Asynchronous Learning Network
ALR Advanced Logic Research, Inc.
ALT Alternate (mode)
ALT. Alternate lifestyle [USENET Newsgroup Category]
ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit
AMANDDA Automated Messaging and Directory Assistance
AMD Active Matrix Display +
          Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
AMI American Megatrends, Inc.
AMMA Advanced Memory Management Architecture
          [Everex Systems]
AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone Service
ANCOVA Analysis of Covariance
ANDF Architecture-Neutral Distribution Format
ANI Automatic Number Identification
.ANI Animated Cursor (file name extension) [Microsoft]
ANN Artificial Neural Network
.ANN Annotations (file name extension) [IBM]
ANOVA Analysis Of Variance
ANSI American National Standards Institute
AO Analog Output
AOCE Apple Open Collaboration Environment
AOE Application Operating Environment [AT&T]
AOL America Online
AOS Add Or Subtract
AP Adjunct Processor + Application Processor
A/P Accounts Payable
APA Adaptive Packet Assembly +
          All Points Addressable +
          Arithmetic Processing Accelerator
APAR Authorized Program Analysis Report [IBM]
APAREN Address Parity Enable [IBM]
APCUG Association of PC User Groups
API Application Program Interface
APIC Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller (bus) [Intel]
APIS Advanced Passenger Information System
APL A Programming Language (Mathematics)
APM Advanced Power Management [IBM OS2]
.APP Application (file name extension) [R:Base]
APPC Advanced Program-to-Program Communications [IBM]
APPI Advanced Peer-to-Peer Internetworking
APPN Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking [IBM]
APPS Applications
APRP Adaptive Pattern Recognition Processing
APS Advanced Photo System + Advanced Printing Service [IBM]
          Asynchronous Protocol Specification
APSE ADA Programming Support Environment
APT Address Pass Through +
          Advanced Parallel Technology +
          Automatically Programmed Tools
A/R Accounts Receivable
ARA AppleTalk Remote Access
ARAG Antireflective-Antiglare
ARAS Antireflective-Antistatic
.ARC Archive (file name extension)
ARCA Advanced RISC Computing Architecture
ARCnet Attached Resource Computer Network
.ARJ Compressed File (file name extension) [Jung]
ARL Adjusted Ring Length
ARLL Advanced Run Length Limited
ARM Advanced RISC Machine (processor) +
          Annotated Reference Manual +
          Asynchronous Response Mode
ARMA Association of Records Managers and Administrators
ARP Address Resolution Protocol [Novell]
ARPANET Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
ARPL Adjust Requested Privilege Level
ARTA Apple Real Time Architecture
ARTIC A Real-Time Interface Copressor [IBM]
ARTS Asynchronous Remote Takeover Server
ARTT Asynchronous Remote Takeover Terminal
ARQ Automatic Repeat Request
ARU Audio Response Unit
AS Autonomous System [Internet]
ASAP As Soon As Possible +
          Automatic Switching And Processing
AS3AP ANSI SQL Standard Scalable and Portable
.ASC ASCII text (file name extension)
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASIC Application-Specific Integrated Circuit
ASIT Advanced Security and Identification Technology
ASL Adaptive Speed Levelling
ASLM Apple Shared Library Manager [Macintosh]
.ASM Assembler Source Language (file name extension)
ASMP Asymmetric Multprocessing
ASN Abstract Syntax Notation +
          Autonomous System Number
ASP Association of Shareware Professionals
ASPI Advanced SCSI Programming Interface [Adaptec]
ASPS Advanced Signal Processing System
ASR Address Space Register + Automatic Send-Receive +
          Automatic Speech Recognition
AST AST Research, Inc. (named from first initials of
          the founders: Albert Wong, Safi Qureshey, Thomas Yuen)
AS/U Advanced Server for Unix
ASYNC Asynchronous
AT Advanced Technology + Attention
ATA Advanced Technology Attachment
ATDP Attention Dial Pulse
ATDT Attention Dial Tone
ATE Automated Test Equipment
ATG Advanced Technology Group
ATH Attention Hang-Up (Modem command)
ATM Adobe Typeface Manager +
          Asynchronous Transfer Mode +
          Automated Teller Machine
ATPS AppleTalk Printing Services [Macintosh]
ATR Automatic Terminal Recognition
ATS Administrative Terminal System +
          Apple Terminal Services
AT&T American Telephone and Telegraph
ATTN Attention
ATTRIB Attribute (also ATR)
ATZ Attention Restore configuration profile from
          nonvolatile RAM (Modem command)
.AU Audio (file name extension)
AUDIT Automated Data Input Terminal
AUI Attachment Unit Interface
AUP Acceptable Use Policy [Internet]
AUTO Automatic
AUTOEXEC Automatic Execution
AUX Auxiliary + (First Serial Port)
AV Audio/Video + Audiovisual + Authenticity Verification
AVA Audio Visual Authoring [IBM]
AVC Audio Visual Connection [IBM]
AVG Average
AVI Audio Visual Interleave [Microsoft]
AVR Automatic Voice Recognition
AWG American Wire Gage
AWK (Unix language named after its authors...
          Al Aho, Peter Weinberger and Brian Kernighan)
AWS Advanced Workstations and Systems (group) [IBM]
AX Architecture Extended + Automatic Transmission
(TOP) (UP to A) (DN to C) (BOTTOM)
BACP Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol
BAK Binary Adaptation Kit [Microsoft]
.BAK Backup (file name extension)
BAL Basic Assembly Language
BALUN Balanced Unbalanced (device)
BAM Boyan Action Module
BARTS Bell Atlantic Regional Timesharing
.BAS Basic Language (file name extension)
BASH Bourne Again Shell [Unix]
BASIC Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BASM Built-In Assembler
BAT Block Address Translation
.BAT Batch Processing (file name extension)
BBS Bulletin Board System
BCC Block Check Character
BCC: Blind Carbon Copy
BCD Binary Coded Decimal
B-CHANNEL Bearer Channel
BCL Batch Command Language
BCN Beacon
BCP Best Current Practice + Bulk Copy Program
BCPL Basic Computer Programming Language
BCR Byte Count Register
BCS Bar Code Sorter
BDA Bios Data Area
BDE Borland Database Engine [Borland]
BDOS Basic Disk Operating System
BDR Bus Device Request
BE Below or Equal
BECN Backward Explicit Congestion Notification
BEDO Burst Extended Data Out
BEL Bell
BELLCORE Bell Communications Research
BERT Bit Error Rate Test/Tester
BF Bad Flag
B/F Background/Foreground
BFF Binary File Format [IBM]
BFT Binary File Transfer
BGA Ball Grid Array
BGCOLOR Background Color [HTML]
BGE Branch if Greater or Equal
.BGI Borland Graphic Interface (file name extension)
BGP Border Gateway Protocol
BGT Branch if Greater Than
BHI Branch if Higher
BHIS Branch if Higher or Same
BI Binary Input
.BIB Bibliography (file name extension)
BiDi Bi-Directional
BIM Beginning of Information Marker
.BIN Binary (file name extension)
BINAC * Binary Automatic Computer
BIND Berkeley Internet Name Domain
BIOS Basic Input/Output System
BIS Business Information System
BISDN Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network
BIST Built-In Self-Test
BIT Binary Digit
BITNET Because It's Time Network
BITNIC Bitnet Network Information Center
BIU Bus Interface Unit
BIX Byte Information Exchange (BBS)
BIZ. Business [USENET Newsgroup Category]
.BK! Backup (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
.B~K Backup (file name extension)
BKSP Backspace
BL Backlit + Bit Line
BLAST Blocked Asynchronous Transmission (protocol)
          [Communications Research Group]
.BLD BASIC Bload Graphics (file name extension)
BLE Branch if Less or Equal
BLER Block Error
BLK Block
BLMC Buried Logic Macrocell
BLOB Binary Large Object
BLOS Branch if Lower Or Same
BMI Branch if Minus
BMIC BusMaster Interface Controller [Intel]
BMP Basic Mapping Support + Batch Message Processing Program
.BMP Bitmap Picture (file name extension)
BNC Bayonet Neill-Concelman (connector used with
          coaxial cable invented by Mr. Neill-Concelman)
BNE Branch if Not Equal
BNF Backus-Naur Form (also Backus-Normal Form) [developed by
          John Backus and Peter Naur]
BNS Backbone Network Service
BO Binary Output
BoB Break-out Box
BOC Basic Operator Console
BOF Beginning Of File
BOM Beginning Of Message
BOND Bandwidth On Demand
BOOTP Bootstrap Protocol [Internet]
BOPS Billion Operations Per Second
BORPQU Borland Pro Quattro
BORQU Borland Quattro
BOS Basic Operating System
BOT Beginning Of Table + Beginning of Tape
BP Base Pointer
BPB BIOS Parameter Block
BPDU Bridge Protocol Data Unit
BPI Bits Per Inch
BPL Branch if Plus
BPS Bits Per Second + Bytes Per Second
BR Bad Register
BRGC Binary Reflected Gray Code
BRI Basic Rate Interface + Brain Response Interface
BS Backspace
BSAM Basic Sequential Access Method
BSC Binary Synchronous Communication
.BSC Boyan Script (file name extension) [Boyan Communications]
BSCS Bachelor of Science (Degree) in Computer Science
BSD Berkely Software/Standard Distribution
BSF Bit Scan Forward
BSI British Standards Institute
BSR Bit Scan Reverse
BSS Block Started by Symbol
BSV BASIC Bsave Graphics (file name extension)
BSY Busy
BSYNC Binary Synchronous Communications (protocol)
BT Bit Test
BTAM Basic Telecommunications Access Method [IBM]
BTB Branch Target Buffer
BTC Bit Test and Complement
BTP Batch Transfer Program
BTR Bit Test and Reset
BTS Bit Test and Set
BU Branch Unit
BUBL Bulletin Board for Libraries [Janet]
BUF Buffer
BVH Base Video Handler
BWM Block-Write Mode
B2X Binary To Hexadecimal [REXX]
BYTE Binary Element String
(TOP) (UP to B) (DN to D) (BOTTOM)
C C Programming Language
.C C source code (file name extension) [C]
CA Collision Avoidance
CAD Computer Aided Design
CADD Computer Aided Design and Drafting
CADE Client/server Application Development Environment
CAE Client Application Enabler +
          Common Applications Environment + Computer Aided Engineering
CAEX Computer Aided Exploration
CAG Column Address Generator
CAI Computer Aided Instruction
CAL Calendar + Computer Aided Learning
CAM Common Access Method + Computer Aided Manufacturing +
          Contents Addressable Memory
CAN Cancel
CAP Carrierless Amplitude and Phase-Modulation +
          Central Arbitration Point +
          Communication Application Platform +
          Computer Aided Publishing
.CAP Capture (file name extension)
CAPD Computing To Assist Persons With Disabilities [Johns
          Hopkins University]
CAPS Capitals (Upper Case Letters) +
          Cassette Programming System
CARL Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries [Internet]
CAS Column Address Select +
          Communications Application Specification +
          Computer Aided Styling
CASE Computer Aided Software Engineering
CASL Crosstalk Application Scripting Language [DCA]
CASS Computer Assisted Search Service
CASSIS Classified and Search Support Information System
CAT Computer Aided Testing + Computer Aided Tomography +
          Computer Aided Transcription + Concatenate
.CAT Catalog (file name extension)
CATS Computer Assisted Training System
CAT SCAN Computerized Axial Tomography Scan
CATV Community Antenna Television (this was the original
          name for what is now known as Cable TV)
CAU Controlled Access Unit
CAV Constant Angular Velocity
CBC Cipher Block Chaining
CBCR Channel Byte Count Register
CBEMA Computer and Business Equipment
          Manufacturers Association
CBGA Ceramic Ball Grid Array
CBI Computer Based Instruction
CBL Computer Based Learning
.CBL COBOL source code (file name extension)
CBMS Computer-Based Mail System
CBR Constant Bit Rate
CBT Computer Based Training
CBW Convert Byte to Word
CBX Computer-Controlled Branch Exchange
CC Cluster Controller
CC: Carbon Copy
CCD Charged-Coupled Device
CCFT Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube
CCI Common Client Interface
CCITT Comite Consultatif International Telegraphique et Telephonique/
          Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone
CCL Connection Control Language
CCP Console Command Processor
CCS Common Command Set + Common Communications Services +
          Common Communications Support +
          Continuous Composite Servo
.CCS Color Calibration System (file name extension)
CCSD Cellular Circuit-Switched Data
CD Carrier Detect + Change Directory +
          Collision Detection + Color Display + Compact Disk
C/D Control Data
C2D Character To Decimal [REXX]
CDA Compound Document Architecture [DEC]
CDC Control Data Corporation
CD_CHRDY Card Channel Ready [IBM]
CD-DA Compact Disk -Digital Audio
CDDI Copper Distributed Data Interface
CDE Common Desktop Environment + Complex Data Entry
CD-E Compact Disk - Erasable
.CDF Comma Delimited Format (file name extension)
CDFS Compact Disc File System [Microsoft]
CD+G Compact Disk plus Graphics
CD-I Compact Disk - Interactive
CDIA Certified Document Imaging Architect
CDL Computer Design Language
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDMF Commercial Data Masking Facility [IBM]
CD-MO Compact Disk - Magneto Optical
CDOS Concurrent Disk Operating System
CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data
CDR Call Detail Record + Call Detail Recording
CD-R Compact Disk - Recordable
CD-RDx Compact Disk - Read Only Memory Data Exchange Standard
CDRL Contract Data Requirements List
CD-ROM Compact Disk - Read Only Memory
CD-RTOS Compact Disk - Real Time Operating System
CDS Current Directory Structure
CDSA Common Data Security Architecture
.CDT Corel Draw Template (file name extension)
CD-V Compact Disk - Video
CD-WO Compact Disk - Write Once
.CDX Compound Index (file name extension) [Fox Pro]
CD-XA Compact Disk - Extended Architecture
CE Cache Enable + Chip Enable + Collision Elimination +
          Convert Enable
CEG Continuous Edge Graphics
CEI Conducted Electromagnetic Interference
CEMS Constituent Electronic Mail System
CEOP Conditional End Of Page
CERN The European Particle Physics Laboratory (initials
          originally from Conseil European pour la Recherche Nucleaire)
CERT Computer Emergency Response Team
CFB Cipher Feedback + Configurable Function Block
.CFG Configuration (file name extension)
CFM Code Fragment Manager [Macintosh]
CFR Computerized Facial Recognition
CFS Caching/Common File System
CFV Call For Votes [Bitnet]
CG Control Gate
CGA Color Graphics Adapter
CGE Common Graphics Environment
CGI Common Gateway Interface + Computer Generated Images +
          Computer Graphics Interface
.CGM Computer Graphics Metafile (file name extension) +
          Graph (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
CHAP Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol
CHAR Character
CHAT Conversational Hypertext Access Technology [Internet]
CHCK Channel Check
CHCP Change Code Page
CHDIR Change Directory
CHFN Change Finger [Unix]
CHGRP Change Group
.CHK CHKDSK (file name extension)
CHKDSK Check Disk
CHMOD Change Mode
CHOWN Change Owner
CHP Chapter
CHR Character
CHRP Common Hardware Reference Platform
CHS Cylinder Head Sector
CI Component Interface
CIA Current Instruction Address
CIAC Computer Incident Advisory Capability
CICS/VS Customer Information Control System/
          Virtual Storage [IBM]
CID Charge-Injection Device +
CIDR Classless Inter-Domain Routing
CIF Common Interchange/Intermediate Format +
          Crystallographic Information File +
          Customer Information Feed
CIM CompuServe Information Manager +
          Computer Integrated Manufacturing
CIO Chief Information Offier
CIOCS Communication Input/Output Control System
CIP Command Interface Port
CIR Committed Information Rate
CIRC Circular Reference +
          Cross-Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code
CIS Card Information Structure + Client Information System +
          CompuServe Information Service +
          Computer Information Systems + Contact Image Sensor +
          Customer Information System
CISC Complex Instruction Set Computing
CIT Computer-Integrated Telephony
CIX Commercial Internet Exchange +
          Compulink Information Exchange
CJLI Command Job Language Interpreter
CKD Count Key Data (device)
CLAR Channel Local Address Register
CLASS Client Access to Systems and Services +
          Cooperative Library Agency for Systems and Services +
          Custom Local-Area Signaling Services
CLC Clear Carry Flag
CLD Clear Direction Flag
CLI Call-Level Interface + Clear Interrupt Flag +
          Command Line Interface
CLIST Command List
CLK Clock
CLNP Connectionless Network Protocol
CLOS Common Lisp Object System
CLP Cell Loss Priority + Constraint Logic Programming
.CLP Clipboard (file name extension) [Windows]
CLS Clear Screen
CLTP Connectionless Transport Protocol
CLTS Clear Task Switch Flag
CLUI Command Line User Interface
CLUT Color Look-Up Table
CLV Constant Linear Velocity
CM Centimeter + Control Mark + Corrective Maintenance
CMA Concert Multi-thread Architecture
CMC Common Mail Calls + Common Messaging Calls +
          Communication Mangement Configuration +
          Complement Carry Flag +
          Computer-Mediated Communication [Internet]
.CMD Command (file name extension)
CMF Creative Music Format
CNIDR Clearinghouse for Network Information and
          Discovery and Retrieval [Internet]
CMIP Common Management Information Protocol
CMIS Common Management Information Services/System
CML Conceptual Modelling Language +
          Computer Managed Learning + Current Mode Logic
CMM Capability Maturity Model
CMMS Computerized Maintenance Management Software
CMMU Cache/Memory Management Unit [Motorola]
CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
CMOV Conditional Move
CMP Compare + Computer
CMPS Compare word String
CMS Code Management System + Compiler Monitor System +
          Conversation Monitor System
CMVC Configuration Management Version Control [IBM]
CMW Compartmented Mode Workstation
CMY Cyan-Magenta-Yellow (color model)
CMYK Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black (color model)
CNA Certified NetWare Administrator [Novell]
CNAPS Co-Processing Node Architecture for Parallel Systems
CNC Computerized Numerical Control
CNE Certified NetWare Engineer
.CNF Configuration (file name extension)
CNG Calling (tone)
CNI Certified Novell Instructor [Novell]
CNIDR Clearinghouse for Networked Information and Retrieval
CNN Composite Network Node
CNSS Core Nodal Switching Subsystem [Internet]
.CNT Contents (file name extension)
CNV Conventional (pertaining to Memory)
CNVT Convert
CNX Certified Network Expert
CO Central Office + Command Output + Convert Out
COB Chip-On-Board
.COB COBOL source code (file name extension)
COBOL Common Business-oriented Language (See HLL)
.COD Code List (file name extension)
CODASYL * Conference on Data System Languages (Group that
          designed COBOL)
CODE Client-Server Open Development Environment
CODEC Coder/Decoder + Compression/Decompression
COEM Commercial Original Equipment Manufacturer
COFF Common Object File Format [Unix]
COGO Coordinate Geometry (Programming Language)
COL Collision + Computer Oriented Language
COLD Computer Output to Laser Disk
COLL Collision
COM Commercial (organization Domain name) [Internet] +
          Common Object Model [Microsoft]
.COM Command (file name extension)
COM1 First serial Port (asynchronous port)
COM2 Second serial Port
COM3 Third serial Port
COM4 Fourth serial Port
COMDEX Computer Dealers Exposition
COMET Cornell Macintosh Terminal Emulator
COMP Compare + Communications
COMP. Computers [USENET Newsgroup Category]
COMSAT Communications Satellite Corporation
CON Console (includes Keyboard and Screen)
COND Condition
CONFIG Configuration
CONS Connection-Oriented Network Service
CONTONE Continuous Tone
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CoREN Corporation for Research and Enterprise Network
COS Compatible Operating System
COSE Combined Office Standard Environment +
          Common Open Software/Systems Environment
COSMIC Computer Software Management and Information
          Center [NASA]
COSMOS Computer System for Mainframe Operations
COSS Common Object Services Specification
COTS Commercial Off-The-Shelf
CP Copy Protected
CPA Certified Public Accountant
CPC Constant Point Calculation
CPCS Check Processing Control System [IBM]
CPE Central Processing Element +
          Customer Premise Equipment +
          Customer Provided Equipment
.CPE Cover Page (file name extension)
CPG Clock Pulse Generator
CPI Characters Per Inch + Clock Per Instruction +
          Common Programming Interface [IBM]
.CPI Code Page Information (file name extension) [MS-DOS]
CPI-C Common Programming Interface for Communications [IBM]
CPIO Copy In and Out [Unix]
CPL Current Privilege Level
.CPL Control Panel (file name extension)
CP/M Control Program for Microcomputers [Digital Research]
CPS Characters Per Second + Cycles Per Second
CPT Command Pass Through
CPU Central Processing Unit
CR Carriage Return
CRAM Cyberspatial Reality Advancement Movement
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
.CRD Cardfile (file name extension)
CREN Computer Research Education Network +
          Corporation for Research and Education Networking
CRF Cable Retransmission Facility + Cross Reference File
CRI Color Reproduction Indices
CR/LF Carriage Return/Line Feed
CROM Control Read Only Memory
CRT Cathode Ray Tube
CRTC CRT Controller
CS Chip Select + Clear to Send + Code Segment
C/S Client/Server
CSA Calendaring and Scheduling API [IBM]
CSAR Channel System Address Register
CSCW Computer Supported Cooperative Work
CSD Circuit-Switched Data +
          Computer Services Department +
          Corrective Service Diskette [IBM]
CSDS Packet Switched Data Service
CSE Certified System Engineer
CSFI Communication Subsystem For Interconnection
CSG Constructive Solid Geometry +
          Consulting Services Group [Lotus]
CSI Command Sequence Introducer + CompuServe Incorporated
CSID Call Subscriber ID
CSL Computer Sensitive Language
CSLIP Compressed Serial Line Interface Protocol [Internet]
CSM Communications Services Manager
CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access/with Collision Avoidance
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access/with Collision Detection
CSMS Customer Support Management System
CSN Card-Select Number
CSNET Computer Science Network
CSO Central Services Organization
CSP Certified Systems Professional +
          Commercial Subroutine Package +
          CompuCom Speed Protocol [CompuCom]
CSPDN Circuit Switched Public Data Network
CSS * Continuous System Simulator (Language)
CSS Cascading Style Sheets [Microsoft] +
          Contact Start-Stop
CSSM Client-Server Systems Management [IBM]
CSTA Computer-Supported Telephony Applications
CSU Channel Service Unit
CSV Circuit-Switched Voice +
          Comma-Separated Value/Variable +
          Common Services Verbs (interface) [Microsoft]
C&T Chips and Technologies
CTB Cipher Type Byte
CTC Channel To Channel
CTCP Client-To-Client Protocol
CTI Computer-Telephony Integration
CTOS Computerized Tomography Operating System +
          Convergent Technologies Operating System
CTPA Coax-to-Twisted-Pair Adapter
CTRL Control
CTS Clear To Send
CTSS * Compatible Time Sharing System
CUA Common User Access [IBM]
CUB Cursor Backward
CUD Cursor Down
CUE Custom Updates and Extras (card) [Egghead Software]
CUF Cursor Forward
CUI Character-Oriented User Interface +
          Common User Interface [IBM]
CUP Cursor Position
CUPID Completely Universal Processor I/O Design [AST]
.CUR Cursor (file name extension)
CUT Control Unit Terminal
CUTE Clarkston University Terminal Emulator
CUU Cursor Up
CVF Compressed Volume File
CVGA Color Video Graphics Array
CVIA Computer Virus Industry Association
CVT Convert
CVW CodeView for Windows
CWD Convert Word to Double Word +
          Change Working Directory [Internet]
CWIS Campus Wide Information Service/System [Internet] +
          Community Wide Information Service/System [Internet]
C2X Character To Hexadecimal [REXX]
CYL Cylinder
CYMK Cyan-Yellow-Magenta-Black (color model)
(TOP) (UP to C) (DN to E) (BOTTOM)
D/A Digital to Analog
DAA Data Access Arrangement +
          Decimal Adjust for Addition
DAC Data Acquisition and Control +
          Digital to Analog Converter
DAD Desktop Application Director [Borland]
DAI Distributed Artificial Intelligence
DAL Data Access Language [Apple Computer] +
          Disk Access Lockout
DAM Data Acquisition and Monitoring
DAO Data Access Object [Microsoft]
DAP Data Access Protocol [DEC] +
          Developer Assistance Program
DARI Database Application Remote Interface [IBM]
DARMS Digital Alternate Realization of Musical Symbols
DART Digital Audio Reconstruction Technology
DAS Decimal Adjust for Subtraction +
          Dual-Attached Station
DASD Direct Access Storage Device
DAT Digital Audio Tape + Disk Array Technology
.DAT Data (file name extension)
DATACOM Data Communications
DAV Digital Audio-Video
dB Decibel
DB Data Base + Data Buffer
dBA Adjusted Decibel
DBCS Delivery Bar Code Sorter + Double-Byte Character Set
.DBF Database (file name extension)
DBIS Dun & Bradstreet Information Services
DBM Data Base Manager
DBMS Data Base Management System
DBS Data Base Server
DB2 Database 2
DC Data Collection + Data Communication + Data Control +
          Device Control + Direct Current
D2C Decimal To Character [REXX]
DCA Digital Communications Associates +
          Document Content Architecture [IBM]
DCAF Distributed Console Access Facility [IBM]
DCAM Direct Chip Attach Module
DCB Device Control Block + Disk Coprocessor Board [Novell]
DCC Digital Command Control + Digital Compact Cassette +
          Direct Cable/Client Connection + Display Combination Code
DCD Data Carrier Detect
DCE Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment +
          Data Communications Equipment +
          Distributed Computing Environment [OSF] +
          Distributed Computing Equipment
DCED Distributed Computing Environment Daemon
DCF Data Communication Facility [IBM] +
          Data Compression Facility +
          Data Count Field [IBM] +
          Driver Configuration File [Lotus]
D-CHANNEL Data Channel
DCI Display Control Interface
DCL Data Control Language + Declaration +
          DEC Command Language [DEC] +
          Device Clear + Digital Control Logic +
          Digital Command Language [Digital]
DCP Digital Light Processing [TI]
DCS Data Collection System + Data Control System +
          Desktop Color Separation + Distributed Control System
DCT Discrete Cosine Transform
.DCT Dictionary (file name extension)
DD Day + Digital Display + Double Density
DDA Distributed Data Access + Domain-Defined Attribute
DDB Device Dependent Bitmap + Device Descriptor Block
DDC Digital Data Channel [VESA] + Display Data Channel
DDCMP Digital Data Communications Message Protocol [DEC]
DDC1 Display Data Channel One
DDCS Distributed Database Connection Services [IBM]
DDD Data Definition Language + Direct Distance Dialing
DDE Direct Data Entry + Dynamic Data Exchange [Microsoft]
DDEML Dynamic Data Exchange Manager Library [Microsoft]
DDF Display Data Channel + Dynamic Data Formatting [IBM]
DDI Device Driver Interface + Direct Dial In
DDK Device Driver Kit [Microsoft Windows]
DDL Data Definition Language + Data Description Language
DDM Distributed Data Management
DDN Defense Data Network
DDNS Dynamic Domain Naming System
DDP Distributed Data Processing
DDS Digital Dataphone Service [AT&T] + Design Data Sheet +
          Digital Data Storage + Distributed Database Services
DDX Digital Data Exchange
DE Device End
DEC Decrement + Device Clear + Digital Equipment Corporation
DECNET Digital Equipment Corporation Networking (protocol)
DEF Desktop Functional Equivalent [Compaq]
.DEF Definitions + Defaults (file name extensions)
DEFRAG Defragment
DEK Data Encryption Key
DEL Delete
DELSTR Delete String [REXX]
.DEM Demonstration (file name extension)
DEN Document Enabled Networking [Novell-Xerox]
DES Data Encryption Standard + Data Entry Sheet
.DES Description (file name extension)
DET Device Execute Trigger
DEV Device
DF Data Field + Destination Field + Device Flag +
          Double Flag
DFC Data Flow Control
DFM Design For Manufacturability [IBM]
DFS Distributed File System
DFSMS Data Facility Storage Management Subsystem [IBM]
DFT Design For Testability + Diagnostic Funtion Test +
          Discrete Fourier Transform +
          Distributed Function Terminal
DFU Data File Utility
DGIS Direct Graphics Interface Standard
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DHL Dynamic Head Loading
.DHP Dr. Halo PIC (file name extension)
DI Data In + Destination Index
DIA Document Interchange Architecture [IBM]
DIB Device Independent Bitmap +
          Directory Information Base
DIBOL DEC Business Oriented Language
.DIC Dictionary (file name extension)
DID Direct Inward Dialing
DIF Data Interchange Format
DIFFSENS Differential Sense
DIIP Direct Interrupt Identification Port
DIMM Dual-Inline Memory Module
DIN Deutsche Industrie Norm (German equivalent of EIA)
DIO Data Input-Output
DIP Dialup Internet Protocol [Internet] +
          Digital Imaging Processing +
          Dual In-line Package + Dual In-line Pin
DIR Directory (file)
DIS Dynamic Impedance Stabilization [CompuCom]
DISA Data Interchange Standards Association
DISP Displacement (offset)
DIT Directory Information Tree
DIV Divide
DIVE Direct Interface Video Extension [OS/2 Warp]
DIW D-Inside Wire [AT&T]
.DIZ Description In Zip (file name extension)
DL Download (also D/L)
DL/1 Data Manipulation Language 1 [IBM]
DLC Data Link Control (protocol) [IBM]
DLCI Data Link Connection Identifier
DLD Display List Driver
DLE Data Link Escape
DLL Dynamic Link Library
DLM Dynamic Link Module
DLP Digital Light Processing [TI]
DLR DOS LAN Requester
DLT Digital Linear Tape
DM Distributed Memory
DMA Direct Memory Access/Addressing
DMAC DMA Controller
DMACS Distributed Manufacturing Automation & Control Software
DMD Digital Micromirror Device [TI]
DME Distributed Management Environment
DMF Distribution Media Format [Microsoft]
DMI Desktop Mangement Interface
DML Data Manipulation Language
DMM Digital Multimeter
DMMS Dynamic Memory Management System
DMOS Double-diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
DMP Dot Matrix Printer
DMPC Distributed Memory Parallel Computer
DMQS Display Mode Query and Set [IBM]
DMS Data Management Software + Data Management System
DMSD Digital Multistandard Decoding
DMT Digital Multi-Tone
DMTF Desktop Management Task Force
DMY Day Month Year
DN Down
DNC Direct Numerical Control
DNIC Data Network Identification Code
DNIS Dialed Number Identification Service
DNS Domain Naming System
DO Data Out + Distributed Objects
.DOC Document + Documentation (file name extensions)
DOE Distributed Objects Everywhere
DOIP Dial Other Internet Providers [IBM]
DO-IT Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking and
DOMF Distributed Object Management Facility
DOS Disk Operating System
DOSEM DOS Emulation
DOW Day Of Week
DP Data Processing
DPA Demand Protocol Architecture [3Com]
DPAM Demand Priority Access Method
DPAREN Data Parity Enable [IBM]
DPB Drive Parameter Block
DPC Direct Program Control
DPI Dots Per Inch
DPL Descriptor Privilege Level
DPM Digital Panel Meter
DPMA Data Processing Management Association
DPMI DOS Protected Mode Interface [Microsoft]
DPMS Display Power Management Support
DPO Data Phase Optimization
DPS Document Processing System
DPSK Differential Phase Shift Keying
DPtoTP Display Coordinates to Tablet Coordinates
DQL DataEase Query Language [DataEase International]
DR Data Received
D/R Direct or Reverse
DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory
DRAW Direct Read After Write
DR.BOND Dial-up Router Bandwith On Demand [NEC]
DRDA Distributed Relational Database Architecture [IBM]
DR-DOS Digital Research-Disk Operating System
DRDW Direct Read During Write
DRI Digital Research Incorporated
DRO Data Request Output + Destructive Read-Out
DRS Document Registration System
.DRS Driver Resource (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
DRV Drive
.DRV Device Driver (file name extension) (Also see .DVR)
.DRW Draw + Drawing (file name extensions)
DS Data Segment + Data Send + Data Server + Double Sided
D/S Dhrystone Per Second
DSA Directory System Agent
DSAP Destination Service Access Point
DSDD Double Sided, Double Density (diskette)
DSE Data Storage Equipment
DSEA Display Station Emulation Adapter
DSECT Dummy Control Section
DSHD Double Sided, High Density (diskette)
DSIS Distributed Support Information Standard
DSL Digital Subscriber Line +
          Dynamic Simulation Language
DSMA Digital Sense Multiple Access
DSOM Distributed System Object Model
DSP Digital Signal Processing/Processor +
          Directory Synchronization Protocol [Lotus]
DSQD Double Sided, Quad Density (diskette)
DSR Data Set Ready + Device Status Register +
          Device Status Report
DSS Decision Support System + Digital Signature Standard
DSSI Digital Standard Systems Interconnect [DEC]
DSSS Direct-Sequencing Spread Spectrum
DSTN Double Supertwisted Nematic
DSU Data Service Unit + Digital Service Unit
DSVD Digital Simultaneous Voice and Data
DSW Data Status Word + Device Status Word
D2T2 Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer (printing)
DTA Disk Transfer Area
.DTA Data (file name extension)
DTC Desktop Conferencing
DTD Document Type Definition
DTE Data Terminal Equipment + Dumb Terminal Emulator
DTF Distributed Test Facility
DTL Dialog Tag Language [IBM] + Diode-Transistor Logic
DTMF Data Tone Multiple Frequency + Dual Tone Multifrequency
DTP Desktop Publishing + Distributed Transaction Process
DTR Data Terminal Ready + Data Transfer Rate
DTV Desktop Video
DTVC Desktop Video Conferencing
DU Disk Usage
DUA Directory User Agent
DUAT Direct User Access Terminal
DUN Dial-Up Networking [Microsoft]
DUNCE Dial Up Network Connection Enhancement
.DV DESQview Script (file name extension)
DVC Desktop Video Conferencing
DVD Digital Video Disk
DVE Digital Video Effect
DVI Digital Video Interactive
.DVI Device Independent (file name extension)
DVMRP Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol [Internet]
.DVR Device Driver (file name extension) (Also see .DRV)
DWG Drawing
D2X Decimal To Hexadecimal [REXX]
.DXB Drawing Interchange Binary (file name extension)
DXC Data Exchange Control
DXF Drawing Exchange Format
(TOP) (UP to D) (DN to F) (BOTTOM)
EA Effective Address + Extended Attribute [OS/2]
EAR External Access Register
EARN European Academic Research Network
EAROM Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory
EARS Electronic Access to Reference Services
EATA Enhanced AT Bus Attachment
EBC EISA Bus Controller
EBCT Electron Beam Computed Tomography
EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code [IBM]
EBI Equivalent Background Input +
          Extended Background Investigation
EBT Electronic Benefits Transfer
EC Electronic Commerce + Error Control
ECAL Enjoy Computing And Learn
ECAT Electronic Card Assembly and Test [IBM]
ECB Electronic Codebook + Event Control Block
ECC Error Check Code + Error Checking and Correction +
          Error Correction Code
ECD Enhanced Color Display
ECHO European Commission Host Organization [Internet]
ECI External Call Interface
ECL Emitter Coupled Logic
ECM Electronic Control Module
ECMA European Computer Manufacturers Association
ECNE Enterprise Certified NetWare Engineer [Novell]
ECP Enhanced/Extended Capabilities Port [Microsoft]
ECTL Electronic Communal Temporal Lobe
ECU EISA Configuration Utility
ED Erase Display
EDA Embedded Document Architecture [Go Corporation]
EDC Enhanced Data Correction +
          Error Detection and Correction
EDDC Extended Distance Data Cable
EDGAR Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval
EDI Electronic Data Interchange +
          Electronic Document Interchange [DEC]
EDIFACT EDI for Administration Commerce and Transport
EDL Edit Decision List
EDLC Ethernet Data Link Control
EDLIN Editor (Line Text)
EDM Electronic Document Management
EDO Extended Data Out
EDOS Enhanced DOS for Windows
EDP Electronic Data Processing
EDPM Electronic Data Processing Machine
EDRAM Extended Dynamic Random Access Memory
EDS Electronic Data Systems (corporation)
EDSAC * Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer
EDSI Enhanced Small Device Interface
EDU Education (organization Domain name) [Internet]
EDVAC * Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer
          (First stored-program digital computer)
EE Extended Edition [IBM]
EEC Extended Error Correction
EEG Electroencephalogram
EEL Epsilon Extension Language
EEM Extended Memory Management
EEMS Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification
EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EES Escrow Encryption Standard
EFA Extended File Attribute
EFF Electronic Frontier Foundation
EFI Electromechanical Frequency Interference +
          Electronics For Imaging
EFL Emitter Follower Logic
EFTS Electronic Funds Transfer System
EGA Enhanced Graphics Adapter
EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol
EGREP Extended Global Regular Expression Print [Unix]
EHLLAPI Emulator High Level Language Application
          Programming Interface [IBM]
EIA Electronic Industries Association
EIDE Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics
EIS Executive Information System
EISA Extended Industry Standard Architecture
EL Electroluminescent (display) + Erase Line
ELAN Emulated Local Area Network
ELC Embedded Linking and Control
ELF Extremely Low Frequency
ELS Entry Level System
EM Electronic Mail + Emphasized + End of Medium +
          Expanded Memory
EMA Electronic Mail Association +
          Enterprise Management Architecture
EMACS Editing Macros [Unix]
E-MAIL Electronic Mail
EMB Extended Memory Block [LIM/AST]
EMBARC Electronic Mail Broadcast to a Roaming Computer
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility + Enhanced Memory Chip +
          E-Mail Connection + Extended Math Coprocessor
EMI Electromagnetic Interference
.EML Electronic Mail (file name extension)
EMM Expanded Memory Manager
EMR Electro-Magnetic Radiation +
          Enhanced Metafile Record
EMS Electronic Mail System + Electronic Message Service +
          Expanded Memory Specification [LIM]
EMWAC European Microsoft Windows NT Academic Centre
.ENC Encoded (file name extension)
ENDEC Encoder/Decoder
ENDS Ends Segment
ENIAC * Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and
          Computer (First fully electronic digital computer)
ENQ Enquiry
ENSS Exterior Nodal Switching Subsystem [Internet]
EOA End Of Address
EOB End Of Block
EOC End Of Conversion
EOF End Of File + Enterprise Objects Framework [Next Computer]
EOI End Of Interrupt + End Or Identify
EOJ End Of Job
EOL End Of Line + End Of List
EOM End Of Message
EOR Exclusive OR (Also XOR)
EOS Earth Observing System [NASA] + End Of String
EOSDIS Earth Observing System Data and Information System [NASA]
EOT End Of Table + End Of Tape (marker) + End Of Text +
          End Of Transmission
EP Electrophotographic Engine
EPL Effective Privilege Level
EPLD Electrically Programmable Logic Device
EPM Enhanced Editor for Presentation Manager [IBM] +
          Enterprise Process Management [IBM]
EPP Enhanced Parallel Port
EPROM Electrically Programmable Read Only Memory +
          Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
.EPS Encapsulated PostScript (file name extension)
EPSF Encapsulated PostScript Files
ERA Extended Registry Attributes
ERAS Electronic Routing and Approval System [Hughes Aircraft]
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center [Internet]
ERLL Enhanced Run Length Limited
EROM Erasable Read Only Memory
EROS Earth Resources Observation System [U.S. Geological Survey]
ERR Error
ER/RC Extended Result/Response Code
ES Extra Segment
ESA Enterprise Systems Architecture [IBM] +
          European Space Agency
ESC EISA System Component + Escape
ESCM Extended Services Communications Manager [IBM]
ESCON Enterprise System Connection (Architecture) [IBM]
ESC/P Epson Standard Code for Printers
ESD Electronic Software Distribution +
          Electrostatic Discharge
ESDI Enhanced Small/System Device Interface
ESI Enhanced Serial Interface (specification) [Hayes]
ESMR Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio
ESN Electronic Security Number
ESP Emulation Sensing Processor +
          Enhanced Serial Port [Hayes] +
          Estimated Selling Price
ESR Event Service Routine
ESS Electronic Switching System
ESU Electro-Static Unit
ET Enhancement Technology
ETACS Extended Total Access Communication System [IBM]
ETANN Electrically Trainable Analog Neural
          Network (chip) [Intel]
ETB End of Transmission Block
ETC Electronic Toll Collection +
          Enhanced Throughput Cellular (modem protocol) [AT&T]
ETOM Electron-Trapping Optical Memory
ETPL Endorsed Tempest Products List
ETS Econometric Time Series
ETX End Of Text
EU Execution Unit
EUC End User Computing + Extended Unix Code [IBM]
EUI End-User Interface
EVE Extensible VAX Editor
EVGA Extended Video Graphics Array +
          Extended Video Graphics Adapter
EWAN Emulator Without A Good Name [Internet]
EWS Employee Written Software [IBM]
ExCA Exchangeable Card Architecture [Intel]
.EXE Executable (file name extension)
EXE2BIN Program used to convert an (.EXE) file to binary
          format (.COM) file
EXM Enterprise Messaging Exchange [Lotus]
EXP Exponent
EXT External
EXTRN External Reference
E-ZINE Electronic Magazine
(TOP) (UP to E) (DN to G) (BOTTOM)
FAB Computer-Chip Fabrication Plant
FAC File Access Code
FAMOS Floating Gate Avalanche MOS
FANS Future Air Navigation System
FAP File Access Protocol
FAPI Family Application Program Interface
FAQ Frequently Asked Question
FARNET Federation of American Research Networks [Internet]
FAT File Allocation Table
FAX Facsimile
.FAX Fax (file name extension)
FC/AL Fiber Channel/Arbitrated Loop
FCB File Control Block
FCC Federal Communications Commission
FCC: File Carbon Copy
FCCSET Federal Coordinating Council for
          Science, Engineering and Technology
FCI Flux Changes per Inch
FCR FIFO Control Register
FCS Fiber Channel Standard + Frame Check Sequence
FD Floppy Disk + Floppy Drive + Full Duplex
FDC Floppy Disk Controller
FDDI Fiber Digital Device Interface +
          Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDISK Fixed Disk
FDM Frequency-Division Multiplexing
FDX Full Duplex
FECN Forward Explicit Congestion Notification
FED Field-Emitter Display
FEFO First-Ended, First-Out
FEP Front End Processor
FEPI Front End Programming Interface
FeRAM Ferroelectric RAM
FESDK Far East Software Development Kit [Microsoft]
FET Field Effect Transistor
FF Flip-Flop + Form Feed
FFDC First Failure Data Capture [IBM]
FFS Fast File System
FFST First Failure Support Technology [IBM]
FFT Fast Fourier Transform + Final Form Text [IBM]
FG Floating Gate
FGREP Fixed Global Regular Expression Print [Unix]
FHSS Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum
FIF Fractal Image Format
FIFO First-In, First-Out
FILO First-In, Last-Out
FIP File Processor Buffering
FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard
FIR Finite Impulse Response
FIRST Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams
FIX Federal Internet Exchange
FLC Ferro-electric Liquid Crystal
FLD Field
FLL FoxPro Link Library [Microsoft Fox Pro]
FLOPS Floating Point Operations Per Second
FMS Forms Management System
FMT Format
FNT Font
FOCUS Forum of Control Data Users
FOD Fax On Demand
FOG First Osborne Group
FOIRL Fiber Optic Inter Repeater Link [IEEE]
FOLDOC Free On-Line Dictionary Of Computing
.FON Font + Phone + Phone Directory (all file name
.FOR Fortran source code (file name extension)
FORTH (Programming Language)(See HLL)
FORTRAN Formula Translator (Programming Language)(See HLL)
FOSE Federal Office Systems Exposition
FOSI Format Option Specification Instance
FOSSIL Fido/Opus/Seadog Standard Interface Layer
FPC Floating Point Calculation
FPCE Floating-Point C Extension (specification)
FPGA Field Programmable Gate-Array
FPLA Field Programmable Logic-Array
FPM Fast Page Mode
FPP Fixed Path Protocol + Floating Point Processor
FPR Floating-Point Register
FPS Favorite Picture Selection + Frames Per Second
FPT Forced Perfect Termination
FPU Floating Point Unit
FQDN Fully Qualified Domain Name [Internet]
FRAD Frame Relay Access Device +
          Frame Relay Assembler/Disassembler
FRAG Fragment + Fragmentation
FRAM Ferroelectric Random-Access Memory
FRC Funtional Redundancy Checking
FRED Frame Editor + Front-End to Dish
FRPI Flux Reversals Per Inch
.FRS WordPerfect Graphics Driver (file name extension)
FS File Separator
FSD File System Driver [OS/2]
FSE Full Screen Editor
FSF Free Software Foundation [Internet]
FSK Frequency Shift Keying
FSN Full Service Network
FSP File Service Protocol
FSR Free System Resources
FST Flat Square Tube (monitor)
F/T Full Time
FTAM File Transfer, Access and Management +
          File Transfer and Access Method
FTM Flat Tension Mask [Zenith]
FTP File Transfer Protocol [Internet]
FTPD File Transfer Protocol Daemon
FTTC Fiber To The Curb
FTS Federal Telecommunication System
FTX Fault Tolerant Unix
FUI File Update Information
FUNC Function
FVT Full Video Translation
FYI For Your Information
(TOP) (UP to F) (DN to H) (BOTTOM)
GA General Availability
GAAP Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
GAL Generic Array Logic
GAPI Gateway Application Programming Interface
Gb Gigabit (1,024 megabits) +
          (One Billion Bits of Information)
GB Gigabyte (1,024 megabytes) +
          (One Billion Characters of Information)
GCC GNU C-Compiler [Unix]
GCR Group Code Recording
GDA Global Data Area
GDDM Graphics Data Display Manager
GDG Generation Data Group [IBM]
GDI Graphical Device Interface
GDLC Generic Data Link Control [IBM]
GDP Graphic Draw Primitive
GDT Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing +
          Global Descriptor Table +
          Graphics Development Toolkit
GECOS General Electric Comprehensive Operating System
GEIS General Electric Information Service (company)
GEM Graphics Environment Manager (DRI Program)
GENIE General Electric Network for
          Information Exchange
GEO Geostationary Earth Orbit
GEOS Graphic Environment Operating System [Geoworks]
GET Get Execute Trigger
GGP Gateway-Gateway Protocol [Internet]
GHZ Gigahertz
.GIF Graphics Interchange Format (file name extension)
GIGO Garbage In, Garbage Out
GII Global Information Infrastructure
GILS Government Information Locator Service
GIS Geographic Information System +
          Global Information Solutions [AT&T]
GIX Global Internet Exchange [Internet]
GKS Graphical Kernal System
GL Graphics Language
G/L General Ledger
GLIS Global Land Information System [US Geological Survey]
GLM General Linear Models
GLOBE Global Learning by Observations to Benefit
          the Environment [Internet]
.GLY Glossary (file name extension) [Microsoft Word]
GMP Global Mobile Professional
GMR Giant Magneto-Resistive
GMS Global Management System +
          Global Messaging Service [Novell]
GMT Greenwich Mean Time
GND Ground (signal/system)
GNN Global Network Navigator
GNU Gnu's Not Unix (operating system)
GOSIP Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile
GOV Government (organization Domain name) [Internet]
GP Gas Plasma + General Purpose
GPF General Protection Fault
GPI Graphics Programming Interface
GPIB General Purpose Interface Bus
GPR General Purpose Register [IBM]
GPS Global Positioning Satellite/System
GPSS * General Purpose Systems Simulator (language)
GRADD Graphics Adapter Device Driver [IBM]
GRE Graphics Engine
GREP Global Regular Expression Print
.GRF Graph (file name extension)
.GRP Group (file name extension)
GS Group Separator
GSI General Server Interface
GSM Global Shared Memory +
          Global System for Mobile-Communications (network)
GSTN General Switched Telephone Network
GTE General Telephone Electronics (corporation)
GTL Gunning Transceiver Logic
GTO Guide To Operations [IBM]
GUI Graphical User Interface
GUID Global Universal ID
GVT Global Virtual Time
.gz Compressed file (compressed filename extension -
          using GNU gzip compression/decompression program) [Unix]
(TOP) (UP to G) (DN to I) (BOTTOM)
.H Header (file name extension) [C]
HACMP High Availability Cluster Multi-Processing [IBM]
HAL Hard Array Logic + Hardware Abstraction Layer +
          House-Programmed Array Logic
HAL * Heuristically Programmed Algorithmic (computer)
          [from 1968 movie "2001: A Space Odyssey"]
HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Priority (System)
HBA Host Bus Adapter
HCSS High Capacity Storage System
HCU Home Computer User
HD Hard Disk + High Density
HDA Head Disk Assembly
HDCD High Definition Compatible Digital
HDF Hierarchical Data Format [NCSA]
HDI Head to Disk Interference
HDLC High-Level Data Link Control
HDR Header
HDSC High Density Signal Carrier [DEC]
HDSL High-Data-Rate Digital Subscriber Line
HDSS Holographic Data Storage System
HDT Host Digital Terminal
HDTV High Definition Television
HDVD High Definition Volumetric Display
HDW Hardware
HDX Half Duplex
HERC Hercules
HEX Hexadecimal
HFC Hybrid Fiber-Coaxial
HFS Hierarchical File System [Macintosh]
HFT High Function Terminal [IBM]
HGA Hercules Graphics Adapter
HGCP Hercules Graphics Card Plus
HH Hour
HIF Hyper-G Interchange Format
HIFD High-Density Floppy Disk
HIL Human Interface Link [HP]
HIMEM High Memory
HIPPI High Performance Parallel Interface
HLCO High Low Close Open
HLL High Level Language
HLLAPI High Level Language Application Programming Interface
.HLP Help (file name extension)
HLQ High Level Qualifier
HLS Hue, Luminance, Saturation (color model)
HLT Halt
HMA High Memory Area [Microsoft] +
          Hub Management Architecture
HMD Head Mounted Display
HMM Hidden Markov Model
HMOS High Density Metal Oxide Semiconductor +
          High Speed Metal Oxide Semiconductor
HMP Host Monitoring Protocol
HOTT Hot Off The Tree (electronic newsletter)
HP Hewlett-Packard (Company)
HPCC High Performance Computing and Communications
HPDJ Hewlett-Packard Desk Jet
HPFS High-Performance File System
HPG Hewlett-Packard Graphics
HPGL Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language
HPIB Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus
HPLJ Hewlett-Packard Laser Jet
HPPA Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture
HPPI High Performance Parallel Interface
HPR High Performance Routing [IBM]
HPUX Hewlett-Packard Unix
HPW High Performance Workstation [Sun]
.HQX BinHex (file name extension) [Macintosh]
HRIS Human Resource Information System
HRG High Resolution Graphics
HRMS Human Resource Management System
HRTF Head Related Transfer Function
HS High Speed
HSB Hue, Saturation, Brightness (color model)
HSC High Speed Channel
HSI Hue, Saturation, Intensity
HSM Hierarchical Storage Management
HSP High Speed Printer
HSSI High Speed Serial Interface
HST High Speed Technology [U.S. Robotics]
.HST History + Host (file name extensions)
HSV Hue Saturation Value
HTML HyperText Markup Language
HTTP HyperText Transport Protocol
HTTP-NG HTTP Next Generation
HUT Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope
H/V Horizontal/Vertical
HVP Horizontal & Vertical Position
H/W Hardware
HWCP Hardware Code Page
HWD Height-Width-Depth
.HYP Hyphenation (file name extension)
HYTELNET Hypertext-browser for Telnet Accessible Sites
Hz Hertz
(TOP) (UP to H) (DN to J) (BOTTOM)
IAB Internet Architecture Board [Internet]
IAC Inter-Application Communication [Macintosh]
IAG Instruction Address Generation
IAK Internet Access Kit [IBM]
IAL * International Algebraic Language
          (ALGOL was first called IAL)
IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority [Internet]
IAP Internet Access Provider [Internet]
IAT Import Address Table
IAUP Internet User Account Provider [Internet]
IBC Instrument Bus Computer
iBCS Intel Binary Compatibility Specification
IBM International Business Machines (Corporation)
IBM-GL IBM Graphics Language
IC Input Circuit + Integrated Circuit + Interrupt Controller
ICA Intra-application Communications Area
ICAP Internet Calendar Access Protocol [Lotus]
ICAS Intel Communicating Applications Specifications
ICB Internet Citizen's Band
ICCP Institute for the Certification of Computing Professionals
ICE In-Circuit Emulator [Intel]
ICI Image Component Information
ICL Interface Clear
ICLID Incoming-Call Line Identification
ICM Image Color Matching [Kodak]
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol [Novell]
.ICO Icon (file name extension)
iCOMP Intel Comparative Microprocessor Performance [Intel]
ICP Integrated Channel Processor
ICR Intelligent Character Recognition
ICS Intuitive Command Structure
ICU ISA Configuration Utility
ID Identification + Identifier
IDA Integrated Digital Access + Intelligent Disk Array +
          Intelligent Drive Array
IDAPI Integrated Database Application Programming Interface
IDC Integrated Database/Desktop Connector
IDDE Integrated Development & Debugging Environment [Symantec]
IDE Imbedded Drive Electronics +
          Integrated Development Environment [Borland] +
          Integrated Drive Electronics +
          Intelligent Drive Electronics +
          Interactive Design and Engineering +
          Interface Design Enhancement
IDEA International Data Encryption Algorithm
IDF Intermediate Distribution Frame
IDIV Integer Divide
IDL Interface Definition Language
IDMS Integrated Data Base Management System
IDNX Integrated Digital Network Exchange [IBM]
IDP Integrated Data Processing
IDR Intelligent Document Recognition
IDT Interface Design Tool + Interrupt Descriptor Table
.IDX Index (file name extension)
IE Internet Explorer [Microsoft]
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEF Information Engineering Facility
IEMSI Interactive Electronic Mail Standard
IEN Internet Engineering Notes
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force [Internet]
IESG Internet Engineering Steering Group [Inernet]
I/F Interface
IFD Image File Directory
IFF Interchangeable File Format [Amiga]
IFG Incoming Fax Gateway
IFP Instruction Fetch Pipeline
IFS Installable File System
IFSM Information Systems Management
IGA Integrated Graphics Array
IGC Integrated Graphics Controller
IGES Initial Graphics Exchange Standard
IGMP Internet Group Multicast Protocol [Internet]
IGRP Interior Gateway Routing Protocol [Cisco]
IGS Internet Go Server [Internet]
IHD Integrated Help Desk [IBM]
IHV Independent Hardware Vendor
IIF Immediate IF
III Interstate Identification Index [NCIC]
IIOP Internet Inter-Operability Protocol
IIR Immediate Impulse Response
IIS Internet Information Server [Microsoft]
IITF Information Infrastructure Task Force
iKP Internet Keyed Payments [IBM]
ILS International Language Support
IMACS Image Management and Communication System
IMAP Internet Message Access Protocol [Internet]
IMAX Maximum Image
IMDS Image Data Stream (format) [IBM]
IME Input Method Editor
IMG Image
IML Initial Microcode Load [IBM]
IMP Information/Interface Message Processor
IMPA Intelligent Multi-Port Adapter [DCA]
IMR Internet Monthly Report [Internet]
IMS Information Management System +
          Intermediate Maintenance Standards
IMTC International Multimedia Teleconferencing Consortium
IMTV Interactive Multimedia Television
IMUL Integer Multiply
IN Input
INC Increment
.IND Index (file name extension)
.INF Information (file name extension)
.INI Initialize (file name extension)
INIT Initialization + Initialize
INM Integrated Network Management
INS Input String + Integrated Network Server
INT Integer + Internal + Interrupt +
          International (organization Domain name) [Internet]
INTA Interrupt Acknowledge
InterNIC Internet Network Information Center [Internet]
INTO Interrupt if Overflow occurs
I/O Input/Output
IOCC Input/Output Channel Converter +
          Input/Output Controller Chip
IOCS Input/Output Control System
IOCTL Input/Output Control
IODE Integrated Development and Debugging Environment [Symantec]
IOPL Input/Output Priviledge Level
IOSGA Input/Output Support Gate Array
IP Instruction Pointer + Internet Protocol
IPC Instructions Per Clock + Interprocess Communication
IPCP Internet Protocol Control Protocol
IPDS IBM Personal Dictation System [IBM] +
          Intelligent Printer Data Stream [IBM]
IPFC Information Presentation Facility Compiler [IBM]
IPI Intelligent Peripheral Interface
IPL Initial Program Load/Loader +
          Ion Projection Lithography
IPL * Information Programming Language
IPM Interpersonal Message
IPng Internet Protocol, next generation
IPSE Integrated Project Support Environment
IPTC International Press Telecommunications Council
IPX Internetwork Packet Exchange [Novell]
IQL Interactive Query Language
IR Infrared
IRC Internet Relay Chat [Internet]
IRD Integrated Receiver/Descrambler
IRDA Infrared Data Association
IRDS Information Resource Dictionary System
IRET Interrupt Return
IRF Intermediate Routing Function +
          Inheritance Rights Filter [Novell]
IRL Interactive Reader Language + Inter-Repeater Link
IRLAP Infrared Link Access Protocol
IRLED Infrared Light Emitting Diode
IRM Information Resource Management + Inherent Rights Mask
IRQ Interrupt Request
IRTF Internet Research Task Force [Internet]
IRX Information Retrieval Experiment
IS Information System + Interrupt Status
ISA Industry Standard Architecture +
          Instruction-Set Architecture
ISAM Indexed Sequential-Access Management/Method
ISAPI Internet Servier API [Microsoft]
ISBN International Standard Book Number
ISC Instruction Set Computer + Inter-Systems Communication [IBM]
ISD Image Section Descriptor +
          Instructional Systems Design
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISH Information Super Highway
ISI Internally Specified Index
ISIS Integrated Systems and Information Services
ISKM Internet Starter Kit for the Macintosh
ISL Interactive System Language
ISM Internet Service Manager [Mircrosoft]
ISMF Interactive Storage Management Facility
ISOC Internet Society
ISO/OSI International Standards Organization/Open
          Systems Interconnection (model)
ISP Internet Service Provider [Internet] +
          Interrupt Stack Pointer + Interrupt Status Port
ISPF Interactive System Programming Facility
ISR Information Storage and Retrieval +
          Interrupt Service Routine +
          Interrupt Status Register
ISSN International Standard Serial Number
ISV Independent Software Vendor
IT Information Technology
ITB Information Technology Branch + Intermediate Text Block
ITC International Typeface Corporation
ITN Identification Tasking and Networking
ITR Internet Talk Radio
ITU International Telecommunication Union
ITUG International Telecommunications User Group
ITU-TSS ITU-Telecommunication Standarts Section
ITV Interactive Television
ITX Intermediate Text Block
IU Integer Unit
IUAP Internet User Account Provider [Internet]
IUS/ITB Interchange Unit Separator/Intermediate Transmission
IVIS Interactive Video Information System
IVL Independent Vendor League + Intel Verification Lab
IVR Interactive Voice Response
IVS Interactive Videodisk System
IVT Interrupt Vector Table
IV&V Independent Verification & Validation
I-WAY Information Highway
IXC Interchange Carrier
(TOP) (UP to I) (DN to K) (BOTTOM)
JA Jump Address + Jump if Above
JAD Joint Application Design
JAE Jump if Above or Equal
JANET Joint Academic Network
JBE Jump if Below or Equal
JC Jump if Carry set
JCL Job Control Language
JDBC Java Database Connectivity
JDK Java Development Kit
JE Jump if Equal
JEDEC Joint Electronic Devices Engineering Council
JEIDA Japanese Electronics Industry Development Association
JES Job Entry System
JFET Junction Field Effect Transistor
JFIF JPEG File Interchange Format
JFS Journaled File System [IBM]
JG Jump if Greater
JGE Jump if Greater or Equal
JIPS JANET Internet Protocol Service
JL Jump if Less
JLE Jump if Less than or Equal to
JMP Jump
JNA Jump if Not Above
JNAE Jump if Not Above or Equal
JNB Jump if Not Below
JNBE Jump if Not Below or Equal
JNG Jump if Not Greater
JNGE Jump if Not Greater or Equal
.JNK Junk (file name extension)
JNLE Jump if Not Less or Equal
JNO Jump if No Overflow
JNP Jump if No Parity
JNS Jump if No Sign
JOE Java Objects Everywhere
JPE Jump if Parity Even
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group
JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory
JPO Jump if Parity Odd
JS Jump if Sign
JZ Jump if Zero
JNZ Jump if Not Zero
JUGHEAD Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy
          Excavation and Display [Internet]
(TOP) (UP to J) (DN to L) (BOTTOM)
K-12 Kindergarten through 12th Grade [US Education System]
KAM Keep Alive Memory
Kb Kilobit
KB Keyboard + Kilobyte (1,024 bytes)
KBD Keyboard (also KEYB)
KBD$ Keyboard [OS/2]
KBPS Kilobytes Per Second
KDT Key Definition Table
KEFIR Key Findings Reporter [GTE]
KEYBBE Foreign language KEYBoard program - Belgium
KEYBBR Foreign language KEYBoard program - Brazil
KEYBCF Foreign language KEYBoard program - Canadian-French
KEYBCZ Foreign language KEYBoard program - Czechoslovakia
KEYBDK Foreign language KEYBoard program - Denmark
KEYBFR Foreign language KEYBoard program - France
KEYBGR Foreign language KEYBoard program - Germany
KEYBHU Foreign language KEYBoard program - Hungary
KEYBIT Foreign language KEYBoard program - Italy
KEYBLA Foreign language KEYBoard program - Latin America
KEYBNL Foreign language KEYBoard program - Netherlands
KEYBNO Foreign language KEYBoard program - Norway
KEYBPL Foreign language KEYBoard program - Poland
KEYBPO Foreign language KEYBoard program - Portugal
KEYBSF Foreign language KEYBoard program - Swiss-French
KEYBSG Foreign language KEYBoard program - Swiss-German
KEYBSL Foreign language KEYBoard program - Czechoslovakia
KEYBSP Foreign language KEYBoard program - Spain
KEYBSU Foreign language KEYBoard program - Finland
KEYBSV Foreign language KEYBoard program - Sweden
KEYBUK Foreign language KEYBoard program - United Kingdom
KEYBUS Foreign language KEYBoard program - United States
KEYBYU Foreign language KEYBoard program - Yugoslavia
KHz Kilohertz
KIS Knowbot Information Service [Internet]
KPI Kernal Programming Interface
KQML Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language
KSH Korn Shell (program) [Unix]
KSPH Keystrokes Per Hour
KSR Keyboard Send Receive
KRS Knowledge Retrieval System
(TOP) (UP to K) (DN to M) (BOTTOM)
LADDR Layered Device Driver Architecture [Microsoft]
LALL Longest Allowed Lobe Length
LAN Local Area Network
LANACS Local Area Network Asynchronous Connection Server
LANE Local Area Network Emulation
LAPB Link Access Procedure Balanced (protocol)
LAPD Link Access Procedure Direct (protocol)
LAPM Link Access Procedure for Modems
LAR Load Access Rights
LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
LASTport Local Area Storage Transport (protocol) [DEC]
LAT Local Access Terminal +
          Local Area Transport [DEC]
LAVC Local Area VAX Cluster
LAWN Local Area Wireless Network
LB Left Button (of 2 or 3 button Mouse)
LBA Logical Block Addressing
LBL Label
LBR Librarian
.LBR Library (file name extension)
LBT Listen Before Talk
LBX Local Bus Accelerator
LCA Lotus Communications Architecture [Lotus]
LCC Leadless Chip Carrier
LCD Liquid Crystal Display + Lowest Common Denominator
LCF Low Cost Fiber
LCK Library Construction Kit [Mircrosoft FoxPro]
LCP Link Control Protocol
LCR Line Control Register
LCU Last Cluster Used
LDA Logical Device Address
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol [IBM]
LDC Lotus Development Corporation
LDM Long Distance Modem
LDT Local Descriptor Table
LE Less or Equal
LEA Load Effective Address
LEAF Law Enforcement Access Field
LEC Local Exchange Carrier
LED Light Emitting Diode
LEL Link, Embed and Launch-to-edit [Lotus]
LEM Language Extension Module
LEN Low Entry Networking
.LET Letter (file name extension)
LEX Lexicon
LF Line Feed
LFI Last File Indicator
LFN Long File Name
LFT Low Function Terminal [IBM]
LFU Least Frequently Used
LGDT Load Global Descriptor Table
LIAS Library Information Access System
.LIB Library (file name extension)
LIC Line Interface Coupler [IBM]
LICS Lotus International Character Set [LDC]
LIDT Load Interrupt Descriptor Table
LIEP Large Internet Exchange Packet [Novell]
LIF Low Insertion Force
LIFO Last In, First Out
LILO Last In, Last Out
LIM Lotus/Intel/Microsoft
LIMA Lotus/Intel/Microsoft/AST
LIMS Library Information Management System
LINUX (Operating system named after Linus Torvalds)
LIP Large Internet Packet
LIPS Logical Inferences Per Second
LISP List Processing (Language)(See HLL)
LISTSERV List Server [Internet]
LLC Logical Link Control
LLDT Load Local Descriptor Table
LLF Low Level Format
LMB Left Mouse Button
LMBCS Lotus Multibyte Character Set [Lotus]
LMI Local Management Interface
LMS Lotus Messaging Switch [Lotus]
LMSW Load Machine Status Word
LMU LAN Management Utilities [IBM] +
          LAN Manager for Unix
LN Logarithm (Natural)
LN:DI Lotus Notes:Document Imaging
LNK Link
LOC Loop On-Line Control
LOCIS Library of Congress Information System
LOD Level Of Detail
LODSB Load String Byte
LOG Logarithm (Base 10)
LOGO (Programming Language)(See HLL)
LOOPE Loop while Equal
LOOPNE Loop while Not Equal
LOOPNZ Loop while Not Zero
LOOPZ Loop while Zero
LORE Line Oriented Editor
LPC Local Procedure Call
LPD Line Printer Daemon (protocol) [Berkley]
LPI Lines Per Inch
LPL Lotus Programming Language [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
LPM Lines Per Minute
LPN Logical Page Number
LPS Low-Power Schottky
LPT Line Printer
LPT1 First Parallel Printer Port
LPT2 Second Parallel Printer Port
LPT3 Third Parallel Printer Port
LQ Letter Quality
LQM Link Quality Monitoring (protocol)
LR Link Register
LRC Local Register Cache +
          Longitudinal Redundancy Check
LRL Least Recently Loaded
LRM Language Reference Manual + Least Recently-Used Master
.LRS Language Resource (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
LRU Least Recently Used
LSA LAN and SCSI Adapter [IBM] + Line Sharing Adapter
LSAPI License Services Application Program Interface
LSB Least Significant Bit
LSC Least Significant Character
LSD Least Significant Digit
LSI Large Scale Integration
LSL Link Support Layer + Load Segment Limit
LST List
.LST List (file name extension)
LTR Left-To-Right + Letter + Load Task Register
LU Logical Unit (Also LUN)
LUA Logical Unit Application (interface)
LUI Local User Input
LUIS Library User Information Service
LUN Logical Unit Number
LUT Lookup Table
LV Logical Volume [IBM]
LVM Logical Volume Management [IBM]
LW Lazy Write
LZW Lempel-Ziv-Welch (algorithm)
(TOP) (UP to L) (DN to N) (BOTTOM)
mA Milliampere
Mac Macintosh (Apple Macintosh Computer)
MAC Media/Medium Access Control
.MAC MacPaint (file name extension) +
          Macro (file name extension)
MACH Multilayer Actuator Head [Epson]
MADE Manufacturing and Automated Design Engineering
MADYMO Mathematical Dynamic Modeling [TNO]
MAh Milliampere-Hour
.MAI Mail (file name extension)
MAN Manual [Unix] + Metropolitan Area Network
MANPAGE Manual Page [Unix]
MAP Maintenance Analysis Procedures +
          Manufacturing Automation Protocol +
          Memory Allocation Map
.MAP Linker Map (file name extension)
MAPI Mail/Messaging Applications Programming
          Interface [Microsoft]
MAPICS Manufacturing, Accounting and Production
          Information Control System [IBM]
MARVEL Machine-Assisted Realization of the Virtual
          Electronic Library [Library of Congress]
MASM Macro Assembler [Microsoft]
MASS Maximum Availability and Support
          Subsystem [Parallan]
MAT Maintenance Access Terminal
MAU Media Access Unit + Multistation Access Unit
MAVDM Multiple Application VDM
MAX Maximum
MB Megabyte (1,024 kilobytes) +
          Middle Button (of 3 button Mouse)
MBASIC Microsoft BASIC [Microsoft]
MBCS Multi-Byte Character Set [IBM]
MBONE Multicast Backbone [Internet]
MBPS Megabytes Per Second
MBR Master Boot Record
MBX Mailbox
MCA Micro Channel Adapter/Architecture [IBM]
MCAD Mechanical Computer Aided Design
MCB Memory Control Block
MCGA Multicolor Graphics Array
MCI MCI Communications Corp. (name from initials of
          original company - Microwave Communications, Inc.) +
          Media Control Interface [Microsoft]
MCL Microsoft Compatibility Labs [Microsoft]
MCM Multi-Chip Module
MCNE Master Certified Novell Engineer [Novell]
MC-PGA Metallized Ceramic - Pin Grid Array
MCPS Microsoft Certified Product Specialist [Microsoft]
MC-QFP Metallized Ceramic - Quad Flat Pack
MCR Modem Control Register
MCU Multi-Chip Unit [DEC]
MD Make Directory + Monochrome Display
MDA Monochrome Display Adapter +
          Multidimensional Analysis
.MDF Menu Definition File (file name extension)
MDI Multiple Document Interface
MDIC Manchester Decoder and Interface Chip [AT&T]
MDK Multimedia Developers Kit [Microsoft]
MDLP Modile Data Link Protocol
MDR Minimum Design Requirement
MDY Month Day Year
.ME Opening Information (file name extension) (As in READ.ME)
MEB Memory Expansion Board
MEG Megabyte
MEM Memory
.MEN Menu (file name extension)
MES Manufacturing Execution System
MESI Modified, Exclusive, Shared and Invalid (protocol)
MET Memory Enhancement Technology [Hewlitt-Packard]
.MET Metafile (file name extension)
MFC Microsoft Foundataion Class [Microsoft]
MFFS Microsoft Flash File System [Microsoft]
MFLOPS Million Floating Point Operations Per Second
MFM Modified Frequency Modulation
MFP Multi-Function Peripheral/Product
MFPI Multifunction Peripheral Interface
MFS Macintosh File System [Macintosh] +
          Magnetic Tape Field Search + Memory File System
          Modified Filing System [Revelation Technologies]
MFT Master File Table +
          Multiprogramming with a Fixed number of Tasks
MGA Monochrome Graphics Adapter
MGE Modular GIS Environment
MGR Manager
MHS Message Handling Service + Message Handling System
MHz Megahertz
MI Management Interface
MIB Management Information Base
MICRO One-millionth
MICS Macro Interpretive Commands
MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIF Management Information Format
.MIF Management Information Files (file name extension)
MIG Metal In Gap
MII Microsoft/IBM/Intel
MIL Machine Interface Layer [Go Corporation] +
          Military (organization Domain name) [Internet]
MIM Metal-Insulator-Metal (screen)
MIMD Multiple Instruction Multiple Data Stream (processor)
MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension [Internet]
MI/MIC Mode Indicate/Mode Indicate Common
MIN Minimum + Mobile Identification Number
MINUET Minnesota Internet Users Essential Tools [Internet]
MIPS Million Instructions Per Second
MIS Management Information System +
          Multimedia Information Sources [Internet]
MISC Miscellaneous
MIX Member Information Exchange
MKDIR Make Directory
ML Machine Language + Meta Language
MLAPI Multilingual Application Programming Interface
MLC Multilayer Ceramic +
          Multilevel Cell (program) [Internet]
MLID Multi-Link Interface Driver
MLM Mailing List Manager [Internet]
MM Minutes + Month
MMA Microcomputer Managers Association
MMC Matched Memory Cycle + Microcomputer Marketing Council
MMCD MultiMedia Compact Disk
MMI Man-Machine Interface
MMIS Materials Manager Information System
MMPM Multi Media Presentation Manager
MMU Memory Management Unit
MMX Matrix Manipulation Extensions [Intel] +
          Multimedia Extensions
MNOS Metal Nitride Oxide Semiconductor
MNP Microcom Networking Protocol [Microcom]
.MNU Menu (fine name extension)
MO Magneto-Optical (disk drive)
MOB Memory-Order Buffer
MOBO Mother Board
MOD Module + Modulus
MODEM Modulator Demodulator
MOHLL Machine Oriented High Level Language
MOM Microsoft Office Manager [Microsoft]
MOO MUD, Object Oriented [Internet]
MOP Maintenance Operations Protocol
MOS Metal Oxide Semiconductor + Magneto-Optic Storage
MOSFET Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
MOTD Message Of The Day
MOV Metal Ocide Varistor + Move
MOVS Move String
MP Massively Parallel (processing) + Multiple Processors
MPC Multimedia Personal Computer + Multipath Channel
MPCS Mission Planning and Control Station (Software)
MPE Multiple Programming Executive [HP]
MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group
MPI Message Passing Interface + Multiprecision Integer
MPM Message Passing Library [IBM]
MPMD Multiple Processor/Multiple Data
MPP Massively Parallel Processing +
          Message Processing Program
MPQP Multi-Protocol Quad Port [IBM]
MPR Multipart Repeater + Multi Protocol Router [Novell]
MPS Multiprocessor Specification
MPTN Multi-Protocol Transport Network
MPTS Multi-Protocol Transport Services
MPU Microprocessor Unit
MQI Message Queue Interface
MR Magnetoresistive + Modem Ready
MRCF Microsoft Realtime Compression Format
MRCI Microsoft Realtime Compression Interface
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRM Most Recently-Used Master
MRO Multi-Region Operation
MRP Materials Requirement Planning
MRPL Main Ring Path Length
MRS Media Recognition System
MRT Mean Repair Time
MRU Maximum Receive Unit
MS Memory System + Message Store + Microsecond +
          Microsoft Corporation + Millisecond
MSACM Microsoft Audio Compression Manager [Microsoft]
MSAU Multi-Station Access Unit
MSAV Microsoft Anti Virus [Microsoft]
MSB Most Significant Bit
MSBF Mean Swaps Between Failures
MSCDEX Microsoft Compact Disc Extensions [Microsoft]
MSD Mass Storage Device + Most Significant Digit +
          Microsoft System Diagnostics [Microsoft]
MS-DOS Microsoft - Disk Operating System [Microsoft]
MSDR Multiplexed Streaming Data Request
MSDS Microsoft Developer Support [Microsoft]
MSFR Minimum Security Function Requirements [IBM]
MSG Message
.MSG Program Message (file name extension)
MSI Medium Scale Integration
MSL Map Specification Library + Mirrored Server Link
MSN Microsoft Network [Microsoft]
MSO Multiple-Systems Operator
.MSP Microsoft Paint (file name extension) [Microsoft]
MSS Mass Storage System
MSW Machine Status Word
MTA Message Transfer Agent + Multiple Terminal Access
MTBB Mean Time Between Breakdowns
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures
MTBJ Mean Time Between Jams
MTF Microsoft Tape Format [Microsoft] +
          Modulation Transfer Function
MTS Message Transfer Service/System +
          Multichannel Television Sound
MTTD Mean Time To Diagnose
MTTF Mean Time To Failure
MTTR Mean Time To Repair
MTU Maximum Transmission Unit
MUD Multi-User Dialogue/Dimension/Domain/Dungeon [Internet]
MUL Multiply
MUMPS Massachusetts General Hospital Utility
          Multi-Programming System (Programming Language)
MUSE Multi-User Shared Environment
MUT Monitor Under Test
MUX Multiplexer
MV Millivolt
MVB Multimedia Viewer Book
MVC Multimedia Viewer Compiler
MVDM Multiple Virtual DOS Machines
MVGA Monochrome Video Graphics Array
MVIP Multi-Vendor Integration Protocol
MVP Multimedia Video Processor
MVS Multiple Virtual Storage
MVT Multiprogramming with a Variable number of Tasks
MX Mail Exchanger [Internet]
MXS Microsoft Exchange Server [Microsoft]
MZR Multiple Zone Recording
(TOP) (UP to M) (DN to O) (BOTTOM)
NAC Network Adapter Card
NACD National Association of Computer Dealers
NACS National Advisory Committee on Semiconductors
NAE Not Above or Equal
NAK Negative Acknowledgment
NAM Number Assignment Module
NAMPS Narrow-Band Analog Mobile Phone Service [Motorola]
NANO One thousand-millionth
NAP Network Access Point
NAPLPS North American Presentation Level Protocol
          Syntax (graphics)
NAS Network Application Support [DEC]
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASDAQ National Association of Securities Dealers
          Automatic Quotation
NASI NetWare Asynchronous Services Interface [Novell]
NASIRC NASA Automated Systems Internet Response Capability
NASKER NASA Ames Kernel (benchmark)
NAU Network Addressable Unit
NAWS Negotiate About Window Size
NBE Not Below or Equal
NBI Nothing But Initials
NBS National Bureau of Standards + Numeric Backspace
NC Network Computer + No Carry + Numerical Control
NCA Network Communications Adapter
NCC Network Control Center
.NCF Netware Command File [Novell]
NCGA National Computer Graphics Association
NCIC National Crime Information Center
NCMT * Numerical Control for Machine Tools
NCOS Network Computer Operating System
NCP NetWare Core Protocol + Not Copy Protected +
          Network Control Processor/Program/Protocol
NCR National Cash Register (Company)
NCSA National Center for Supercomputing Applications
NCSC National Computer Security Center
NCSI Network Communications Services
          Interface [Network Products Corp.]
NDB Non-Directional Beacon
NDDK Network Device Development Kid [Microsoft]
NDEF Not to be Defined
NDIS Network Device/Driver Interface Specification
NDN Non-Delivery Notice
NDP Numeric Data Processor
NDR Network Data Representation
NDRO Non-Destructive Read Out
NDS NetWare Directory Service [Novell]
.NDX Index (file name extension)
NEC Nippon Electric Company
NED NASA Extragalactic Database [NASA]
NEG Negative + Negate
NEP Network Entry Point
NES National Education Supercomputer
NEST Novell Embedded Systems Technology [Novell]
NET Network (organization Domain name) [Internet]
NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System [IBM]
NetBEUI NetBIOS Extended User Interface [IBM]
.NEW New Information (file name extension)
NEWS NetWare Early Warning System [Frye Computer] +
          Network Extensible Window System
NEWS. Current events [USENET Newsgroup Category]
NEXT Near-End Crosstalk
NFF No Fault Found
NFS Network File System
NG No Good
NGE Not Greater or Equal
NHC National Hurricane Center
NHR National Handwriting Recognition
N/I Non-Interlaced
NIA Next Instruction Address
NIC Network Information Center [Internet] +
          Network Interface Card +
          Numeric Intensive Computing
NICAD Nickel-Cadmium
NICOLAS Network Information Center OnLine Aid System [NASA]
NID New Interactive Display [NEC] + Next ID
NII National Information Infrastructure
NIM Network Installation Management [IBM]
NIMH Nickel-Metal Hydride
NIO Native Input/Output
NIPS Network I/Os Per Second
NIR Network Information Retrieval
NIS Network Information Service [Unix]
N-ISDN Narrowband ISDN + National ISDN
NISO National Information Standards Organization
NISP Networked Information Services Project
NIST National Institute for Standards and Technology
NITC National Information Technology Center
NIU Network Interface Unit
NJE Network Job Entry (protocol) [IBM]
NL New Line
NLE Not Less or Equal
NLM NetWare Loadable Module [Netware]
NLP Natural-Language Processing
NLQ Near Letter Quality
NLSFUNC National Language Support Function
NLV National Language Version [IBM]
NMI Non-Maskable Interrupt
NMM NetWare Management Map [NetWare]
NMOS Negative Channel Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
NMP Network Management Protocol [AT&T]
NMS Network Management System [Novell]
NN Network Node + No News [Internet]
NNI Network-Network Interface
NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol [Internet]
NOC Network Operations Center
NOP No Operation
NOR Not Or
NOS Network Operating System
NPA Network Printer Alliance
NPI Network Printer Interface
NPL Nonprocedural Language
NPS Novell Productivity Specialist [Novell]
NPTN National Public Telecomputing Network
NPU Natural Processing Unit
NPX Numeric Processor Extension
NQS Network Queing System [Cray]
NRC National Research Council (Canada)
NREN National Research and Education Network
NRZ Not Return to Zero
NRZI Non Return to Zero Inverted
NS Nanosecond + National Semiconductor (as in Ns16550 UART) +
          Network Supervisor + Non Stop
NSAP Network Service Access Point
NSAPI Netscape Server API [Netscape]
NSA POLY National Security Agency Polygraph
NSERC National Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Canada)
NSF National Science Foundation
NSFNET National Science Foundation Network
NSI NASA Science Internet
NSLOOKUP Name Server Lookup [Unix]
NSM Netscape Server Manger [Netscape]
NSP Native Signal Processing [Intel] + Network Service Provider
NSSC NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer
NSTC National Science and Technology Council
NSTL National Software Testing Labs
NT New Technology [Microsoft]
NTAS NT Advamced Server [Microsoft]
NTF No Trouble Found
NTFS New Technology File System [Microsoft]
NTIA National Telecommunications and
          Information Administration
NTIS National Technical Information Service
NTRAS NT Remote Access Services [Microsoft]
NTSA NetWare Telephony Services Architecture [Novell]
NTSC National Television Standards Committee
NUI Network User Identification +
          Network User Interface +
          Notebook User Interface [Go Corporation]
NUL Null + (dummy device) + (no device)
NV No Overflow
NVM Non-Volatile Memory
NVOD Near-Video On Demand
NVP Nominal Velocity of Propagation
NVRAM Non-Volatile Random Access Memory
NVT Network Virtual Terminal +
          Novell Virtual Terminal [Novell]
(TOP) (UP to N) (DN to P) (BOTTOM)
OAB One-to-All Broadcast
OAD Open Architecture Driver [Bernoulli]
OAG Official Airline Guide + Online Air Guide
OAI Open Applications Interface
OAS One-to-All Scatter
OBD On Board Diagnostics
OBEX Object Exchange [Borland]
OBJ Object
OC Optical Carrier
OCE Open Collaborative Environment [Apple]
OCF Objects Components Framework [Borland]
OCL Operation Control Language + Operator Control Language
OCR Optical Character Recognition
OCS On-Card Sequencer
OCX OLE Custom Control
ODA Office Document Architecture
ODAPI Open Database Application Programming
          Interface [Borland]
ODBC Open Data Base Connectivity [Microsoft]
ODBMS Object-Oriented Database Management System (also
          see OODMS)
ODI Open Datalink Interface [Novell] +
          Open Device Interconnect [NetWare]
ODM Object Data Manager [IBM]
ODMA Open Document Management API
ODP Open Distributed Processing
ODS Open Data Services [Microsoft]
ODSI Open Directory Service Interface [Microsoft]
ODT Open Desktop
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
OEP Operand Execution Pipeline
OF Overflow Flag
OFB Output Feedback (mode)
OFMT Output Format for Numbers
OFS Object File System [Microsoft] + Output Field Separator
OH Off Hook
OIDL Object Interface Definition Language
OIS Office Information Systems
OLAP On-Line Analytical Processing
.OLD Old version (file name extension)
OLE Object Linking and Embedding [Microsoft]
OLI Optical Line Interface [AT&T]
OLMC Output Logic Macrocell
OLTP On-Line Transaction Processing
OM Object Manager
OMA Object Management Architecture [Microsoft]
OME Open Messaging Environment (protocol)
OMF Object Module Format [Microsoft] +
          Open Media Framework + Open Message Format
OMG Object Management Group
OMI Open Messaging Interface [Lotus]
OMNS Open Network Management System
OMR Optical Mark Recognition
ONC Open Network Computing [Sun]
ONDS Open Network Distribution Services [IBM]
ONU Optical Network Unit
OODB Object-Oriented Database
OODMS Object-Oriented Database Management System (also
          see ODBMS)
OOL Object-Oriented Language
OOOS Object-Oriented Operating System
OOPL Object-Oriented Programming Language
OOPS Object Oriented Programming and Systems
OOS Object-Oriented Systems +
          Off-line Operating Simulator
OOT Object-Oriented Technology
OOUI Object Oriented User Interface
OP Operation + Optical + Output
OPAC Online Public Access Catalog [Internet]
OPC Optical Photoconductor
OPCODE Operational Code
OPD Operand
OPI Open Prepress Interface
OPM Operations Per Minute
OPS Operations
OPT Open Protocol Technology
.OPT Options (file name extension)
OPUS Octal Program Updating System
ORACLE On-Line Inquiry and Report Generator (UNIX DB program)
ORB Object Request Broker [Microsoft]
ORG Organization (organization Domain name) [Internet]
ORI Online Retrieval Interface
.ORI Original (file name extension)
ORS Output Record Separator
OS Operating System
OS/2 Operating System/2 [IBM]
OSA Open Scripting/System Architecture
OS/E Operating System/Environment
OSF Open Software Foundation
OSI Open Systems Interconnection
OSM Off-Screen Model
OSP On-Screen Programming + Optical Storage Processor
OSPF Open Shortest Path First
OSQL Object Structured Query Language
OT Object Technology
OTA Operation-Triggered Architecture
OTDR Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
OTF Open Token Foundation
OTP One-Time Programmable
OURS Open Users Recommended Solutions
.OUT Outlines (file name extension)
OUTS Output String
OV Overflow
.OVL Program Overlay (file name extension)
.OVR Program Overlay (file name extension)
OWL Object/Open Windows Library [Borland]
(TOP) (UP to O) (DN to Q) (BOTTOM)
PAB Personal Address Book
PABX Private Automatic Branch Exchange
PACE Priority Access Control Enabled [3Com]
PACS Picture Archiving and Communication System
PACS-L Public Access Computer Systems List [Internet]
PAD Packet Assembler/Disassembler
PADS Pen Application Development System [Slate Corporation]
PAIH Public-Access Internet Host [Internet]
PAIS Public-Access Internet Site [Internet]
.PAK Packed (compressed file name extension) [NoGate
PAL Paradox Applications Language [Borland] +
          Phase Alternating Line + Programmed Array Logic +
          Programming Assembly Language
.PAL Palette (file name extension)
PALC Plasma-Addressed Liquid Crystal (display)
PALS Principles of the Alphabet Literacy System
PAM Pulse Amplitude Modulation
PAP Packet-level Procedure +
          Password Authentication Protocol +
          Printer Access Protocol
PAR Personal Animation Recorder + Parallel
PARA Paragraph
PARC Palo Alto Research Center [XEROX]
.PAS PASCAL source code (file name extension)
PASCAL (Programming Language named for Blaise Pascal)
.PAT Patch + Pattern (file name extensions)
PAX Portable Archive Exchange [Unix]
PBE Prompt By Example
PBGA Plastic Ball Grid Array
PBX Private Branch Exchange
PC Personal Computer + Printed Circuit + Program Counter
PCACIAS Personal Computer Automated Calibration Interval
          Analysis System
PCB Printed Circuit Board + Program Control Block
PCBC Plain Cipher Block Chaining
PCD Photo Compact Disk
PC-DOS Personal Computer - Disk Operating System [IBM]
PCEB PCI to EISA Bridge [Intel]
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect/Interface
PC-I/O Program Controlled I/O
PCL Printer Command Language [HP] + Process Control Language
PCM Personal Computer Manufacturer + Pulse Code Modulation
PCMC PCI, Cache, Memory Controller [Intel]
PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PCMIM Personal Computer Media Interface Module
PCN Personal Computer Network
PCNFS Personal Computer Network File System
PCO Point of Control and Observation
PCS Patchable Control Store +
          Personal Communication Services/System +
          Personal Conferencing Specification +
          Planning Control Sheet + Print Contrast Signal +
          Process Control Systems + Program Counter Store +
          Programmable Drive Table + Project Control System
PCT Private Communications Technology
.PCT Picture (file name extension)
.PCX Picture Image (file name extension)
PD Public Domain
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
PDD Physical Device Driver
PDF Package Definition File + Portable Document Format +
          Portable Document File + Processor Defined Function +
          Program Development Facility
.PDF Printer Description (file name extension)[Borland,Lotus]
PDIAL Public Dialup Internet Access List [Internet]
PDL Page Description Language + Program Description Language
          + Program Design Language
PDM Product Data Management
PDN Public Data Network
PDO Portable Distributed Objects [Next]
PDP Plasma Display Panel + Programmable Data Processor +
          (DEC Computer System Designation, i.e. PDP-8, PDP-11)
PDS Packet Driver Specification + Partitioned Data Set +
          Planetary Data System + Portable Document Software +
          Processor Direct Slot [Macintosh]
PDSS Post Development and Software Support
PDT Performance Diagnostic Tool [IBM] +
          Programmable Drive Table
PDU Plug Distribution Unit
.PDX Paradox files (file name extension) [Borland] +
          Printer Description Extension (file name extension)
PE Parity Even + Processing Element + Protect Enable
PEA Pocket Ethernet Adapter
PEL Picture Element [IBM]
PEM Privacy-Enhanced Mail [Internet]
PEN SDK Pen Computing Software Development Kit
PEP Packetized Ensemble Protocol [Telebit]
PERL Practical Extraction and Report Language [Unix]
PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique
PES Positioning Error Signal + Processor Enhancement Socket
          Processor Upgrade Socket
PET Print Enhancement Technology [Compaq]
.PFB Printer Font Binary (file name extension)
PFE Programmer's File Editor
.PFM Printer Font Metrics (file name extension) [Windows]
PFR Power-Fail Restart
PGA Pin Grid Array + Professional Graphics Adapter [IBM]
PGC Program Group Control [Microsoft]
PGDN Page Down
.PGL Graphics (file name extension) [Hewlett-Packard]
PGM Program
PGP Pretty Good Privacy (name of encryption program)
.PGP ProGram Parameter (file name extension) [AutoCAD]
PGUP Page Up
PHIGS Programmers' Hierarchial Interactive Graphics
.PHO Phone List (file name extension)
PHS Personal Handyphone System
PI Program Interruption
PIA Peripheral Interface Adapter
PIC Personal Intelligent Communicator +
          Priority Interrupt Controller +
          Program Interrupt Controller
PICS Platform for Internet Content Selection
PICT Picture
PID Process Identification Number +
          Proportional, Integral, Derivative
PIER Procedures for Internet/Enterprise Renumbering
PIF Picture Interchange Format File +
          Program Information File
PII Program Integrated Information
PILOT Programmed Inquiry Learning Or Teaching
PilotACE* Pilot Automatic Computing Engine
PIM Personal Information Manager
PIN Personal Identification Number +
          Process Identification Number [Unix]
PINE Pine Is Not Elm [Unix]
PING Packet Internet Groper
PIO Parallel Input/Output + Processor Input/Output +
          Programmed Input/Output
PIP Picture In Picture + Problem Isolation Procedure +
          Programmable Interconnect Point
PIPO Parallel In, Parallel Out
PIT Programmable Interval Timer
PIXEL Picture Element
PL Plus
PLA Programmable Logic-Array
PLATO Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations
PLC Programmable Logic Controller
PLCC Plastic Leadless Chip Carrier
PLD Programmable Logic Device
PLDS Pilot Land Data System [NASA]
PLL Phase Locked Loop
.PLL Prelinked Library (file name extension) [Clipper]
PL/M Programming Language for Micros
PLS Primary Link Station
PLV Production Level Video
PL/1 * Programming Language One
PM Presentation Manager [IBM] +
          Preventative Maintenance + Process Manager
PMMU Paged Memory Management Unit
PMOS Positive Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor
PMR Problem Management Report [IBM]
PMS Policy Management System
PN Processing Node
PNA Programmable Network Access
PNG Portable Network Graphics
PNP Plug And Play
PO Parity Odd
POC Point Of Contact
POE Power Open Environment
POH Power-On Hours
POL Problem Oriented Language
POP Point Of Presence [MCI] + Pop from Stack +
          Post Office Protocol
POPA Pop All Registers
POPF Pop Flags
POR Power-On-Reset
POS Point Of Sale + Positive + Programmable Object Select
POSIX Portable Operating System Interface for Unix
POST Power-On Self Test
POSTNET Postal Numeric Encoding Technique
POTS Plain Old Telephone Service
POWER Performance Optimization with Enhanced RISC [IBM]
PowerPC Performance Optimization with Enhanced RISC-Performance
.PPD PostScript Printer Description (file name extension)
PPDS Personal Printer Data Stream [IBM]
PPGA Plastic Pin Grid Array
PPM Pages Per Minute
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol [Internet]
PPS Packets Per Second + Power Personal Systems [IBM]
PPTP Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
PQFP Plastic Quad Flat Pack
PRACSA Public Remote Access Computer Standards Association
PRAM Parallel Random-Access Machine +
          Parameter Random Access Memory
.PRD Printer Driver (file name extension) [Word]
PRE Preformatted [HTML]
PReP Power PC Reference Platform [IBM/Motorola]
PRF Pulse Repetition Frequency
.PRF Preferences (file name extension) [Grammatik IV]
.PRG Program (file name extension)
PRINTF Print with Formatting [C Programming Language]
PRISM Photo-Refractive Information Storage Material
.PRJ Project (file name extension) [Borland]
PRMD Private Mangement Domain [X.400]
PRML Partial-Response Maximum-Likelihood
.PRO Profile (file name extension)
PROC Procedure
PROFS Professional Office System [IBM]
PROG Program + Programmer
PROLOG Programming In Logic (Programming Language)(See HLL)
PROM Programmable Read Only Memory
PRN Printer
.PRS Printer (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
PRTSC Print Screen
PS Proportional Spacing
.PS PostScript (file name extension)
PS/2 Programming System 2 [IBM]
PSC Personal Super Computer + Print Server Command +
          Product Service Center
PSDN Packet-Switched Data Network
PSDS Packet-Switched Data Service
PSERVER Print Server [NetWare]
PSF Permanent Swap File
PSID PostScript Image Data
PSM Printing Systems Manager
PSN Packet Switching Network
PSP Personal Software Products (group) [IBM] +
          Program Segment Prefix
PSPDN Packet-Switched Public Data Network
P-SRAM Pseudo-Static Random Access Memory
PSRT PostScript Round Table [GEnie]
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
PSU Power Supply Unit
PSW Program Status Word
.ps.Z Compressed PostScript (file name extension) [Unix]
PT Page Table
P/T Part Time
PTD Parallel Transfer Disk Drive
PTF Problem Temporary/Trouble Fix [IBM]
PUB Public (directory) [Internet] + Publish
.PUB Publication (file name extension) [Ventura]
PUN Physical Unit Number
PUP PARC Universal Packet (protocol)
PUS Processor Upgrade Socket
PUSHA Push All Registers
PUSHF Push Flags
PVC Permanent Virtual Circuit + Polyvinyl Chloride
PVM Parallel Virtual Machine +
          Pass-through Virtual Machine (protocol) [IBM]
PVP Parallel Vector Processing
PVS Parallel Visualization Server
PW Password
PWB Printed Wire Board +
          Programmer's Workbench [Microsoft]
PWD Print Working Directory [Unix]
PWR Power
PWSCS Programmable Workstation Communication Services [IBM]
.PX Primary Index (file name extension) [Paradox]
(TOP)(UP to P)(DN to R)(BOTTOM)
QA Quality Assurance
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QBE Query By Example
QBF Query by Form
QBIC Query By Image Content [IBM]
QC Quality Control
QDOS Quick and Dirty Operating System
.QDI Dictionary (file name extension) [Quicken]
.QDT Data (file name extension) [Quicken]
QEMM Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager [Quarterdeck Corp.]
QFA Quick File Access
QFP Quad Flat Pack
QIC Quality Information Using Cycle Time [Hewlett-Packard] +
          Quarter-Inch Cartridge
.QIF Quicken Import File/Interchange Format (file name extension)
.QMT Memorized List (file name extension) [Quicken]
.QNX Indexes to Data (file name extension) [Quicken]
QPG Quantum Phase Gate
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
QTC Quicktime Conferencing [Macintosh]
(TOP) (UP to Q) (DN to S) (BOTTOM)
RA Return Authorization
RACF Resource Access Control Facility
RAD Rapid Application Development
RADAR Rights, Availabilities, Distribution Analysis
          and Reporting [Disney]
RADB Routing Arbiter Data Base
RADSL Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line
RAG Row Address Generator
RAID Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks +
          Redundant Arrays of Independent Drives +
          Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks
RAIS Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Systems
RALU Register Arithmetic Logic Unit
RAM Random Access Memory
RAMDAC Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog
          Converter [Sierra]
RAMP Remote Access Maintenance Protocol [Internet]
RAND Random
RAP Rapid Application Prototyping
RARP Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
RAS Random Access Storage +
          Reader Admission System [British Library] +
          Reliability, Availability and Serviceability +
          Remote Access Service + Row Address Select
RASAPI Remote Access Service Application Programming
          Interface [Microsoft]
RAVE Rendering Acceleration Virtual Engine [Apple Computer]
RB Right Button (of 2 or 3 button Mouse)
RBBS Remote Bulletin Board System
RBCS Remote Bar Code System
RBOC Regional Bell Operating Company
RCL Rotate Carry Left
RCP Remote Control Panel + Remote Copy [Internet] +
          Restore Cursor Position
RCR Rotate Carry Right
RCS Records Communications Switching System +
          Revision Control System [Unix]
RD Receive Data + Remove Directory
R&D Research and Development
RDA Remote Database Access
RDB Receive Data Buffer + Relational Database
RDBMS Relational Database Mangement System
RDCLK Received Timing Clock
RDP Reliable Datagram Protocol
RDRAM Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory
RDSR Receiver Data Service Request
RDTO Receive Data Transfer Offset [IBM]
.REC Recorder (file name extension)
REC. Recreation [USENET Newsgroup Category]
.REF Reference (file name extension)
REG Register
REGAL Rigid Epoxy Glass Acrylic Laminate
RELSECT Relative Sector
REM Remark + Remote + Ring Error Monitor
REN Rename
REP Repeat
REPE Repeat while Equal
REPNE Repeat while Not Equal
REPNZ Repeat while Not Zero
REPZ Repeat while Zero
REQ Request
REREG Re-Register
RES Remote Execution Service + Reset + Resolution
.RES Resource (file name extension)
RET Resolution Enhancement Technology [HP] +
REX Relocatable Executable
REXEC Remote Execution
REXX Restructured Extended Executor (language) [IBM]
RF Radio Frequency
RFC Request For Comments [Internet]
RFD Request for Discussion [Internet]
RFI Radio Frequency Interference
RFP Request for Proposal
RFQ Request for Quotation
RFS Remote File Sharing + Remote File System
RFT Revisable Form Text + Rich Text Format
RFU Reserved For Future Use
RGB Red-Green-Blue (color model)
RI Referential Integrity + Ring Indicate
RIFF Resource Interschange File Format [Microsoft]
RIM Remote Installation and Maintenance [Microsoft]
RIME RelayNet International Message Exchange
RIP Remote Imaging Protocol +
          Routing Information Protocol [Novell]
RIPEM Riordan's Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail
RIPS Raster Image Processing System
RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer
RJE Remote Job Entry
RLE Run Length Encoded
RLL Run Length Limited
RLN Remote LAN Node [DCA]
RLOGIN Remote Login
RLSD Received Line Signal Detected
RLSI * Ridiculously Large-Scale Integration
RM Reset Mode
RMA Return Material Authorization +
          Return to Manufacturer Authorization
RMB Right Mouse Button
RMDIR Remove Directory
RMON Remote Monitor/Monitoring
RMP Remote Maintenance Processor [IBM]
RMS Record Management Services + Root Mean Square
RMW Read-Modify-Write
RN Read News [Internet]
RND Random
RNG Random Number Generator
RNP Regional Network Provider
R-O Read Only
ROB Reorder Buffer [Intel]
ROL Rotate Left
ROM Read Only Memory
ROOM Real-Time Object-Oriented Modeling
ROP Raster Operation + RISC Operation
ROR Rotate Right
ROS Read-Only Storage [IBM]
ROT Running Object Table
RPC Remote Procedure Call
RPG Report Program Generator (Programming Language)
RPL Resident Programming Language +
          Requested Privilege Level
RPN Real Page Number
RPRINTER Remote Printer [NetWare]
RPPROM Reprogrammable PROM
RPT Repeat
RPQ Request for Price Quotation
RQBE Relational Query By Example [Fox Pro]
RR Real Reality
RS Radio Shack +
          Recommended Standard (as in RS-232) [EIA] +
          Record Separator + Request to Send
RSA129 (129 digit cryptographic security number named after
          its inventors: Drs. Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir and
          Leonard M. Adelman)
RSAC Recreational Software Advisory Council
RSCS Remote Spooling Communications System
RSD Route Server Daemon
RSH Remote Shell
RSL Request-and-Status Link
RSP Required Space Character
RST Reset + Restart
RSTS Resource Sharing Time Sharing [Digital]
RSX Real Time Resource Sharing Executive
RT Real Time + RISC Technology + Run Time
R/T Receive/Transmit
RTAM Remote Terminal Access Method
RTC Real-Time Clock
RTDM Real-Time Data Migration
RTEL Reverse Telnet [Internet]
RTF Rich Text Format
RTL Register Transfer Language/Level +
          Resistor Transistor Logic + Right-To-Left +
          Run Time Library
RTM Response Time Monitor + Runtime Manager [Borland]
RTMP Routing Table Maintenance Protocol
RTOS Real-Time Operating System
RTP Rapid Transport Protocol + Real-Time Protocol
RTS Remote Takeover System + Request To Send
RTTI Runtime Type Information
RTTY Radio Teletypewriter (Communications)
RTV Real Time Video
RVA Relative Virtual Address
RVI Reverse Interrupt
R/W Read/Write
RWM Read-Write Memory
RX Receiver
RXD Receive Data
(TOP) (UP to R) (DN to T) (BOTTOM)
SA Selective Availability
SAA Systems Application Architecture [IBM]
SADL Synchronous Data Link Control [Racal-Vadic]
SAINT * Symbolic Automatic Integrator
SAL Shift Arithmetic Left
SAM Serial Access Memory + Sequential Access Method +
          Single Application Mode [Microsoft]
SANE Standare Apple Numeric Environment
SAP Second Audio Program + Service Access
          Point [DEC] + Service Advertising Protocol
SAP * Symbolic Assembly Program
SAPI Speech Application Program Interface [Microsoft]
SAR Shift Arithmetic Right +
          Successive Approximation Register +
          Synthetic Aperature Radar
SAS Sales Accounting System + Single Attached Station +
          Single Audio System + Statistical Analysis System
SASI Shugert Associates System Interface (SCSI originated
          from SASI)
SATAN Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks
.SAV Saved (file name extension)
SAVDM Single Application VDM
SB Sound Blaster [Creative Labs] + Sound Board
SBA Scene Balance Algorithms [Kodak]
SBB Subtract With Borrow
SBC Single-Board Computer
SBCS Single-Byte Character Set
SBI Sound Blaster Instrument
.SBR Source Browser (file name extension) [Borland]
.SC Script (file name extension)
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Aquisition
SCAM SCSI Configuration Automatically
SCAS Scan String
SCB Subsystem Control Block [IBM]
SCC Serial Communications Controllers +
          Serial Controller Chip +
          Synchronous Channel Check [IBM]
SCCS Source Code Control System
SCD Standard Color Display
SCF System Control Facility
SCI. Science [USENET Newsgroup Category]
SCLM Softwre Configuration and Library Management [IBM]
SCM ScreenCam Format [Lotus] +
          Software Configuration Management + Station Class Mark
SCO Santa Cruz Operation (Software Company)
SCOPE Simple Communications Programming Enironment
SCP Save Cursor Position + Subsystem Control Port +
          System Control Program
SCR Silicon Controlled Rectifier
.SCR Script (file name extension)
SCRN Screen (video display)
SCRS Scalable Cluster of RISC Systems
SCSA Signal Computing System Architecture [Dialogic]
SCSI Small Computer Systems Interface
SD Send Data + Super Density
SDA Software Disk Array + Source Data Automation +
          System Display Architecture [Digital]
SDB Symbolic Debugger [Unix]
SDD Software Description Database [Internet]
SDF Space Delimited File + Space Delimited Format
.SDF Standard Data Format (file name extension)
SDI Selective Dissemination of Information +
          Single Document Interface
          Software Development Interface [Mosaic]
SDK Software Developer's Kit [Microsoft]
SDLC Synchronous Data Link Control (protocol)
SDM System Development Multitasking
SDMS SCSI Device Management System [NCR]
SDN Software Defined Network [AT&T]
SDNS Secure Data Network Service
SDR Streaming Data Request
SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SD-ROM Super Density ROM
SDS Sysops Distribution System
SDSL Single-Line Digital Subscriber Line
SD_STB Streaming Data Strobe [IBM]
SDV Switched Digital Video [AT&T]
SEA Standard Extended Attribute [OS/2]
.SEA Self Extracting Archive (file name extension) [Macintosh]
SEAC * Name of first computer to use transistors, built by
          (National Bureau of) Standards Eastern Automatic
          Calculator (Also see SWAC)
SEAL Segmentation and Reassembly Layer (protocol) +
          Screening External Access Link [Digital-DEC]
SEC Single Error Correction
SECAM Sequentiel Couleur Avec Memoire
          (Sequential Color With Memory)
SED Stream Editor + Stream-Oriented Editor
SEG Segment
SEH Structured Exception Handling
SEL Select
SEM Scanning Electron Microscope +
          Standard Electronic Module
SEPP Secure Encryption Payment Protocol
SER Serial
SET Secure Electronic Transaction +
          Softwave Engineering Technology
.SET Driver Set (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC] +
          Image Settings (file name extension) [Paradox]
SETEXT Structure Enhanced Text [Internet]
SEU Smallest Executable Unit
SF Sign Flag
SFQL Structured Full-text Query Language
SFS System File Server
SFT System Fault Tolerance
SFX Sound Effect(s)
SGEN Signal Generator + System Generator
SGDT Store Global Descriptor Table
SGI Silicon Graphics, Inc.
SGM Shaded Graphics Modeling
SGML Standard Generalized Markup Language
SGR Set Graphics Rendition
SGRAM Synchronous Graphics RAM
S/H Sample and Hold
SHA Secure Hash Algorithm [NSA]
SHAR Shell Archive
SHG Segmented Hypergraphics
SHL Shift Logical Left
SHR Shift Logical Right
S-HTTP Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol
.SHW Show (file name extension)
SI Shift-In + Source Index + System Information
SIC Standard Industrial Code
SID Security Identifier + Serial Input Data +
          Station Identification [AT&T] +
          Symbolic Interactive Debugger
SIDF System Independent Data Format
SIDH System Identification for Home Systems
SIDT Store Interrupt Descriptor Table
SIFT Stanford Information Filtering Tool
SIG Special Interest Group
SIGCAT Special Interest Group on CD-ROM Applications
          and Technology
SIM Simulator
SIMD Single Instruction Multiple Data Stream (processor)
SIMM Single In-line Memory Module
SIMTEL Simulation and Teleprocessing
SIMULA Simulation (language)
SIO Serial Input/Output (communications driver)
SIP Single In-line Package
SIPC Simply Interactive Personal Computer [Microsoft]
SIPO Serial In, Parallel Out
SIPP Single In-line Pin Package
SIR Serial Infrared [Hewlett-Packard]
SIRDS Single-Image Random Dot Stereogram
SI/SO Serial In/Serial Out + Shift In/Shift Out
SIT Special Information Tones
.SIT Stuff-It (compressed file name extension) [Macintosh]
SKU# Stock Keeping Unit Number
SLDT Store Local Descriptor Table
SLED Single Large Expensive Disk
SLIP Serial Line Interface Protocol
SLM Spatial Light Modulator
SLMR Silly Little Modem Reader
SLOSH Sea, Lake and Overland Surge from Hurricane (program)
SLSI Super Large-Scale Integration
SLSS Systems Library Subscription Service [IBM]
SLU Spoken Language Understanding
SM Set Mode + Shared Memory
SMART Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology
SMB Server Message Block (protocol) [MII]
SMD Surface Mounted Device
SMDS Switched Multimedia/Multi-Megabit Data Service
SMF System Manager Facility [Compaq]
SMI System Management Interrupt [Intel]
SMIF Standard Mechanical Interface
SMIT System Management Interface Tool [IBM]
SMK Software Migration Kit [Microsoft]
SML Standard Meta Language
SMM System Mangement Mode [Intel]
SMOBC Solder Mask Over Bare Copper
SMP Simple Management Protocol + Symbolic Manipulation Program +
          Symmetrical Multi-Processing + Symmetric Multiprocessor
.SMP Sample (file name extension)
SMPC Shared Memory Parallel Computer
SMPS Switching Mode Power Supply
SMRAM System Management Random Access Memory
SMS Storage Management Services [NetWare] +
          Storage Management Subsystem/System +
          Systems Management Server [Microsoft]
SMSW Store Machine Status Word
SMT Station Management (protocol) +
          Surface-Mount Technology
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SMU System Management Utility
SN Serial Number
S/N Signal-to-Noise (Ratio)
SNA Systems Network Architecture [IBM]
SND Sound
SNEWS Secure News Server [Internet]
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SNOBOL String Oriented Symbolic Language (Progamming Language)
SNP Serial Number/Password [Omen Technology]
SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SOA Start Of Authority
SOC System On a Chip
SOC. Social Issues [USENET Newsgroup Category]
SOCKS Socket Secure (server) [Internet]
SODIMM Small Outline DIMM
SOE Standard Operating Environment
SOH Start of Header
SOHO Small Office/Home Office
SOL Simulation Oriented Language
SOM Start of Message + System Object Model [IBM]
SONET Synchronous Optical Network
SOP Standard Operating Procedures
SOS Silicon On Sapphire + Sophisticated Operating System +
          Standards and Open Systems
SOTA State Of The Art
SOX Sound Exchange
SP Service Pack [IBM] + Stack Pointer + System Product
SPA Software Publishers Association
SPAN Space Physics Analysis Network
SPARC Scalable Processor Architecture
SPC Small Peripheral Controller + Statistical Process Control
SPCL Spectrum Cellular Corporation
SPEC Systems Performance Evaluation Cooperative
SPF Shortest Path First + System Programming Facility
SPI Service Provider Interface + SCSI Parallel Interface
SPID Service Profile/Provider Identifier
SPIKE Science Planning Intelligent Knowledge-Based
          Environment [STScI]
SPIRES Stanford Public Information Retrieval System
          [Stanford University]
SPL Spooler + System Programming Language [HP]
.SPL Spell Checker (file name extension)
SPM System Performance Monitor [IBM]
SPOOL Simultaneous Peripheral Operations On Line
SPOT Shared Product Object Tree [IBM]
SPP Sequenced Packet Protocol
SPPS Scalable Power Parallel System [IBM]
SPR Special Purpose Register + Statistical Pattern Recognition
SPREAD * Systems Programming, Research, Engineering
          and Development [IBM]
SPS Standby Power System
SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
SPT Sectors Per Track
SPX Sequenced Packet Exchange [Novell]
SQ Squeezed (files)
SQL/DS Structured Query Language/Data System [IBM]
SQRT Square Root
SR Shift Register
SRAM Shadow Random Access Memory +
          Static Random Access Memory
SRB Source-Route Bridge
.SRC Source (file name extension)
SRD Screen Reader System
SRM Security Reference Monitor
SRO Sharable and Read Only
SRP Suggested Retail Price
.SRP Script (file name extension)
SRPI Server-Requester Programming Interface
SRQ Service Request
SRR Serially Reusable Resource
SRS Sound Retrieval System
SS Stack Segment + Single Sided + Seconds
SSA Serial Storage Architecture
SSAP Source Service Access Point
SSCP Systems Service Control Point [IBM]
SSD Solid State Disk
SSEC * Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator [IBM]
SSGA System Suppport Gate Array
SSI Single System Image + Small Scale Integration
SSL Secure Sockets Layer
SST Spread-Spectrum Technology +
          Systems Services and Technology
STA Spanning Tree Algorithm
STAR Self Defining Text Archival
STB Strobe
STC Set Carry Flag
STD Set Direction Flag + Standard
STDA StreetTalk Directory Assistance [Banyan]
STDAUX Standard Auxillary
STDERR Standard Error
STDIN Standard Input
STDIO.H Standard Input/Output Header [C Programming Language]
STDM Statistical Time Division Multiplexer
STDOUT Standard Output
STDPRN Standard Printer
.STF Structured File (file name extension) [Lotus Agenda]
STI Set Interrupt Flag
S/TK Sectors Per Track
STN Super-Twist Nematic
STOS Store String
STP Secure Transfer Protocol + Shielded Twisted Pair (cable) +
          Signal Transfer Point + Synchronized Transaction Processing
STR Store Task Register + Synchronous Transmitter Receiver
STRESS Structural Engineering System Solver (Programming
STRUDL Structural Design Language (Programming Language)
STScI Space Telescope Science Institute
STT Secure Transaction Technology [Microsoft]
STX Start of Text
.STY Style (file name extension) [Ventura, Word, WordPerfect]
SUB Subroutine + Substitute + Subtract
SUN Sun Microsystems, Inc.
.SUP Supplemental Dictionary (file name extension)
SVC Switched Virtual Circuit
SVGA Super Video Graphics Array
SVM System Virtual Machine [Microsoft]
SVR Server
SVR# System V Release Number [AT&T]
S/W Software
SWAC * Mobile version of SEAC, built for deployment to White Sands,
          and named Standards Western Automatic Calculator
SWAIS Simple Wide Area Information Server [Internet]
SWISH Simple Web Indexing System for Humans
.SWP Swap (file name extension)
.SYL Syllabus (file name extension)
SYLK Symbolic Link
.SYM Symbols (file name extension)
.SYN Synonym (file name extension)
SYNC Synchronous
SYS System
.SYS System Configuration (file name extension) +
          System Device Driver (file name extension)
SYSGEN System Generator
SYSLOG System Log
SYSMOD System Modification
SYSOP System Operator
SYSREQ System Request
SZ Send ZModem [Unix]
(TOP) (UP to S) (DN to U) (BOTTOM)
TAD Telephone Answering Device
TAP Telelocator Alphanumeric Protoco
TAPCIS The Access Program for the CompuServe
          Information Service
TAPI Telephony Applications Programming Interface
.tar Tape Archive (archived file name extension) [Unix]
.tar.Z Compressed Archived files (file name extension) [Unix]
TAS Telephone Access Server
TASM Turbo Assembler [Borland]
TAXI Transparent Asynchronous Tranceiver/Receiver Interface
TB Terabyte (1,024 gigabytes)
T/B Top and Bottom
TBBS The Bread Board System (BBS)
TBGA Tape Ball Grid Array
.TBK Toolbook (file name extension)
TBU Tape Backup Unit
TC Test Control + Transmission Control
TCL Tool Command Language
TCM Trellis-Coded Modulation
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TD Transmit Data
TDD Telecommunications Device for the Deaf
TDtoDP Tablet Coordinates to Display Coordinates
TDE Terminal Display Editor
.TDF Trace Definition File (file name extension) [OS/2] +
          Typeface Definition File (file name extension)
TDI Transport Device Interface
TDM Technical Document Management +
          Time Division Multiplexing
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TDMS Terminal Display Management System
TDP Telelocator Data Protocol
TDSR Transmitter Data Service Request
TDR Time Domain Reflectometry
TE/2 Terminal Emulator/2 [Oberon]
TEB Thread Environment Block
TEC Tokyo Electronics Corporation
TED Tiny Editor
TEML Turbo Editor Macro Language [Borland]
TEMP Temporary
TER Thermal Eclipse Reading [Sony]
TERMPWR Terminator Power
TFDD Text File Device Driver
TFEL Thin-Film Electroluminescent
.TFM Tagged Font Metric (file name extension)
TFT Thin-Film Transistor (screens)
TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol
THD Total Harmonic Distortion
.THD Thread (file name extension)
THOMAS The (U.S.) House (of Representatives) Open Multimedia
          Access System
THOR Tandy High-Performance Optical Recording
THR Transmit Holding Register
.THS Thesaurus (file name extension)
TI Texas Instruments, Inc.
TIA Telecommunications Industry Association +
          The Internet Adapter [Internet]
TID Target ID
TIES Time Independent Escape Sequence
.TIF Tagged Image File (filename extension)
TIFF Tagged Image File Format
TIGA Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture
TIGER Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding
          and Referencing
TIIAP Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure
          Assistance Program [NII]
TIM Technical Information Memo [Compaq]
TIP Terminal Interface Processor
TK/TK Track to Track
TLA Three-Letter Acronym
TLB Translation Lookaside Buffer
TLI Transport Layer Interface
TLU Table Lookup
.TLX Telex (file name extension)
TM Trademark
TMP Temporary
TN Twisted Nematic
TNC Terminal Node Controller
TNO The Netherlands Organization
ToC Table Of Contents
TOD Time Of Day
TOP Technical and Office Protocol
TPC Transaction-Processing Performance Council
TPI Tracks Per Inch
TPL Table Producing Language
TPM Transactions Per Minute
TPORT Twisted Pair Port Transceiver [AT&T]
TPS Transactions Per Second +
          Transaction Processing System
TPW Turbo Pascal for Windows
TQFP Thin Quad Flat Pack
TQM Total Quality Management
TR Terminal Ready
T/R Transmit/Receive
TRADIC * Transistorized Airborne Digital Computer
          (Name of first computer to be entirely
.TRM Terminal (file name extension)
TRN Threaded Read News [Internet] + Token Ring Network
TRON The Real-Time Operating System Nucleus
TS Top Secret
TSA Target Service Agent + Technical Support Alliance
TSAPI Telephony Services Application Program
          Interface [AT&T + Novell]
TSB Termination Status Block
TSE The Semware Editor
TSO Time Sharing Option
TSR Terminate and Stay Resident
TSS Task State Segment + Time Sharing System
TS/SI Top Secret/Sensitive Information
.TST Test (file name extension)
TSTN Triple Supertwisted Nematic
TSV Tab Separated Values
TT Typewriter Text
TTA Transport-Triggered Architecture
TTCN Tree and Tabular Combined Notation
.TTF TrueType Font (file name extension)
TTL Transistor-Transistor Logic
TTP Thermal-Transfer Printing
TTS Text-To-Speech + Transaction Tracking System
TTY Teletype
TUI Text-Based User Interface [WordPerfect]
TUMS Table Update and Management System [Stanford University]
.TUT Tutorial (file name extension)
TVF Table of contents Verbosely from File [UNIX]
TVFS Toronto Virtual File System [IBM]
TVI Television Interference
TWAIN Technology Without Any Interesting Name
          (connection between application and scanner software)
TWX Teletypewriter Exchange Service
TXD Transmit Data
.TXF Tax Exchange Format (file name extension)
TXT Text
TXT2STF Text To Structured File [Lotus Agenda]
TZ Time Zone [Unix]
(TOP) (UP to T) (DN to V) (BOTTOM)
UA User Agent + User Area
UAE Unrecoverable Application Error
UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
.UC2 Compressed File (file name extension) [UltraCompressor]
UCL Universal Communications Language
UCS Unicode Conversion Support + Universal Character Set +
          User Coordinate System
UCT Universal Coordinated Time
UDC User Defined Commands
UDE Universal Data Exchange
UDF User Defined Functions
UDG User Defined Gateway
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UDT Uniform Data Transfer
UFS Unix File System
UG User Group
UI Unix International + User Interface
UID User Identifier
UIMS User Interface Management System
UL Underwriters Laboratories +
          Unordered List + Upload
ULA Uncommitted Logic Array
ULN Universal Link Negotiation
ULSI Ultra Large Scale Integration
UMA Unified Memory Architecture
UMB Upper Memory Block [LIM/AST]
UNC Universal Naming Convention +
          Uuencoded Netnews Collator [Unix]
UNCOL Universal Computed Oriented Language
UNI User-Network Interface
UNICOM Universal Integrated Communication (System)
UNICOS Universal Compiler FORTRAN compatible
UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer
UNIX (AT&T Bell Laboratories Operating System)
UNMA Unified Network Management Architecture
UP Uniprocessor
UPC Universal Product Code
UPG Upgrade
UPL User Program Language
UPM Unix Programmer's Manual +
          User Profile Management [IBM]
UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply +
          Uninterruptible Power System
URC Uniform Resource Characteristics +
          Uniform Resource Citation
UREP Unix RSCS Emulation Protocol (protocol)
URI Uniform Resource Identifier
URL Uniform Resource Locator
URN Uniform Resource Name/Number
US Unit Separator
USART Universal Synchronous-Asynchronous Reciever/Transmitter
USB Universal Serial Bus [Intel]
USENET User's Network [Internet]
USERID User Identification
USOC Universal Service Ordering Code
USQ Unsqueezed (files)
USR US Robotics (corporation)
USRT Universal Synchronous Receiver/Transmitter
USSA User Supported Software Association (United Kingdom)
UT User Terminal
UTC Coordinated Universal Time
UTI Universal Text Interchange/Interface
UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (cable)
UU Uuencode/Uudecode
UUCP Unix-To-Unix Copy Program
UUD UUDecoding [Unix]
UUE UUEncoding [Unix]
UUI User-To-User Information [AT&T]
UV Ultraviolet
(TOP) (UP to U) (DN to W) (BOTTOM)
VA Virtual Address
VAD Value Added Dealer
VADD Value Added Disk Driver
VADSL Very-High-Rate Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
VAL Value + Voice Application Language
.VAL Validity Checks (file name extension) [Paradox]
VAM Virtual Access Method
VAN Value Added Network
VAP Value Added Process
VAR Value Added Reseller + Value Added Retailer + Variable
VAST Variable Array Storage Technology
VAX/VMS Virtual Address Extension/Virtual Memory System [DEC]
VB Variable Block + Visual Basic [Microsoft]
VBA Visual Basic for Applications [Microsoft]
VBE/AI Vesa Bios Extension/Audio Interface
vBNS Very High Speed Backbone Network Service [MCI + NSF]
VBR Variable Bit Rate
VBRUN Visual Basic Runtime
.VBX Visual Basic Extension (file name extension)
VCC Virtual Channel Connection
VCD Virtual Communications Driver
VCL Visual Component Library
VCOS Visual Caching Operating System [AT&T]
VCPI Virtual Control Program Interface
VCR Video Cassette Recorder
VDD Virtual Device Driver
VDDM Virtual Device Driver Manager
VDE Video Display Editor + Visual Development Environment
VDISK Virtual Disk
VDM Virtual DOS Machine [IBM]
VDMAD Virtual Direct Memory Access Device [Microsoft]
VDS Virtual DMA Services
VDT Video Dial Tone + Video Display Terminal
VDU Video Display Unit + Visual Display Unit
VEGA Video-7 Enhanced Graphics Adapter [Video-7, Inc.]
VEMM Virtual Expanded Memory Manager
VER Verify + Version
VERONICA Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-Wide Index to
          Computer Archives [Internet]
VERR Verify Read Access
VERW Verify Write Access
VESA Video Electronics Standards Association
VF Virtual Floppy
VFAT Virtual File Allocation Table [Microsoft]
V.FC Version.First Class (communications standard)
VFD Vacuum Fluorescent Display
VFW Video For Windows [Microsoft]
VGA Video Graphics Array
VGC Video Graphics Controller
VHDL VHSIC Hardware Description Language
VHS Very High Speed + Video Home System +
          Virtual Host Storage
VHSIC Very High Speed Integrated Circuit
VI Visual Interactive (editor) [UNIX]
VIE Virtual Information Environment
VIF Virtual Interface + Virtual Interrupt Flag
VIM Vendor Independent Mail +
          Vendor Independent Messaging + Video Interface Module
VIO Video Input/Output + Virtual Input/Output
VINES Virtual Networking System [Banyan]
ViP Visual Programming [Lotus]
VIP Variable Information Processing +
          Video Information Provider +
          Virtual Interrupt Pending
VIPER Verifiable Integrated Processor for
          Enhanced Reliability
VIS Video Information System [Tandy] +
          Voice Information System
VJ HEADER Van Jacobsen Header (compression) [Unix]
VLAN Virtual Local Area Network
VL-BUS Vesa Local-Bus [VESA]
VLD Variable-Length Decoder
VLF Very Low Frequency
VLINK Visited Link [HTML]
VLIW Very Large Instruction Word
VLM Virtual Loadable Module
VLSI Very Large Scale Integration
VLSIPS Very Large Scale Immobilized Polymer Synthesis
VLT Variable List Table
VM Virtual Machine + Virtual Memory
VMA Virtual Memory Address
VMB Virtual Machine Boot
VME Virtual Memory Environment
VMM Virtual Machine/Memory Manager
VMOS Vertical MOS
VMP Virtual Modem Protocol
VMS Virtual Memory System + Voice Message System
VMT Virtual Memory Technique
VNA Virtual Network Architecture
VOC Creative Voice (format) [Sound Blaster]
VOD Video On Demand
VOL Volume
VOM Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter
VOR Visions Of Reality
VOS Verbal/Voice Operating System
VP Virtual Path
VPD Virtual Printer Device + Vital Product Data [IBM]
VPDN Virtual Private Data Network
VPDS Virtual Private Data Service [MCI]
VPE Visual Programming Environment
VPL Virtual Programming Language
VPN Virtual Page Number + Virtual Private Network
VPS Voice Processing System
VPSC Vault, Process, Structure, Configuration
VPT Virtual Print Technology [Dataproducts]
VR Virtual Reality + Voltage Regulated/Regulator
VRAM Video Random Access Memory
VRE Voltage Regulated Extended
VRML Virtual Reality Modeling Language
          (originally named Virtual Reality Markup Language)
VROOMM Virtual Real-time Object Oriented
          Memory Manager [Borland]
.VRS WordPerfect Graphics Driver (file name extension)
VRT Voltage Regulation Technology [Intel]
VRU Voice Response Unit
VS Virtual Storage
VSAM Virtual Storage Access Method
VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal
VSE Virtual Storage Extended
VSF Vertical Scanning Frequency
VSIO Virtual Serial Input Output
VSLI Very Large Scale Integration
VSM Virtual Shared Memory + Virtual Storage Management +
          Visual System Management [IBM]
VSN Volume Serial Number
VSOS Virtual Storage Operating System
VSYNC Vertical Sync
VT Vertical Tab
VTAM Virtual Telecommunications Access Method [IBM]
VUI Video User Interface
VUP VAX Unit of Performance
VMS Virtual Memory System + Voice Message System
VWB Visual WorkBench [Microsoft]
VxD Virtual Extended Driver [Microsoft]
.VXD Virtual Device (file name extension) [Microsoft]
(TOP) (UP to V) (DN to X) (BOTTOM)
W/ With
W3 (see WWW)
W3A World Wide Web Applets
W3C World Wide Web Consortium
W4 What-Works-With-What
WABI Windows Application Binary Interface [SunSoft]
WAIS Wide Area Information Server
WAITS Wide Area Information Transfer System
WAN Wide Area Network
WATS Wide Area Telecommunications Service
.WAV Waveform Audio (file name extension)
WC Word Count
WCS World Coordinate System
WDL Windows Driver Library [Microsoft]
WDRAM Windows Dynamic Random Access Memory
WELL Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (BBS)
WFW Windows For Workgroups [Microsoft]
WGS Work Group System
WHAM Waveform Hold and Modify [Microsoft]
WHC Workstation Host Connection
WINE Windows Emulator
WINForum Wireless Information Networks Forum
WINS Windows-Internet Naming Service [Microsoft]
WINSOCK Windows Open Systems Architecture [Microsoft] +
          Windows Sockets
WINWORD Word For Windows [Microsoft]
WISE WordPerfect Information System Environment
WIT Web Interactive Talk [Internet]
.WKB Workbook (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
.WKE Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
.WKQ Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORQU]
.WKS Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
.WKZ Compressed Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORQU]
.WK1 Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
WL Word Line
WMC Workflow Management Coalition
.WMF Windows Metafile Format (file name extension) [Microsoft]
WNIC Wide-Area Network Interface Co-Processor
WNIM Wide-Area Network Interface Module
W/O Without
WORM Write Once, Read Many
WOS Workstation Operating System
WOSA Windows Open Services/Systems Architecture [Microsoft]
WP WordPerfect + Word Processing + Write Protected
.WPD Windows Printer Description (file name extension)
.WPG WordPerfect Graphics (file name extension)
WPHD Write-Protect Hard Disk
.WPK Keyboard (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
WPM Words Per Minute
.WPM Macro (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
WPOS Workplace Operating System
WPS Windows Printing System [Microsoft] +
          Workplace Shell [OS2]
WPVM Windows Parallel Virtual Machine
.WQ1 Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORPQU]
.WQ! Compressed Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORPQU]
WRAM Windows Random Access Memory
.WRI Write (file name extension)
WS WordStar + Workstation
WT Write Through
WWIS World Wide Information System [Internet]
WWW World-Wide Web [Internet]
WYSBYGI What You See Before You Get It
WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get
(TOP) (UP to W) (DN to Y) (BOTTOM)
XA Extended Architecture + Extended Attribute
XAPIA X.400 Application Program Interface Association
X2B Hexadecimal to Binary [REXX]
.XBM X-Windows Bitmaps (file name extension) (black and white)
.XPM X-Windows Pixelmaps (file name extension) (color)
X2C Hexadecimal to Character [REXX]
XCHG Exchange
XCMD External Command
XCOPY Extended Copy
X2D Hexadecimal to Decimal [REXX]
XDF Extended Density Format [IBM]
XDR Extended/External Data Representation
XFCN External Function
XGA Extended Graphics Array [IBM]
XID Exchange Identifier
XIOS Extended Input/Output System
XLAT Translate
XLM Excel Macro Language [Microsoft]
XMIT Transmit
XMM Extended Memory Manager [LIM/AST]
XMS Extended Memory Specification [LIM/AST]
XNS Xerox Network System (protocol) [Xerox]
XOFF Transmitter Off
XON Transmitter On
XOR Exclusive OR (Also EOR)
XPRM Xerox Print Resources Manager [Xerox]
XRT Extensions for Real-Time
XSMD Extended Storage Module Drive (interface)
XTAL Crystal
XTCLK External Transmit Clock
(TOP) (UP to X) (DN to Z) (BOTTOM)
YAM Yet Another Modem [Omen Technology]
YAHOO Yet Another Hierarchically Officious Oracle [Internet]
(Y/N)? (Asks for a YES or NO decision)
YTD Year To Date
.z Packed file (file name extension - using Pack/Unpack
          program)..lower case z..[Unix]
.Z Compressed file (file name extension - using
          Compress/Uncompress program)..upper case Z..[Unix]
ZBR Zone Bit Recording
Z-CAV Zoned Constant Angular Velocity
ZDL Zero Delay Lockout
ZDS Zenith Data Systems
ZIF Zero-Insertion Force (socket)
ZIP Zigzag In-Line Package +
          Zone Improvement Plan (ZIPcode)
.ZIP Compressed File (file name extension) [PKWare]
.ZOO Compressed File (file name extension) [Dhesi]
ZPV Zoomed Port Video [Toshiba]
ZSL Zero Slot LAN
~ Tilde

  • Wildcard character (asterisk)
  • .* Star-Dot-Star (represents

          Any file name.Any file name extension)
.$$$ Temporary File (file name extension)
286 80286 (microprocessor)
386 80386 (microprocessor)
3COM 3 Com Corporation (The 3 Coms are
          Computer, Communications and Compatability)
3GL Third Generation Language (procedural language)
486 80486 (microprocessor)
4GL Fourth Generation Language (procedural language)
6DOF Six Degrees Of Freedom

                     BABEL: A GLOSSARY OF
                          Version 96C

Copyright (C) 1989-1996 Irving Kind All Rights Reserved
        c/o K & D, One Church Lane, Baltimore, MD 21208
Jan 1996 version = BABEL96A Jan 1997 version = BABEL97A
May 1996 version = BABEL96B May 1997 version = BABEL97B
Sep 1996 version = BABEL96C Sep 1997 version = BABEL97C


Method 1 - WWW

   To get the latest babel.html file via World Wide Web, use this URL:

Method 2 - GOPHER

   To get the latest babel.txt file via Gopher:
   If you have access to a Gopher client, gopher directly to:
   From the Main Menu, select "Temple University Computer
Resources and Information" and then "Internet & Bitnet
Information (Help-Net)". Then select "Glossary of Computer
Abbreviations and Acronyms (BABEL.TXT)".
Method 3 - FTP

   To get the latest babel.txt or html file, if you have ftp
access via The Internet, type these commands in lower case text:
At Login  : anonymous
At Password: your email address
cd /pub/info/help-net
get babel.txt
Method 4 - LISTSERV

   To get the latest babel.txt file via Listserv if on The Internet:
   Send e-mail to:
Subject line should be left blank. In body of the message, type:
Method 5 - BITNET

   To get the latest babel.txt file via Listserv for Bitnet users:
   Send e-mail to: listserv@templevm
Subject line should be left blank. In body of the message, type:
Method 6 - BBS

   From your favorite Bulletin Board download: BABEL.ZIP
NOTE for all methods:

After Sep 1, 1996 BABEL.TXT or BABEL.HTML will contain Version 96C
After Jan 1, 1997 BABEL.TXT or BABEL.HTML will contain Version 97A
After May 1, 1997 BABEL.TXT or BABEL.HTML will contain Version 97B
    The following examples are included to serve as a brief
introduction to what may be found when reading email and news
groups and when using IRC on the Internet.
                        - - - - - - -
    In email and news, "smiley faces", rather than words, are used
to express the writer's feelings. Turn your head to the side to
read them.
        :-) Smile  :-D Laughing
        :-] Smirk  :-( Frown
        ;-) Wink  :-X Close-mouthed
        8-) Wide-eyed  :-O Open-mouthed
        <jk> Just kidding <g> Grin
                        - - - - - - -
    In email and during on-line conversations, a variety of letter
groups are used to abbreviate the writer's comments, such as:
    BRB Be right back IMHO In my humble opinion
    BTW By the way ROFL Rolling on the floor laughing
    FOAF Friend of a friend TIA Thanks in advance


    At the present time there are over 200 recognized Country Domain
names. Two-letter abbreviations that represent the country names are
used in addresses seen on the Internet. The following names (87 to date)
represent the country of origin from where someone has downloaded BABEL.
This list should be useful when checking the origin of your own mail.
        .ae United Arab Emirates
        .al Albania
        .am Armenia
        .ar Argentina
        .at Austria
        .au Australia
        .be Belgium
        .bg Bulgaria
        .bh Bahrain
        .bm Bermuda
        .bn Brunei Darussalam
        .br Brazil
        .bs Bahamas
        .ca Canada
        .ch Switzerland
        .cl Chile
        .cn China
        .co Columbia
        .cr Costa Rica
        .cy Cyprus
        .cz Czech Republic
        .de Germany
        .dk Denmark
        .do Dominican Republic
        .ec Ecuador
        .ee Estonia
        .eg Egypt
        .es Spain
        .fi Finland
        .fo Faroe Islands
        .fr France
        .gb Great Britian
        .gl Greenland
        .gr Greece
        .gt Guatemala
        .hk Hong Kong
        .hr Croatia
        .hu Hungary
        .id Indonesia
        .ie Ireland
        .il Israel
        .in India
        .is Iceland
        .it Italy
        .jm Jamaica
        .jp Japan
        .kr Korea (South)
        .kw Kuwait
        .lb Lebanon
        .li Liechtenstein
        .lk Sri Lanka
        .lt Lithuania
        .lu Luxembourg
        .lv Latvia
        .md Moldova
        .mo Macau
        .mt Malta
        .my Malaysia
        .mx Mexico
        .ni Nicaragua
        .nl Netherlands
        .no Norway
        .nz New Zealand
        .pe Peru
        .ph Phillipines
        .pk Pakistan
        .pl Poland
        .pt Portugal
        .ro Romania
        .ru Russian Federation
        .se Sweden
        .sg Singapore
        .si Slovenia
        .sk Slovakia (Slovak Republic)
        .su USSR (former)
        .th Thailand
        .tr Turkey
        .tt Trinidad and Tobago
        .tw Taiwan
        .uk United Kingdom
        .us United States
        .uy Uruguay
        .ve Venezuela
        .yu Yugoslavia
        .za South Africa
        .zw Zimbabwe


  1. BABEL is not public domain. Permission is hereby granted to any individual or public institution to redistribute BABEL; only in its entirety and provided it is distributed without ANY modification to also include this opening page, copyright and version notices, and format. It may not be incorporated into any other document, or published, or sold (for profit or otherwise), without my express written permission. Any questions concerning these restrictions should only be made in writing and mailed to address shown below.’ -Irving Kind